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Z M , { AND J/~**"4C 



Vol. VIII. 


TWO Houjholds, both alike in Dignity, 
In fair Verona, (where we lay our Scene) 
From ancient Grudge break to new mutiny ; 

Where civil blood makes civil bands unclean. 
From forth the fatal loins of thefe two foes, 
A pair of Jlar-crojl lovers take their life ; 
Wbofe mifadventur d piteous Overthrows 

Do, with their death, bury their Parents 1 Jlrife. 
The fearful paffage of their death-marked love, 

And the continuance of their Parents 1 rage, 
• Which but their children's End nought could remove^ 

Is novo the two hours'* traffic k of our Jlage : 
The which if you with patient ears attend, 
What here Jh all mifs, our Toil fialljl rive to mend. 

B 2 Dramatis 

Dramatis Perfonae. 

E S C A L U S, Prince of Verona. 
Paris, a young Nobleman in love nvith Juliet, and kinf- 
man to the Prince. 
Montague, } Two Lords of ancient families, Enemies to 
Capuiet, J each other. 
Komeo, Son to Montague. 

Mercutio, Kinfman to the Prince, and Friend to Romeo. 
Benvolio, Kinfman and 'Friend to Romeo. 
Tybalt, Kinfman to Capuiet. 
Friar Lawrence. 
Friar John. 

Balthafar, Servant to Romeo. 
Page to Paris. 

Grtlovyl \ Servants to Cablet. 

Abram, Servant to Montague. 


Simon Catling, } 

Hugh Rebeck, > 3 Muficians* 

Samuel Soundboard, J 

Peter, Servant to the Nurfe. 

Lady Montague, Wife to Montague. 

Lady Capuiet, Wife to Capuiet. 

Juliet, Daughter to Capuiet, in love voith Romeo. 

Nurfe to Juliet. 


Citizens of Verona, feveral men and women relations to 
Capuiet, Majkers, Guards, Watch, and other At- 

The SCENE, in the beginning of the fifth Jc7, is in 
Mantua ; during all the rejl of the Play, in and near 


[ 5 ] 


A C T I. S C E N E L 

The Street > in Verona. 

Enter Sampfon and Gregory, (with /words and buck- 
lers,) two fer wants of the Capulets. 


GR E GO RT t on my word, * we'll not carry 
Greg. No, for then we fhould be colliers. 

Sam. I mean, an 1 we be in Choier, we'll draw. 

Greg. Ay, while you live, draw your Neck out of 
the Collar. 

Sam. I firike quickly, being mov'd. 

Greg. But thou art not quickly mov'd to ft r ike. 

Sam. A dog of the Houie of Montague moves me. 

Greg. To move, is to fur j and to be valiant, is to 
ftand: therefore, if thou art mov'd, thou runn'it away. 

Sam. A dog of that Houie fha!l move me to (land : 
I will take the wall of any man, or maid of Mon- 

Greg. That mews thee a weak flave ; for the weakeft 
goes to the wall. 

i we'll not carry coals.] A phrafe then in ufe, to iignify the 
bearing injuries. 

B 3 Sam, 

6 Romeo and Juliet. 

Sam.True, and therefore women, being the weakeft,- 

are ever thruft to the wall : therefore I will pufh 

Montague's men from the wall, and thruft his maids 
to the wall. 

Greg. The quarrel is between oar mafters, and us 
their men. 

Sam. "Pis all one, I will mew my felf a tyrant : 
when I have fought with the men, I will be cruel with 
the maids, and cut off their heads. 

Greg. The heads of the maids ? 

Sam. Ay, the heads of the maids, or the maiden- 
heads, take it in what fenfe thou wilt. 

Greg. They muft take it in fenfe, that feel it. 

Sam. Me they (hall feel, while I am able to ftand : 
and 'tis known I am a pretty piece of fkfh. 

Greg. 'Tis well thou art not fifh : if thou hadft, 
thou hadft been Poor John. Draw thy tool, hers 
comes of the Houfe of the Montagues. 

Enter Abram and Balthafar. 

Sam, My naked weapon is out ; quarrel, I will back 

Greg. How, turn thy back and run r^ 

Sam. Fear me not. 

Greg. No, marry : I fear thee ! ■ ■ 

Sam. Let us take the law of our fides : let them 

Greg. 1 will frown as I pafs by, and let them take 
it as they lift. 

Sam. Nay, as they dare. I will bite my thumb at 
them, which is a difgrace to them if they bear it. 

Abr. Do you bite your thumb at us, Sir f 

Sam. I do bite my thumb, Sir. 

Abr. Do you bite your thumb at us, Sir ? 

Sam. h the law on our fide, if I fay, ay ? 

Greg. No. 

Sam. No, Sir, I do not bite my thumb at you, Sir :. 
but I bite my thumb, Sir. 

Greg. Do you quarrel, Sir ? 

Abr. Quarrel, Sir ? no, Sir. 

Sam. If you do, Sir, I am for you j. I ferve as good 
a* man, as you. 


Romeo and Juliet. y 

Abr. No better. 
Sam. Well, Sir. 

2 Enter Benvolio. 
Greg. Say, better : here comes one of my matter's 
Sam, Yes, better, Sir. 
Abr. You lie. 

Sam. Draw, if you be men. Gregory, remember 
thy fwafhing blow. [They fight, 

Ben. Part, fools, put up your fwords, you know 
not what you do. 

Enter Tybalt. 
Tyb. What art thou drawn among thefe heartlefs 
hinds ? 
Turn thee, Benvolio, look upon thy death. 

Ben. I do but keep the peace : put up thy fword, 
Or manage it to part thefe men with me. 

Tyb. What drawn, and talk of peace ? I hate the 
As I hate hell, all Montagues and thee : 
Have at thee, coward. [?*£&• 

Enter three or four Citizens nvith clubs. 
Qffi. Clubs, bills, and partifans ! ftrike! beat them 
down ! 
Down with the Capulets, down with the Montagues!' 
Enter old Capulet in his gown, and lady Capulet. 
Cap. What noife is this ? give me my long fword, 

La. Cap. A crutch, a crutch: — why call you for a 

fword ? 
Cap. My fword, I fay : old Montague is come, 
And flourifhes his blade in fpight of me. 

Enter old Montague, and lady Montague. 

Mon. Thou villain, Capulet — Hold me not, let 
me go. 

La. Mon. Thou fnalt not ftir a foot to feek a foe. 

2 Enter Benvolio.] Much of this fcene is added fince the nrft 
edition ; but probably by Sbakefpear , fince we find it in that of 
the year 1599. Mr, Pope. 

B 4; Enter 

8 Romeo and Juliet. 

Enter Prince ivitb Attendanfs. 
Prin. Rebellious Subjects, enemies to peace, 
Prophaners of this neighbour-ftained fteel 

Will they not hear? what ho ! you men, you beads, 

That quench the fire of your pernicious rage 

With purple fountains ifTuing from your veins ; 

On pain of torture, from thofe bloody hands 

Throw your mif-temper'd weapons to the ground, 

And hear the fentence of your moved Prince. 

Three civil broils, bred of an airy word, 

By thee, old Capu/et, and Montague, 

Have thrice difturb'd the Quiet of our ftreets ; 

And made Verona & antient Citizens 

Cart by their grave, befeeming, ornaments ; 

To wield old partizans, in hands as old, 

Cankred with peace, to part your cankred hate ; 

If ever you diiturb our ifreets again, 

Your lives (hall pay the forfeit of the peace. 

For this time all the reft depart away, 

You, C a puUt x (hall go along with me; 

I, Montagu*, come you this afternoon, 
To know cur further pleasure in this cafe, 
To old Free-town, our common judgment-place : 
Once more, on pain of deajh, ail men depart. 

[Exeunt Prince and Capuiet, fefo 


La. Man. Who fet this antient quarrel new abroach ? 
Speak, nephew, were you by, when it began ? 

Ben. Here were the lervants of your adverfary, 
And yours, clofe fighting, ere I did approach j 
I drew to part them : in the inftant came 
The fiery Tybalt? with his (word prepar'd, 
Which, as he breath'd defiance to my ears, 
He fwung about his head, and cut the winds : 
Who, nothing hurt withal, hifs'd him in fcorn. 
While we were interchanging thrufts and blows, 
Came more and more, and fought on part and part, 
'Till the Prince came, who parted either part. 

La. Mon. 

Romeo and Juliet. 9 

La. Mon. O where is Romeo \ faw you him to day ? 
Right glad am I, he was not at this fray. 

Ben. Madam, an hour before the worfhipp'd Sun 
'Pear'd through the golden window of the Eaft, 
A troubled mind drew me to walk abroad : 
Where underneath the grove of fycamour, 
That weftward rooteth from the City fide, 
So early walking did I fee your fon. 
Tow'rds him I made ; but he was 'ware of me, 
And ftole into the covert of the wood. 
I, meafuring his affections by my own, 
(* That moft are bufied when they're moft alone,) 
Purfu'dmy humour not purfuinghim ; 
* And gladly fhunn'd, who gladly fled from me. 

Mon. Many a morning hath he there been feen 
With tears augmenting the frefh morning-dew ; 
Adding to clouds more clouds with his deep fighs : 
But all fo foon as the all-cheering Sun 
Should, in the fartheft Eaft, begin to draw 
The fhady curtains from Aurora § bed ; 
Away from light fteals home my heavy fon,. 
And private in his chamber pens himfelf ; 
Shuts up his windows, locks fair day-light out,. 
And makes himfelf an artificial night. 
Black and portentous mull this humour prove, 
Unlefs good counfel may the caufe remove. 

Ben. My noble uncle, do you know the caufe ? 

Mon. I neither know it, nor can learn it of him. 

5 Ben. Have you importun'd him by any means ? 

Mon. Both by my felf and many other friends •, 
But he, his own affections' counfellor, 
Is to himfelf, I will not fay, how true ; 

3 That moft are bujled &c] Edition 1597. Inftead of which it 
is in the other editions thus, 

Which then moft fought, ivhere moft night not be found ', 

Beirg one too many by my tveary ft if, 

P-.trfrd my humour, 8cc. Mr. Pope. 

4 And gladly Jhun'' d &c.J The ten lines following, not in edition 
159-% but in the next of 1599. Mr. Pope. 

5 Ben. Have you importund, &c.J Thele two fpeeches alfo omit- 
ted ic edition 1397. but inferted in 1599, Mr, Pope, 

B 5 Butt 

io Romeo and Juliet. 

But to himfelf fo fecret and fo clofe, 
So far from founding and difcovery ; 
As is the bud bit with an envious worm, 
Ere he can fpread his fweet wings to the air, 
Or dedicate his beauty to the [a] Sun. 
Could we but learn from whence his forrows grow, 
L We would as willingly give Cure, as know. 
Enter Romeo. 
Ben. See, where he comes : fo pleafe you, ftepafide, 
I'll know his grievance, or be much deny'd. 

Mon. I would, thou wert fo happy by thy ftay,. 
To hear true fhrift. Come, Madam, let's away. 

Ben. Good morrow, coufin. 
Bom. Is the day fo young ? 
Ben. But new ftruck nine. 
Rom. Ah me, fad hours feem long ! 
Was that my father that went hence fo faft ? 

Ben. It was : what fadnefs lengthens Romeo's hours ? : 
Rom. Not having That, which, having, makes them 

Ben. In love ? 

Rom. Out 

Ben. Of love ? 

Rom. Out of her favour, where I am in love £ 
Ben. Alas, that love, fo gentle in his view, 
Should be fo tyrannous and rough in proof ! 

Rom. Alas, that love, whofe view is muffled ftill,. 
Should without eyes fee (b) path-ways to his ill \ 

Where (hall we dine ? O me ! What fray was 

here ? 
Yet tell me not, for I have heard it all. 
Here's much to do with hate, but more with love r 
Why then, O brawling love ! O loving hate ! 
Oh, any thing of nothing firft create ! 
O heavy lightnefs ! ferious vanity ! 
Mif-fhapen chaos of well-fceming forms ! 

f (a) Sun. Mr. Theobald Vulg. fame.'] 

I (b) £ath-<ivays. to bh ill, Oxford Editor.— —Vulg, patb-ivays 
to bis ivii/.] 


Romeo and Juliet. i i 

Feather of lead, bright fmoke, cold fire, fick health, 
Still-waking deep, that is not what it is ! 
This love feel I, that feel no love in this. 
Doft thou not laugh ? 

Ben. No, coz, I rather weep. 
Rom. Good heart, at what ? 

Ben. At thy good heart's oppreflion. 

Rom. Why, fuch is love's tranfgreflion. ■ 

Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my breaft ; 
Which thou wilt propagate, to have them preft 
With more of thine ; this love, that thou haft (hewn, 
Doth add more grief to too much of mine own. 
Love is a fmoak rais'd with the fume of fighs, 
Being purg'd, a firefparkling in lovers' eyes ; 
Being vext, a fea nourim'd with lovers' tears ; 
What is it elfe ? a madnefs moftdifcreet, 
A choaking gall, and a preferving fweet : 
Farewel, my coufin. [Going, 

Ben. Soft, I'll go along. 
And if you leave me io, you do me wrong. 

Rom. Tut, I have loft my felf, I am not here ; 
This is not Romeo, he's fome other where. 

Ben. Tell me in fadnefs, who Ihe is you love ? 

Rom. W r hat, (hall I groan and tell thee ? 

Ben. Groan ? why, no; but fadly tell me, who. 

Rom. Bid a fick man in fadnefs make his will ?•— 
O word, ill urg'd to one that is fo ill ! — — 
In fadnefs, coufin, I do love a woman. 

Ben. I aim'd fo near, when I fuppos'd you lov'd. 

Rom. A right good marks-man ; and (he's fair, 

I love. 

Ben. A right fair mark, fair coz, is fooneft hit. 

Rom. But, in that hit, you mifs ; — ihe'll not be hit 
With Cupid's arrow ; (he hath Dicm's wit : 
And, in ftrong proof of chaftity wellarm'd, 
From love's weak childifh bow, (he lives unharm'd. 
She will not ftay the fiege of loving terms, 
Nor 'bide th' encounter of affailing eyes, 
Nor ope her lap to faint-feducing gold. 
O, (he is rich in beauty ; only poor, 
That when ihe dies, with her dies Beauty's Store. 


12 Romeo and Juliet. 

Ben. Then fhe hath fworn, that me will flill live 
chafle ? 

6 Rom. She hath, and in that Sparing makes huge 
For beauty, ftarv'd with her feverity, 
Cuts beauty off from all pofterity. 
She is too fair, too wife ; wifely too fair, 
To merit blifs by making me defpair ; 
She hath forfworn to love, and in that vow 
Do I live dead, that live to tell it now. 

Ben. Be rul'd by me, forget to think of her. 

Rom. O, teach me how I mould forget to think. 

Ben. By giving liberty unto thine eyes ; 
Examine other Beauties. 

Rom. 'Tis the way 
To call hers (exquifite) in queftion more ; 
Thofe happy mafks, that kifs fair ladies' brows, 
Being black, put us in mind they hide the fair ; 
He that is ftrucken blind, cannot forget 
The precious treafure of his eye-fight loft. 
Shew me a miftrefs, that is palling fair ; 
What doth her beauty ferve, but as a note, 
Where I may read, who pafs'd that paiTing fair ? 
Farewel, thcu canft not teach me to forget. 

Ben. I'll pay that doctrine, or elfe die in debt. 



Enter Capulet, Paris, and Servant. 

Cap. And Montague is bound as well as I, 
Jn penalty alike ; and 'tis not hard 
For men fo old as we to keep the peace. 

Par. Of honourable reck'ningare you Both, 
And, pity 'tis, you liv'd at odds fo long : 
But now, my lord, what fay you to my Suit ? 

Cap. But faying o'er what I have faid before : 
My child is yet a flranger in the world, 
She hath not feen the Change of fourteen years ; 

6 Rom. She hath, and in that Sparing, &c] None of the fol- 
lowing lpeeches of this fcene in the firft Editiqp of 1597. Mr. Pope, 


Romeo and Jultet. 13 

Let two more fummers wither in their pride, 
Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride. 

Par. Younger than (he are happy mothers made. 

Cap. And too foon marr'd are thofe (o early made : 
The earth hathfwallow'd all my hopes but fne. 

7 She is the hopeful lady of my earth : 
But woo her, gentle Pan's, get her heart, 
My will to her confent is but a part ; 

If (he agree, within her fcope of choice 

Lies my confent, and fair according voice : 

This night, 1 hold an old-accuftom'd Feait, 

Whereto I have invited many a gueft, 

Such as I love ; and you, among the llore, 

One more, mod welcome, makes my number more. 

At my poor houfe, look to behold this night 

8 Earth-treading ftars that make dark Even light. 
Such comfort as do lufty young men feel, 

When well-apparel'd April on the heel 

Of limping Winter treads, even fuch delight 

Among frefh female-buds fhall you this night 

Inherit at my houfe ; hear all, all fee, 

And like her moll, whofe merit moit (hall be : 

Which on more view of many, mine, being one, 

May Hand in number, tho 1 in reck'ning none. 

Come, go with me. Go, firrah, trudge about, 

Through fair Verona ; find thofe perfons out, 

Whofe names are written there ; and to them fay, 

My houfe and welcome on their pleafure ftay. 

[Exeunt Capulet and Paris. 

Ser. Find them out, whofe names are written 

here ? It is written, that the Shoe-maker mould 

meddle with his Yard, and the Tailor with his Laft, 

7 She is the hopeful lady of my earth :] This line not in the firft 
edition. Mr. Pope. 

8 Earth-treading Jlars that make dark heaven's light. J This 
nonfenfe fhould be reformed thus, 

Earth-treading Jiars that make dark even light, 
i. e. When the evening is dark and without ftars, thefe earthly 
ftars fupply their place and light it up. So again in this play, 

Her beauty hangs upon the cheek of night, 

Like a rich jewel in anEthiop's ear, 


14 Romeo and Juliet. 

the Fifher with his Pencil, and the Painter with his 
Nets. But I am fent to find thofe Perfons, whofe 
names are here writ ; and can never find what names 
the writing perfon hath here writ. I mull to the 
Learned.— —In good time, 

Enter Benvolio and Romeo. 

Ben. Tut, man ! one fire burns out another's 

One pain is leflen'd by another's Anguifh : 
Turn giddy, and be help'd by backward turning j 

One defperate grief cure- with another's Languifli : 
Take thou fome new infection to the eye, 
And the rank poyfon of the old will die. 

Rom. Your plantan leaf is excellent for That. 

Ben. For what, I pray thee ? 

Rom. For your broken fhin. 

Ben. Why, Romeo, art thou mad ? 

Rom. Not mad, but bound more than a madman is : 
Shut up in prifon, kept without my food, 
Whipt and tormented : and— Good-e'en, good fellow. 

\JTothe Servant, 

Ser. God gi' good e'en : I pray, Sir, can you read ? 

Rom. Ay, mine own fortune in my mifery. 

Ser. Perhaps you have learn'd it without book : 
* but, I pray, 
Can you read any thing you fee ? 

Rom. Ay, if I know the letters and the language. 

Ser. Ye fay honeftly, reft you merry.- 

Rom. Stay, fellow, I can read. 

[ He reads the letter. ] 

Signior Martino, and his wife and daughters : Count 
Anfelm and his beauteous ftfers ; the lady widow 
cf Vitruvio ; Signior Placentio, and his lovely nieces', 
Mercutio and his brother Valentine ; mine uncle Capulet, 
his wife and daughters ; my fair niece Rofaline ; Livia ; 
Signior Valentio, and his coujin Tybalt ; Lucio, and 
the lively Helena. 

9 A fair 

Romeo and Juliet. 15 

9 A fair affembly ; whither fhould they come ? 

Ser. Up. 1 ■ 

Rom. Whither ? 

Ser. To fupper, to our houfe, 

Rom. Whofe houfe I 

Ser. My mafter's. 

Rom. Indeed, I (hould have afkt you that before. 

Ser. Now I'll tell you without afking. My mafter 
is the great rich Capulet, and if you be not of the Houfe 
of Montagues, I pray, come and crufh a cup of wine. 
Reft you merry. [Exit, 

Ben. At this fame antient Feaft of Capu/et's 
Sups the fair Rofaline, whom thou fo lov'ft ; 
With all th' admired beauties of Verona. 
Go thither, and, with unattainted eye, 
Compare her face with fome that I (hall mow, 
And I will make thee think thy Swan a Crow. 

Rom. When the devout religion of mine eye 

Maintains fuch falfchoods, then turn tears to fires I 
And thefe, who, often arown'd, could never die, 

Tranfparent hereticks, be burnt for liars ! 
One fairer than my love ! th' all-feeing Sun 
Ne'er faw her match, fince firft the world begun. 

Ben. Tut ! tut ! you faw her fair, none elfe being by ; 
Her felf pois'd with her felf, in either eye : 
But in thofe cryftalfcales, let there be weigh'd 
Your lady's love againft fome other maid, 
That I will (hew you, mining at this feaft ; 
And (he will mew fcant well, that now (hews beft. 

Rom. I'll go along, no fuch fight to be (hewn j 
But to rejoice in fplendor of mine own. [Exeunt, 

9 A fair affembly : whither Jbould tbey come f 

Ser. Up. 

Rom. Whither f to fupper ? 

Ser. ¥0 our Houfe.'] Romeo had read over the lift of invited, 
guefts : but how ftiould he know they were invited to fupper ? This 
comes much more aptly from the Servant's anfwer, than Romeo's 
queftion 3 and muft undoubtedly be placed to him. 


l6 Romeo and Juliet,. 


Changes to Capulet's Houfe. 
Enter Lady Capulet, and Nurfe. 

La. C^."V "TURSE, where's my daughter ? call her 
Jl^ forth to me. 

Nurfe. Now (by my maiden-head, at twelve Years 
old) I bade her come ; what, lamb, — what, lady- 
bird, God forbid !— where's this girl ? what, Juliet ? 
Enter Juliet. 
Jul. How now, who calls ? 
Nurfe. Your mother. 
Jul. Madam, I am here, what is your will ? 

La. Cap. This is the matter Nurfe, give leave 

a while, we mud talk in fecret ; Nurfe, come back 
again, I have remember'd me, thou (halt hear our coun- 
fel : thou kncw'll, my daughter's of a pretty age. 
Nurfe. Faith, I can tell her age unto an hour. 
La. Cap. She's not fourteen. 

Nurfe. I'll lay fourteen of my teeth, (and yet to my 
teen be it fpoken, I have but four ; ) (he's not four- 
teen ; how long is it now to Lammas -tide ? 
La. Cap. A fortnight and odd days. 
Nurfe. ' Even or odd, of all days in the year, come 
' Lammas eve at night, (hall (he be fourteen. Sufa/r 
' and (he (God reft all chriftian fouls !) were of an age. 
' Well, Sufan is with God, (he was too good for me. 
' But, as I faid, on Lammas-eve at night mall (he be 
' fourteen, that (hall (he, marry, I remember it 
' well. 'Tis fmce the earthquake now eleven years ; 
' and (he was wean'd, 1 never (hall forget it, of all 

* the days in the year, upon that day; for I had then 
' laid worm wood to my dug, fitting in the Sun under 

* the Dove- houfe wall, my lord and you were then at 

* Mantua nay, I do bear a brain. But, as I 

' faid, when it did tatle the worm-wood on the nipple 
' of my dug, and felt it bitter, pretty fool, to fee it 

* teachy, and fall out with the dug. Shake, quoth 

* the 

Romeo and Juliet. 17 

' the Dove-houfe — 'twas no need, I trow, to bid 
' me trudge j and fince that time it is eleven years, for 
' then me could (land alone; nay, by th' rood, fhe 
' could have run, and waddled all about ; for even the 
' day before (he broke her brow, and then my hufband, 
' (God be with his foul, a' was a merry man ;) took up 
• the child ; yea, quoth he, doft thou fall upon thy 
1 face ? thou wilt fall backward when thou haft more 
.' wit, wilt thou not, Jule ? and by my holy dam, 
' the pretty wretch left crying, and faid, ay ; To fee 
1 now, how a jeft mail come about. — I warrant, an' I 
1 mould live a thoufand years, T mould not forget it : 
' Wilt thou not, Jule, quoth he ? and, pretty fool, it 
4 (tinted, and faid, ay.' 

La. Cap. Enough of this, I pray thee, hold thy 

1 Nur/e. Yes, Madam ; yet I cannot chufe but 
laugh, to think it mould leave crying, and fay, ay ; 
and yet, I warrant, it had upon its brow a bump as 
big as a young cockrel's (tone : a perilous knock, and 
it cried bitterly. Yea, quoth my hufband, fall'ft upon 
thy face ? thou wilt fall backward when thou Cornell to 
age, wilt thou not, 'Jule? it dinted, and faid, ay. 

Jul. And flint thee too, I pray thee, nurfe, fay I. 

Nur/e. Peace, I have done ; God mark thee to his 
grace ! 
Thou waft the prettied Babe, that e'er I nurft. 
An' I might live to fee thee married once, 
I have my wifn. 

La. Cap. And that fame marriage is the very 
I came to talk of. Tell me, daughter Juliet, 
How (lands your difpofition to be married ? 

Jul. It is an honour that I dream not of. 

Nur/e. An honour ? were not I thine only nurfe, 
I'd fay, thou had'ft fuck'd wifdom from thy teat. 

La. Cap. Well, think of marriage now; younger 
than you 

1 Nurfe. Yes, Madam; yet I cannot chufe , &c] This fpeech 
and tautology is not in the firft edition. Mr, Pope. 


1 8 Romeo and Juliet, 

Here in Verona, ladies of efteem, 

Are made already mothers. By my count, 

I was your mother much upon thefe years 

That you are now a maid. Thus, then, in brief ; 

The valiant Paris feeks you for his love. 

Nurfe. A man, young lady, lady, fuch a man 
As all the world — Why, he's a man of wax. 

La. Cap. Verona's fummer hath not fuch a flower. 

Nurfe. Nay, he's a flower ; in faith, a very flower. 

a La. Cap. What fay you, can you like the Gentle* 
man ? 
This night you fhall behold him at our Feaft ; 
Read o'er the Volume of young Paris' Face, 
And find Delight writ there with Beauty's pen \ 
Examine ev'ry fev'ral Lineament, 
And fee, how one another lends Content : 
And what obfcur'd in this fair Volume lies, 
Find written in the Margent of his Eyes. 
This precious book of Love, this unbound Lover,, 
To beautify him only lacks a Cover. 
The fifh lives in the Sea, and 'tis much pride, 
For Fair without the Fair within to hide. 
That Book in many Eyes doth (hare the Glory, 
That in gold clafps locks in the golden Story. 
So, fhall you (hare all that he doth poflefs, 
By having him, making your felf no lefs. 

Nurfe. No lefs ? Nay, bigger ; Women grow by 

La. Cap. Speak briefly, can you like of Peris? 
love ? 

Jul. I'll look to like, if looking liking move. 
But no more deep will I indart mine eye, 
Than your confent gives ftrength to make it fly. 
Enter a Servant. 

Ser. Madam, the guefts are come, fupperferv'd up,, 
you call'd, my young lady afk'd for, the nurfe curft in 
the pantry, and every thing in extremity. Imuft hence 
to wait ; I befeech you, follow ftrait. 

2, La. Cap. What fay you, &c] This ridiculous fpeech is entirely 
added fince the firfl edition. Mr, Pope. 

La, Cap t 

Romeo and Juliet. 19 

La. Cap. We follow thee. Juliet ', the County flays. 
ivV/*. Go, girl, feek happy nights to happy days. 


A Street before Capulet'j Houfe. 

Enter Romeo, Mercutio, Benvolio, nvitb five or Jix 
other majkers, torcb-bearers, and drums. 

Rom. TT7HAT, (hall this fpeech be fpoke for our 

VV excufe ? 

Or fhall we on without apology r 

Ben. J The date is out of fuch prolixity. 
We'll have no Cupid, hood-wink'd with a fcarf, 
Bearing a Tartars painted bow of lath, 
Scaring the ladies like a crow-keeper : 
4- Nor a without-book prologue faintly fpoke 
After the prompter, for our entrance. 
But let them meafure us by what they will,. 
We'll meafure them a meafure, and be gone. 

Rom. Give me a torch, I am not for this ambling. 
Being but heavy, I will bear the Light. 

Mer. Nay, gentle Romeo, we mull have you dance; 
Rom. Not I, believe me ; you have dancing (hoes 
With nimble foles ; I have a foul of lead, 
So flakes me to the ground, I cannot move. 

5 Mer. You are a Lover ; borrow Cupid's Wings, 
And foar with them above a common Bound. 

Rom. I am too fore enpearced with his Shaft, 
To foar with his light Feathers : and fo bound, 
I cannot bound a pitch above dull Woe : 
Under Love's heavy burthen do I fink. 

3 The date is out of fucb < prolixity,] i, e. Masks are now ou,t of 
fafhion. That Shake/pear was an enemy to thefe fooleries, appears 
from his writing none : and that his plays discredited fuch enter- 
tainments is more than probable. But in yames\ time, that 
reign of falfe tafte as well as falfe politics, they came again in fa- 
fhion : and a deluge of this affe&ed nonfenfe overflowed the court 
and country. 

4 Nor a ivitbout-book prologue &c] The two following lines are 
inferted from the firft Edition. Mr. Pope, 

5 Mer. You are a Lover ; &c] The twelve following lines arc 
not to be found in the firft edition. Mr. Pope. 


20 Romeo and Juliet. 

Mer. And to fink in it, fhould you burthen Love * 
Too great Oppreffion for a tender Thing ! 

Bom. Is Love a tender Thing ? It is too rough, 
Too rude, too boift'rous ; and it pricks like Thorn. 
Met: If Love be rough with you, be roucjh with 
Love ; 
Prick Love for pricking, and you beat Love down, 
Give me a Cafe to put my vifage in ? 

[Pulling off his Majk. 

A Vifor for a Vifor ?• what care I, 

What curious eye doth quote deformities ? 
Here are the beetle-brows lhall blufh for me. 

Ben. Come, knock and enter ; and no lboner in, 
But evVy man betake him to his legs. 
| Rom. A torch for me. Let wanton?, light of heart, 
Tickle the fenfelefs rufhes with their heels ; 
F^r I am proverb'd with a grandfire, phrafe ; 
I'll be a candle-holder, and look en. 
The game was ne'er fo fair, and I am done. 

Mer. 6 Tut ! dun's the moufe, the constable's own 


6 Tut ! dun's the moufe, the confiable's own word-] This poor 
ebfeure ftuftfhould have an explanation in mere chanty. It is an 
anfvver to thefe two lines of Romeo, 

For I am proverb' 'divitb a grandfire' s phrafe, 

The game w as ne'er fo fair, and I am done. 
Mercutio, in his reply, anfwers the laft line firft. The thought of 
which, and of the preceding, is taken from gaming, riibe a can- 
dle-holder (fays Romeo) and look on. It is true, if I could play 
my felf, I could never expect a fairer chance than in the company 
we are going to : but, alas! lam done. I have nothing to play 
with \ I have loft my heart already. Mercutio catches at the 
word done, and quibbles with it, as if Romeo had faid, The ladies 
indeed are fair, but I am dun, i. e. of a dark complexion. And 
fo replies, Tut ! dun's the moufe ; a proverbial expreflion of the 
fame import with the French, La nuit tsus les chats font gris. As 
much as to fay, You need not fear, night will make all your com- 
plexions alike. And becaufe Romeo had introduced his obfervation 

I am proverb'd ivith a grandfire's phrafe, 
Mercutio adds to his reply, the confiable's own word. As much, 
as to fay, if you are for old proverbs, I'll fit you with one : 'tit 
the confiable's own word; whofe cuftom was, when he fummoned 


Romeo and Juliet. 21 

If thou art dan, we'll draw thee from the mire ; 

Or, fave your reverence, Love, wherein thou ftickefl: 

Up to thine ears : come, we burn day-light, ho. 

Rom. Nay, that's not fo. 

Mer. I mean, Sir, in delay 
We burn our lights by light, and lamps by day. 
Take our good meaning, for our judgment fits 
Five times in That, ere once in our fine wits. 

Rom. And we mean well in going to this mafk ; 
But 'tis no wit to go. 

Mer. Why, may one 2sk ? 

Rom. I dreamt a dream to night. 

Mer. And fo did I. 

Rom. Well ; what was yours ? 

Mer. That dreamers often lie. 

Rom. In bed afleep ; while they do dream 

things true. 

Mer. ' 1 O, then I fee, Queen Mab hath been with 

his watch, and afTigned them their feveral ftations, to give them 
what the foldiers call, the word. But this night guard being dif- 
tinguifhed for their pacific character, the conftable, as an emblem 
of their harmlefs difpofition, chofe that domeftic animal for his 
word : which, in time, might become proverbial. 

7 0, then I fee, ^ue:n Mab hath been with yen. 

~3he /j/^fairies' midwife.] Thus begins that admirable fpeech 
upon the effects of the imagination in dreams. But, Queen Mab 
the fairies' midwife ? What is fhe then Queen of? Why, the fairies. 
What ! and their midwife too ? But this is not the greateft of the 
abfurdities. Let us fee upon what occafion fhe is introduced, and 
under what quality. It is as a Being that has great power over 
human imaginations. But then the title given her, muft have re- 
ference to the employment fhe is put upon : Firft then, fhe is cal- 
led Queen : which is very pertinent ; for that deflgns her power : 
Then fhe is called the furies' midwife', but what has that to do 
with the point in hand ? If we would think that Shakefpear wrote 

fenfe, we muft fay, he wrote —- the f ahcy' s midwife : and 

this is a proper title, as it introduces all that is faid afterwards of 
her vagaries. Befides, it exactly quadrates with thefe lines : 
_____« .„— .™- J talk of dreams 5 
Which are the children of an idle brain, 
Begot of nothing but vain fantafie. 

Thefe dreams are beget upon fantafie, and Mab is the midwife 
to bring them forth. And fancy's midwife is a phrafe altogether 
in the manner of our author. 

* She 

22 Romeo and Juliet. 

* She is the Fancy's mid-wife, 8 and fhe comes 
' In fhape no bigger than an agat-ftone 

'* On the fore-finger of an alderman ; 

* Drawn with a team of little atomies, 

' Athwart men's nofes as they" lie afleep : 

* Her waggon-fpokes made of long fpinners' legs 5 

* The cover, of the wings of grafhoppers ; 

* The traces, of the fmalleft fpider's web ; 

« The collars, of the moonfhine's watry beams ; 

' Her whip, of cricket's bone j the lafh of film ; 

« Her waggoner a fmall grey-coated gnat, 

' Not half fo big as a round little worm, 

■ Prickt from the lazy finger of a maid. 

■* Her chariot is an empty hazel-nut, 

' Made bythejoyner fquirrel, or old grub, 

' Timeout of mind the fairies' coach- makers : 

f And in this ftate (he gallops, night by night, 

' Through lovers' brains, and then they dream of love: 

* On courtiers' knees, that dream on curtfies ftrait : 
' O'er lawyers' fingers, who flrait dream on fees : 

' O'er ladies' lips, who ftrait on kiffes dream, 

* Which oft the angry Mab with blifters plagues, 

' Becaufe their breaths with fweet-meats tainted are. 
' 9 Sometimes fhe gallops o'er a courtier's nofe, 

' And 

8 ' and [he comes 

In shape no bigger than an agat-ftone'] Shape not fignifying > 
quantity but quality , in Jhape no bigger, muft needs be a great 
inaccuracy of expreflion. I am therefore inclined to think that 
Shake/pear read and pointed the paiTage thus, 

' ■ ' - ■■ ■ ■ andjbe comes 

In shade; no bigger than an agat-ftone t 
i, e. fhe comes in the night, and is no bigger &c, 

9 Sometimes Jhe gallops o^er a lawyer's nofe, 

And then dreams he of fmelling out a fuit :] The old editions 
have it, courtier's nofe j and this undoubtedly is the true read- 
ing : and for thefe reafons. Firft, in the prefent reading there is a 
vicious repetition in this fine fpeech j the fame thought having 
been given in th'; foregoing line, 

O'er lawyers' ft- gers, ivho ftrait dream on fees : 

Nor can it be objected that there will be the fame fault if we read 
courtiers, it having been faid before, 

On couriers' knees that dream on courtjies ftrait ; 


Romeo and Juliet. 23 

* And then dreams he of fmelling out a fuit : 

« And fometimes comes me with a tithe-pig's tail, 
« Tickling the parfon as he lies afleep ; 
■ Then dreams he of another Benefice. 

• Sometimes (he driveth o'er a foldier's neck, 

« And then he dreams of cutting foreign throats, 

• Of breaches, ambufcadoes^ Spanijh blades, 

« Of healths five fathom deep ; and then anon 

* Drums in his ears, at which he ftarts and wakes 5 

becaufe they are fiiewn in two places under different views : m 
the firft their foppery ; in the fecond, their rapacity is ridiculed. 
Secondly, In our author's time, a court-follicitation was called, 
fimply, zfuit: and a procefs, zfuit at law, to diftinguifhit from 
the other. The King (fays an anonymous contemporary writer of 
the life of Sir William Cecil) called him [Sir "William Cecil] and 
after long talk with him, being much delighted with his anfwers, 
•willed bis Father to find [/. e. to fmell out] A sv it for him. 
Whereupon he became suiter for the rcverjion cf the Cuftos bre- 
vium office in the Common Pleas, Which the Kingwillingly granted, 
it being the fir ft suit he had in his life. Indeed our Poet has 
very rarely turned his fatire againft lawyers and law proceedings 5 
the common topic of later writers. For, to obferve it to the ho- 
nour of the Englijh judicatures, they preserved the purity and fim- 
plicity of their firft inftitution, long after Chicane had over-run 
all the other laws of Europe. Philip de Commines gives us a very 
frank defcription of the horrid abufes that had infected the courts 
of juftice in France fo early as the time of Lewis Xlth. Aujfi de- 
Jiroit fort qu 1 en ce Royaume on ufaji d'une coujlume, iCun pcix, 
d'une mefure : et que toutes ces couftumesfuffent mifes enfrancoys, en 
un beau Livre, pour eviter la cautelle & la pillerie des advocats : 
qui eft fi grande en ce Royaume, que nulle autre n'eft femblable, 
& les nobles d'iceluy la doi'vent bien cougnoijire. At this time the 
adminiftration of the law in England was conducted with great pu- 
rity and integrity. The reafon of this difference I take to be, that, 
'till of late, there were few gloffers or commentators on our laws, 
and thofe very able, honeft and concife ; while it was the fortune 
of the other municipal laws of Europe, wheie the Roman civil law 
had a fupplemental authority, to be, in imitation of that law, over- 
loaded with glofTes and commentators. And what corruption this 
practice occafioned in the adminiftration of the Roman law itfelf, 
and to what a miferable condition it reduced public juftice, we 
may fee in a long and fine digreffion of the hiftorian Ammianus 
Marcellinus ; who has painted, in very lively colours, the different 
kinds of vermine, which infected their tribunals and courts < aw : 
whereby the ftate of public juftice became in a fhorc time fo defpe^ 
rately corrupt, that Jujlini an was obliged tp new-modei>and digejl 
the enormous body of their laws. 

' And 

24. Romeo and Juliet. 

' And being thus frighted, fwears a prayer or two, 

* And fleeps again. This is that very Mab, 

* That plats the manes of horfes in the night, 

' i And cakes the elf-locks in foul fluttifh hairs, 
' Which, once untangled, much misfortune bodes. 
' This is the hag, when maids lie on their backs, 
' That preffes them, and learns them firfl to bear ; 
' Making them women of good carriage: 

* This is me 

Rom. Peace, peace, Mercuth, peace ; 
Thou talk'fl of nothing. 

Mtr. True, I talk of dreams ; 
Which are the children of an idle brain, 
Begot of nothing, but vain phantafie ; 
Which is as thin of fubftance as the air, 
And more unconftant than the wind ; who wooes 
Ev'n now the frozen bofom of the north, 
And, being anger'd, puffs away from thence, 
Turning his face to the dew- dropping fouth. 

Ben. This wind, you talk of, blows us from our 
felves ; 
Supper is done, and we fhall come too late. 

Rom. I fear, too early -, for my mind mifgives, 
Some confequence, yet hanging in the Stars, 
Shall bitterly begin his fearful date 
With this night's revels ; and expire the term 
Of a defpifed life clos'd in my breaft, 
By fome vile forfeit of untimely death. 
But he, that hath the fleerage of my courfe, 
a Direcl my fuit ! On, lufty Gentlemen. 

Ben. Strike, drum. 

[Tbey march about the Stage , and Exeunt. 

1 Ar.d cakes the elf-loch &c] This was a common fuperftition ; 
and feems to have had its rife from the horrid difeafe called the 
Pa'ca Polonica. 

2 Direcl tr.y fuit ■ ' - ] Suit, for courfe, way, not love- fuit. 


Romeo end Juliet. 25 


Changes to a Hall in Capulet'j Houfe. 
Enter Servants, with Napkins, 

i^/'TT/HERE's Potpan, that he helps 
" V V to take away ; he ftiift a trencher ! 



fcrape a trencher ! 

zSer. " When good manners (hall lie all in one or 

" two men's hands, and they unwafh'd too, 'tis a ioujt 

*' thing. 

1 Ser. " Away with the joint- ftcols, remove the 
" court-cup-board, look to the plate : good thou, lave 
" me a piece of march-pane ; and, as thou lovett me, 
" let the porter let in Sufan Grindjloxe, and NelL An- 
" tony, and Potpan ■ 

2 Ser. u Ay, boy, ready. 

1 Ser. " You are look'd for, call'd for, afk'd for, 
«' and fought for, in the great chamber. 

2 Ser. " We cannot be here and there too ; cheer- 
" ly, boys ; be brifk a while, and the longer liver take 
" all." [Exeunt. 

Enter all the Guefis and Ladies, with the majkers. 

1 Cap. Welcome, Gentlemen. Ladies, that have 
your feet 
Unplagu'd with corns, we'll have a bout with you. 
Ah me, my miftreffes, which of you all 
Will now deny to dance ? (he that makes dainty, 
I'll fwear, hath corns ; am I come near you new ? 
Welcome, all, Gentlemen ; I've feen the day 
That I have worn a vifor, and could teli 
A whifpering tale in a fair lady's ear, 
Such as would pleafe : 'tis gone ; 'tis gone ; 'tis gone ! 
\_MuJick plays, and they dance. 
More light, ye knaves, and turn the tables up ; 
And quench the fire, the room is grown too hot. 
Ah, Sirrah, this unlook'd-for (port comes well. 
Nay, fit ; nay fit, good coufin Capulet, 
For you .ind I are paft our dancing days : 

Vol. VIII. C How 

26 Romeo and Julilt. 

H w long is't now fince laft your felf and I 
Were in a mafk ? 

2 Cap. By'r lady, thirty years. 

1 Cap. What, man! 'tis not fo much, 'tis not fo 

much ; 
'Tis fince the nuptial of Lucentio, 
Come Pentecoft as quickly as it will, 
Some five and twenty years, and then we mafk'd. 

2 Cap. 'Tis more, 'tis more ; his fon is elder, Sir; 
His Ton is thirty. 

i Cap. Will you tell me that ? 
His fon was but award two years ago. 

Rom. What lady's That, which doth enrich the hand 
Of yonder knight ? 
Ser. I know nor, Sir. 

Rom. O, fhe doth teach the torches to burn bright j 
" Her beauty hangs upon the cheek of night, 
** Like a rich jewel in an jEtbiop' > % ear : 
Beauty too rich for ufe, for earth too dear ! 
So fhews a fnowy dove trooping with crows, 
As yonder lady o'er her fellows (hows. 
The meafuredone I'll watch her place of Stand, 
And, touching hers, make happy my rude hand. 
Did my heart love 'till now ? forfwear it, fight ; 
I never faw true beauty 'till this night. 

Tyb. This by his voice mould be a Montague. 
Fetch me my rapier, boy : what ! dares the ilave 
Come hither cover'd with an antick face, 
To fleer and fcorn at our folemnity ? 
Now by the ftock and honour of my kin, 
To ftrike him dead I hold it not a fin. 

Cap. Why, how now, kinfman, wherefore florm 

you fo ? 
Tyb. Uncle, this is a Montague, our foe : 
A villain, that is hither come in fpight, 
To fcorn at our folemnity this night. 
Cap. Young Romeo, is't ? 
TyL That villain Romeo. 
Cop. Content thee, gentle coz, let him alone ; 
He bears him like a porily Gentleman : 
And, to fay truth,/7r«ff* brags of him, 


Romeo and Juliet. 

To be a virtuous and well-govern'd youth. 
I would not for the wealth of all this town, 
Here in my houfe, do him difparagement. 
Therefore be patient, take no note of him j 
It is my will, the which if thou refpeft, 
Shew a fair prefence, and put off thefe frowns, 
An ill-befeeming femblance for a feaft. 

Tyb. It fits, when fuch a villain is a gueft. 
1*11 not endure him. 

Cap. lt He (hall be endur'd. 
" What, goodman boy— I fay, he (hall. Go to 

Am I the mailer here, or you ? go to- 

■• You'll not endure him ! God mail mend my foul, 

V You'll make a mutiny among my guefts ! 

'* You will fet cock-a-hoop ? you'll be the man ?" 

Tyh. Why, uncle, 'tis a fhame. 

Cap. H Go to, go to, 
" You are a fawcy boy— is't fo, indeed ? 
" This trick may chance to fcathe you ; I know what, 
tl You muft contrary me ! Marry, 'tis time. 
" Well faid, my hearts :— You are a Princox, go: — 
" Be quiet, or (more light, more light, for fhame) 
** I'll make you quiet What ? cheerly, my hearts.',' 

Tyb. Patience perforce, with wilful choler meeting, 
Makes my flefh tremble in their different Greeting. 
I will withdraw ; but this intruiion (hall, 
Now feeming fweet, convert to bitter gall. 

Rom. 5 If I profane with my unworthy hand 

[ft Juliet. 
This holy fhrine, the gentle Fine is this ; 
My lips, two blufning pilgrims, ready Hand, 

To fmooth that rough touch with a tender kifs. 

•3 If I profane tuitb my urrwortby hand 

Tba boly Jhnne, the gentle Sin if tbis, 

My Ufa two blujhing pilgrims, &c] All profanations art f\>p- 
pos'd to be expiated either by fome meritorious action, or by feme 
penance undergone, and puniuSment fubmitted to. So, Rome* 
would here fay, if I have been profane in the rude touch of my 
hand, my lips itand ready, as two blofhing pilgrims, to take eff 
that oftl-nce, to atone for it by a fweet penance, Our poet there- 
fore maft have wrote, 

— t be gentle Fine it tbis. 

C 2 JM 

28 PvOmho and Julilt. 

Jul. Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand tco 
Which mannerly devotion fhews In ihis ; 
For Saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, 
And palm to palm is holy palmers 1 kifs. 
Rem. Have net faints lips, and holy palmers too ? 

Jul. Ay, pilgrim, lips that they mull ufe in prayer. 
Horn. O then, dear faint, let lips do what hands do : 
They pray, (grant thou) left faith turn to cefpair. 
Jul. Saints do not move, yet grant for prayers' fake. 
Rom. Then movenot, while my prayers' effect I take: 
Thus from my lips, by thine, my fin is purg'd. 

[Ki/fivg her. 
Jul. Then have my lips, the fin that late they; 

Rem. Sin from my lips ! O trefpafs, fweetly urg'd ! 
Give me my fin again. 

Jul. You kifs by th' book. 

Nurfe. Madam, ycur mother craves a word with 

Rom. What is her mother ? [To her Nurfe. 

Nurfe. Marry, batchelor, 
Her mother is the l«dy of the houfe, 
And a good lady, and a wife and virtuous. 
I nurs'd her daughter, that you talkt withal : 
I tell you, he, that can lay hold of her, 
Shall have the chink. 
Rom. Is (he a Capulet? 

dear account ! my life is my foe's debt. 

Ben. Away, be gone, the fport is at the beft. 
Rom. Ay, fo I fear, the more is my unreuV 
Cap. Nay, Gentlemen, prepare not to be gone, 

We have a trifling foclifh banquet towards. 

Is it e'en fo ? why, then, I thank you all. 

1 thank you, honeft Gentlemen, good night : 
More torches here— come on, then let's to bed, 
Ah, firrah, by my fay, it waxes late. 

I'll to my Reft. [Exeunt, 

Jul. Come hither, nurfe. What is yon gentleman ? 
Nurfe. The fon and heir of old Tibtrio. 
Jul. What's he, that now is going out of door ? 


Romeo and Juliet. 29 

Nurfe. m That, as I think, is young Petrucbio. 

Jul. What's he, that follows here, that would not 

dance f 
Kurfe. I know not. 

Jul. Go, afk his name. if he be married, 

My Grave is like to be my wedding-bed. 

Nurfe. His name is Romeo, and a Montague, 
The only Ton of your great enemy. 

Jul. My only love fprung from my only hate ? 
Too early feen, unknown ; and known too late ; 
Prodigious birth of love it is to me, 
That I muft love a loathed enemy. 
Nurfe. What's this? what's this ? 
Jul. A rhiine I leaned e'en now 
Of one I danc'd withal. [One calls within, Juliet. 

Nurfe. Anon, anon - 
Come, let's away, the Grangers are all gone. [Exeunt, 

Enter + CHORUo. 
Now old Defire doth on his death-bed lie, 

And young Affe&ion gapes to be his heir : 
That Fair, for which love groan'd fore, and would die, 

With tender Juliet match'd, is now not fair. 
Now Romeo is belov'd, and loves again, 

Alike bewitch'd by the charm of looks : 
But to his foe fuppos'd he muft complain, 

And (he Ileal love's fweet bait from fearful hooks. 
Being held a foe, he may not have accefs 

To breathe fuch vows as^lovers ufe to fwear ; 
And (be, as much in love, her means much lefs, 

To meet her new-beloved any where : 
But paffion lends them power, Time means, to meet ; 
Temp'ring extremities with extrcam fweet. 

[Exit Chorus. 

4 Chorus.] This chorus added lince the firft edition. 

Mr. Pope. 


00 Romeo and Juliet. s c e n e I. 


Enter Romeo alone. 

Rom. /"I A N I go forward when my heart is here ? 
\^ji Turn back, dull earth, and find thy center 
out. [Exit. 

Enter Ben vol io, nvith Mercutio. 

Ben, Romeo, my coufin Romeo. 

hler. He is wife, 
And, on my life, hath ftol'n him home to bed. 

Ben. He ran this way, and leap'd this orchard- 
Call, good Mercutio. 

Mer. Nay, Til conjure too. 
Why, Romeo f humours! madman! paffion ! lover! 
Appear thou in the likenefs of a Sigh, 
Speak but one Rhime, and I am fatisfied. 
Cry but Ah me ! couple but love and Jove, 
Speak to my goffip Venus one fair word, 
One nick-name to her pur-blind fon and heir : 
(Young Abraham Cupid, he that (hot (o true, 

1 When King Cophetua lov'd the beggar-maid ) 

He heareth not, he ftirreth not, hemoveth not, 
The ape is dead, and I muft conjure him. 

J conjure thee by Rofaline's bright eyes, 

By her high fore-head, and her fcarlet-lip, 

})y her nne foot, llraight le^, and quivering thigh, 

And the demeafns that there adjacent lie, 

That in thy likenefs thou appear to us. 

Ben. An' if he hear thee, thou wilt anger him. 

Mer. This cannot anger him : 'twould anger him, 
To raiie a fpirit in his miitrefs' circle, 
Of fome ftrange nature, letting it there Hand 

i When King Cophetua &c] Alluding to an old ballad. 

Mi. Pope- 


Romeo and Juliet. 31 

'Till (he had laid it, and conjur'd it down ; 
That were fbme fpight. My invocation is 
Honeft and fair, and, in his miftrefs' name, 
I conjure only but to raife up him. 

Ben. Come, he hath hid himfelf among thefe trees, 
To be conforted with the hum'rous night : 
Blind is his love, and beft befits the dark. 

Mer. If love be blind, love cannot hit the mark. 
Now will he fit under a medlar tree, 
And wi(h his miftrefs were that kind of fruit, 
Which maids call medlars, when they laugh alone.—* 
Romeo, good nfght ; I'll to my truckle-bed, 
This fielu-bed is too cold for me to fleep : 
Come, (hall we go ? 

Ben Go then, for 'tis in vain 
To feek him here that means not to be found. [Exeunt. 


Changes to Capulet'j Garden, 

Enter Romeo. 

Rom. T TE jefts at fears, that never felt a wound — 
X"l But, foft ! what light thro' yoncier window 
breaks ? 
It is the Eait, and Juliet is the Sun ! 

[Juliet appears above, at a window, 
Arife, fair Sun, and kill the envious moon, 
Who is already fick and pale with grief, 
That thou, her- maid; art far more fair than (he. 
Be not her maid, fince fhe is envious : 
Her veftal livery is but fick and green, 
And none but fools do wear it ; call it off — - 
She fpeaks, -yet (he fays nothing; what of that ? 

Her eye difcourfes ; I will anfwer it 

I am too bold, 'tis not to me fhe fpeaks : 
Two of the faireft ftarsof all the heav'n, 
Having fome bufmefs, do intreat her eyes 
To twinkle in their fpheres 'till they return. 
What if her eyes were there, they in her head ? 
The brightnefs of her cheek would mame thole flars, 

C4 As 

32 Romeo and Juliet. 

As day-light doth a lamp ; her ej es in heav'n 
Would through the airy region ftream fo bright, 
That birds would fing, and think it were not night : 
See, how fhe leans her cheek upon her hand } 
O that I were a glove upon that hand, 
That I might touch that cheek I 

Jul. Ah me! 

Rom. She fpeaks. 
Oh, fpeak again, bright angel f for thou art 
As glorious to this (a) Sight being o'er my head, 
As is a winged meflenger from heav'n, 
Unto the white-upturned, wondering, eyes 
Of mortals, that fall back to gaze on him ; 
V/hen he beftrides 2 the lazy-pacing clouds, 
i\nd fails upon the bofcm of the air. 

Jul. O Romeo, Romeo ■ wherefore art thoa 

Romeo ? 
Deny thy father, and refufe thy name : 
Or, if thou wilt not, be ^>ut fworn my love, 
.And I'll no longer be a Capulet. 

Rem. Shall I hear more, or fhall I fpeak at this ? 

Jul. 'Tis but thy name that is my enemy : 
3 Thou art thy felf, though not a Montague. 
"What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot, 

!Nor arm, nor face nor any other part. 

What's in a name ? that which we call a rofe, 
By any other name would fmell as fweet. 
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo calPd, 
Retain that dear perfe&ion which he owes, 
Without that title ; Romeo, quit thy name ; 
And for thy name, which is no part of thee, 
Take all my felf. 

Rom. I take thee at thy word : 
Call me but love, and I'll be new baptized, 
Henceforth I never will be Romeo. 

2 — -■■■■ the lazy-pacing clouds,'] Thus corre&ed from the firft 
edition, in the other lazy puffing. Mr. Pope. 

3 Tkpu a>t thy fclf, Wohgb net a Montague.]) /'. e. you would be 
juft what yon are, althf>" you were net ot the houfe of Montague. 

[ (a) Sigbi Mr. Tbedaid. Vu'g. night, j 


Romeo and Juliet.' 33 

Jul. What man art thou, that thus, befcreen*d lis 
So ftumblefl: on my counfel ? 

Rom. By a name 
I know not how to tell thee who I am : 
My name, dear Saint, is hateful to my felf, 
Becaufe it is an enemy to thee. 
Had I it written, I would tear the word. 

Jul. My ears have yet not drunk a hundred words- 
Of that tongue's uttering, yet I know the found. 
Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague ? 

Rom. Neither, fair Saint, if either thee diHike. 
Jul, Howcam'ft thou hither, tell me, and wherefore ? 
The orchard walls are high, and hard to climb ; 
And the place death, confidering who thou art, 
If any of my kinfmen find thee here. 

Rom. With love's light wing did I o'er-perch thefe 
. walls, 
For flony limits cannot hold love out ; 
And what love can do, that dares love attempt : 
Therefore thy kinfmen are no flop to me. 

Jul. If they do fee thee, they will muriher thee. 
Rom. Alack ! there lies more peril in thine eye T 
Than twenty of their fvvords ; look thou but fweet, 
And I am proof againft their enmity. 

Jul. I would not for the world, they tiw thee here, 
Rom. I have night's cloak to hide me from their 
And bat thou love rm% let them find me here ; 
My life were better ended by their hate, 
Than death prorogued, wanting of thy love. 

Jul. By whofe direclion found'ft thou out this place? 
Rom. By love, that fir ft did prompt me to enquire ; 
He lent me counfel, and I lent him eyes : 
I am no Pilot, yet wert thou as far 
As that vaft more, wauYd with the fartheft fea, 
I would adventure for fuch merchandife. 

Jul. Thou know'fl, the mafk of night is on my 
Elfe would a maiden -blufh bepaint my cheek 
For that which thou haft heard me fpeak to night. 

C 5 Faia 

34 Romeo and Juliet. 

Fain would I dwell on form ; fain, fain, deny 
What \ have fpoke -but farewel compliment f 
Bolt thou love me ? I know, thou wilt fay, ay ; 
And I will take thy word— yet if thou fwear'it, 
Thou may'lt prove falfe ; at lovers* perjuries. 
They fey, J we laughs. Oh, gentle Rrmeo, 
If thou doit love, pronounce it faithfully : 
Cr if you think, I am too quickly won, 
I'll frown and be perverfe. and fay thee nay, 
So thou wilt wooe : but, elfe, not for the world. 
In truth, fair Montague I am too fond ; 
And therefore thou may'ft think my 'haviour light i 
But trull me, Gentleman, I'll prove more true, 
Than thofe that have more cunning to be ftrange. 
I mould have been more ftrange, I muft cor.fefs, 
But that thou over -heaid'ft, ere I was 'ware, 
My true rove's Paffion ; therefore pardon me, 
And not impute this yielding to light love, 
Which the dark night hath fo difcovered. 

Rom. Lady, by yonder blefied moon I vow, 
That tips with fi'ver all thefe fruit- tree tops 

Jul. O (wear not by the moon, th' inconftant moon, 
That monthly changes in her circled orb ; 
Left that thy love prove likewife variable. 

Rom. What fhall I fwear by r 

Jul. Do not fwear at all ; 
Or, if thou witt, fwear by thy gracious feif, 
Which is the God of my idolatry, 
And I'll believe thee. 

Rom. If my true heart's love — . 

Jul. Well, do riot fwear — although I joy in thee., 
I have no joy of this contract to night ; 
It is too ram, too unadvised, too fudden, 
Too like the lightning* which doth ceafe to be, 
Ere one can fay, it lightens — Sweet, goodnight. 
This bud of love by iummer's ripening breath 
May prove : beauteous flower, when next we meet: 
Good night, good night —as fweet Repofe and Reft 
Come to thy heart, as that within my breail ! 

Row. O wilt thou leave me fo unfatisfied ? 

Jul, What iVrtisfadion canft thou have to night ? 


Romeo and Juliet. 35 

Rom. TV exchange of thy love's faithful vow for 

Jul. I gave thee mine, before thou did' ft requeft it : 
And yet I would, it were to give again. 

Rom. Wouldft thou withdraw it ? for what purpofe, 

love ? 
Jul. But to be frank, and give it thee again. 
And yet I wifh but for the thing I have : 
My bounty is as boundlei's as the fea, 
My love as deep ; the more I give to thee, 
The more I have, for both are infinite. 
I hear fome noife within ; dear love, adieu ! 

[ Nurfe calls fivi.'bbi. 

Anon, good nurfe : Sweet Montague, be true : 

Stav but a little, I will come again. [Exit. 

Rom. O blefled, blefled night ! I am afraid, 
Being in night, all this is but a dream ; 
Too flattering fweet to be fubftantial. 
Re-enter Juliet above. 
Jul Three words, dear Romeo t and good night, 
indeed : 
If that thy bent of love be honourable, 
Thy purpofe marriage, fend me word to morrow^ 
By one that I'll procure to come to thee, 
Where and what time thou wilt perform the rite ; 
And all my fortunes at thy foot I'll lay, 
And follow thee, my love, throughout the world. 

[Within: Madam. 

I come, anon ■ but if thou mearv'it nor well, 

I dobefeech thee [Within: Madam.] By and by, 

I come 
To ceafethy fuit, and leave me to my grief. 
To morrow will I fend. 
Rom. So thrive my foul, ■ 

Jul. A thoufand times good night. [Exit. 

Rom. A thoufand times the worfe to want thy light. 
Love goes tovv'rd love, as fchool boys from their books ; 
But love from love, tow'rds ichool with heavy looks. 
Enter Juliet again. 
Jul. Hi ft ! Romeo, hilt ! O for a falknefs voice, 
To lure this Tafiel geutie back again— 


3^ Romeo an d Juliet. 

Bondage is hoarfe, and may not fpeak aloud ; 
Elfe would I tear the cave where Echo lies, 
And make her airy tongue more hoarfe than mine*, 
With repetition of my Romeo. 

Rom. It is my love that calls upon my name, 
How filver- fweet found lovers' tongues by night, 
Like fofteft mufick to attending ears ! 

Jul. Romeo-. 

Rom. My fweet ! 

Jul. At what o* clock to morrow 
Shall I fend to thee f 

Rom. By the hour of nine. 

Jul. I will not fail, 'tis twenty years 'till then, — 
I have forgot why I did call thee back. 

Rom. Let me ftand here 'till thou remember it. 

Jul. I (hall forget, to have thee ftill (land there ; 
Remembring how I love thy company. 

Rom. And I'll ftill day to have thee ftill forget, 
Forgetting any other home but this. 

Jul. * 'Tis almoft morning. I would have thee 
• gone, 

* And yet no further than a Wanton's bird, 

* That lets it hop a little from her hand, 

* Like a poor prifoner in his twifted gyves, 

* And with a iilk thread plucks it back again, 

* So loving jealous of his liberty. 

Rom. I would I were thy bird. 

Jul. Sweet, fo would I ; 
Yet I ihould kill thee with much cherifhing.. 
Good night, good night. Parting is fuch fweet forrow,. 
That I mall fay good night, 'till it be morrow. [Exit. 

Rom. Sleep dwell upon thine eyes, peace in thy 
breaft ! 
''Would I were deep and peace, fo fweet to reft ! 
Hence will I to my ghoftly Friar's clofe Cell,. 
His help to crave, and my dear hap to telL [Exit, 

S C E N E 

Romeo and Juliet. 37 


Changes to a Monafiery. 

Enter Friar Lawrence, with u bajlzet. 

Trl. * * I % H E grey-ey'd morn fmiles on the frowning. 

JL m g ht » 

Check'ring the eaftern clouds with ftreaks of light : 

And darknefs flecker'd, like a drunkard, reels 

From forth day's path, and Titan s burning wheels. 

Now ere the Sun advance his burning eye, 

The day to chear, and night's dank dew to dry, 

I muft fill up this ofier-cage of ours 

With baleful weeds, and precious-juiced flowers. 

The earth, that's Nature's mother, is her tomb ; 

"What is her burying Grave, that is her womb ? 

And from her womb children of divers kind 

We fucking on her natural bofom find : 

Many for many virtues excellent, 

None but for fome, and yet all different. 

O, mickle is the powerful grace, that lies 

In plants, herbs, itones, and their true qualities. 

Nor nought fo vile, that on the earth doth live, 

But to the earth fome fpecial good doth give : 

Nor aught fo good, but, ftrain'd from that fair ufe> 

Revolts from true Birth, Humbling on abufe. 

Virtue itfelf turns vice, being mifapplied j 

And vice fometime by action's dignified. 

Within the infant rind of this fmall flower 

5 Poilon hath refidence, and medicine power : 

For this being fmelt, with that fenfe chears each part 1 

Being tailed, flays all fenfes with the heart. 

4 The grey -ey'dnorn &x.] Thefe four firft lines are here replac'd, 
conformable to the firft Edition, where fach a defcription is much 
more proper than in the mouth of Romeo ju ft before, when he 
was full of nothing but the thoughts of his miftreis. Mr. Pope., 
5 Poifcn hath rejidence, and medicine power :] I believe Shake- 
(pear wrote, more accurately, thus, 

Boijhn hath refidence, and medicinal fewer : 
i. e. both the poifon and the antidote are lodged within the rind of 
this flower, 

* Two 

38 Romeo and Juliet. 

6 Two fuch oppofed Kin encamp them (till 
In man, as well as herbs. Grace and rude Will : 
And where the worfer is predominant, 
Full-foon the canker death eats up that plant. 
Enter Romeo. 
Rom. Good morrow, father. 
Fri. BenedUite! 
What early tongue (o fweet faluteth me ? 
Young fon, it argues a diftemper'd head 
So foon to bid good morrow to thy bed : 
Care keeps his watch in every old man's eye,, 
.rind, where care iodgeih, fleepwili never lye : 
But where unbi uifed youth with unftuft brain 
Doth couch his limbs, there golden fleep doth reign. 
Therefore thy earlinefs doth me allure, 
Thou art uprouz'd by fome diftemp'rature ; 
Or if not fo, then here I hit it right, 
Our Romeo hath not been in bed to night. 

Ram. That laft is true, the Tweeter Rdl was mine. 
Fri. God pardon fin J waft thou with Rofaline ? 
Rom. With Rofaline, my ghoftly father \ no. 
I have forgot that name, and that name's woe. 

Fri. That's my good fon: but where hafl thou beea 

then r 
Rom. I'll tell thee, ere thou afk it me again j 
I have been feafting with mine enemy ; 
Where, ou a iuduen, one hath wounded me, 
That's by me wounded; both our remedies 
Within thy help and holy phyfick lies ; 
] bear no hatred, bleiTed man, fur, lo, 
My interceffion likewise Heads rr,} foe. 

Fri. Be plain, good fon, and homely in thy drift j 
Riddling confeifion finds but riddling fhrifc. 

6 Tivo fuch oppofd rozs — — ] ThL i^ a modern ScphifHca* 
tion. The old bocks have it oppofrd-~H ings. So that it appears, 
Sbakefpear wrote, Tivo fuel oppofed k-n. Why he calls them 
Kill was, becaufe they were qualities refid ; ng in o:>- a~.d t'--e fime 
fubftance. And as the enmity of oppofed Kit: generally riles high- 
er than that between grangers, this adds a beauty to 
the exprefiion. 


Romeo and Juliet. 39 

Rom. Then plainly know, my heart's dear love is fet 
On the fair daughter of rich Capulet ; 
As mine on hers, fo hers is fet on mine ; 
And all combin'd ; lave what thou mull combine 
By holy marriage : When, and where, and how. 
We meet, we wooM, and made exchange of vow, 
ITl tell thee as we pafs ; but this I pray, 
That thou confent to marry us this day. 

Fri. Holy faint Francis, what a charge is here ! 
Is RcfaJiae, whom thou crJR love fo dear, 
So focn forfaken ? young men's love then lyes 
Not truly rn their hearts, but in their eyes. 
Jefu Maria ! what a deal of brine 
Hath waiht thy fallow cheeks for Re/alive? 
How much fait water thrown away in wafte, 
To feafon love, that of it doth not tsfte ? 
The Sun not yet thy f: ghs from heaven clears-, 
Thy old groans ring yet in my awfient eare : 
Lo, here upon thy cheek the rtain doth fit 
Of an old tear, that is not wafh'd off yet. ^ 
If e'er thou waft thy felf, and thefe woes thine, 
Thou and thefe woes were all for Rojaline. 
And art thou chang'd \ pronounce this then, 
Women may fall, v. hen there's no ftrtngth hi men. 
Rom. Thou chidd'lt me oft for loving Rofalint. 
Fri. Fordoating, not for loving, Pupii mine. 
Rem. And bad'ft me bury rove. 
Fri Not in a Grave, 
To lay one in, another out to have. 

Rem. I pray thee, chide not : (he, whom I love now, 
Doth grace for grace, and love for love ailow : 
The other did not fo. 

Fri. Oh, (he knew well, 
Thy love did read by rote, and eo*W not fpell. 
But come, young waverer, come and go with me, 
In onerelpedt 1*11 thy affiilant be ! 
For this alliance may fo happy prove, 
To turn your houfhold-rancour to pure love. 
Rom. O let us hence, I (land on fucden hatfe. 
Jvi, Wifely and flow ; they (tumble that ran fa ft. 


4° Romeo and Juliet. 


Changes to the Street. 

Enter Benvolio andMtrcutio. 

Met ' W HERE the deviI fi 10 ^^ 3 Rmeo hut 
V V came he not home to night ? 

Ben. Not to his father's, I fpoke with his man. 
Mir. Why, that fame pale, hard-hearted, wench, 
that Rofaline, torments him fo, that he will, fure, run 

Ben. Tybalt, the kinfman to old Capulet, 
Hath fent a letter to his father's houfe. 
Mer. A challenge, on my life. 
Ben. Romeo will anfwer it. 

Mer. Any man, that can write, may anfwer a letter: 
Ben. Nay, he will anfwer the letter's mafter, how 
he dares, being dar'd. 

^ Mer. Alas, poor Romeo, he is already dead ! ftabb'd 
with a white wench's black eye, run through the ear 
with a love-fong ; the very pin of his heart cleft with 
the blind bow-boy's but-maft ; and is he a man to en- 
counter Tybalt ? 

Ben. Why, what is Tybalt ? 

Mer. 7 More than prince of cats ? — Oh, he's the 
couragipus captain of compliments : he rights as you 
fing prick-fongs, keeps time, diitance, and propor- 
tion : rells his minum, one, two, and the third in your 
bofom ; the very butcher^ of a filk button, a duellirt, 
a dueliift; 3 a gentleman of the very firft houfe. of 
the firft and fecond caufe ; ah, the immortal pafiado, 
the punto reverfo, the, hay I 
Ben. The what ? 

Mer. ^ The pox of fuch antick, lifping, affecled phan- 
tafies, thefe new tuners of accents : — '« Jefu [ a very 
" good blade ! a very tall man ! . a very good 

7 Mere than prince of cats? -Tybalt, the name given to 

thcCat, in theilory-book of Reynard the Fox. 

8 A if the -very f.rfi houfe, ofthcfrjl and fecond caufc ;] 
i\ e. one who pretends to be at the head of his family, and quarrels 
by the book. See Note on As you like it. Att V. Scene 6. 

" whore ! . 

Romeo and Juliet. 41 

* whore!— 9 Why, is not this a lamentable thing, 
grandfire ! that we Should be thus affli&ed with thefe 
ftrange flies, thefe fafhion-mongers, thefe pardonnex- 
mofs, who ftand fo much on the new form that they 
cannot fit at eafe on the old bench ? O, their bons, 
their bons f 

Enter Romeo. 

Ben, Here comes Romeo, here comes Romeo. 

Mer. Without his roe, like a dried herring. O flefh, 
flefh, how art thou fifhified ? Now is he for the num- 
bers that Petrarch flowed in : Laura to his lady was 
but a kitchin-wench ; marry, flie had a better love to 
berime her : Dido a dowdy, Cleopatra a gipfle, Helen 
and Hero hildings and harlots : J Tbisbe a grey eye or 
fo : But now to the purpcfe. Signior Romeo, bovjour \ 
there's a French falutation to your French Slop. You 
gave us the counterfeit fairly lalt night. 

Rom. Good morrow to you Both : What counter- 
feit did I give you ? 

Mer. The flip, Sir, the flip : can you not conceive ? 

Rom. Pardon, good Mercutio, my bufinefs was 
great ; and, in fuch a cafe as mine, a man may ftram 

Mer. That's as much as to fay, fuch a cafe as yours 
conftrains a man to bow in the hams. 

Rom. Meaning, to curt'fie. 

Mer. Thou halt moft kindly hit it. 

Rom. A moft courteous expofltion. 

Mer. Nay, lam the very pink of courtefie. 

Rom. Pink for flower. 

Mer. Right. 

Rom. Why, then is my pump well flower'd. 

Mer. Sure wit— follow me this jeft, now, 'till thoo- 
haft worn out thy pump, that when the fingle fole of 

9 Why, is rot this a lamentable thing, grandfire '] Humouroully 
apofrrophifing his anceftors, whofe fober times were unacquainted 
with the fopperies here complained of. 

I Thisbc a grey eye or fo, but not to the purpcfe. ,] We fliould 
read and point it thus, 

Thi-ue a grey eye or fo': but kow to thepurpofe. .% 
He here turns from his dtfeOttfe on tfce ectecAS of ijve, to e^quirs 
after Romeo, 

4 2 Romeo and Juliet. 

it is worn the jeft may remain, after the wearing, 
iolely fingular. 6 

Rom. O fmgle-fol'd jeft, 
Solely fingular, for the finglenefs ! 

Mer. Come between us, good Benvo/io, my wit 

Rom. Switch and fpurs. 
Switch and fpurs, or I'll cry a match. 

Mer. Nay, if our wits run the wild goofe chafe, I 
am done : for thou haft more of the wild-goofe in one 
of thy wits, than, I am fure, I have in my whole 
hve. Was I with you there for the goofe ? 

Rom Thou waft never with me for any thing, when 
thou waft not there for the goofe. 

Mer. I will Bite thee by the ear for that jeft. 
Rom. Nay, good goofe, bite not. 
Mer. Thy wit is a stxy bitter fweeting, 
It is a moil fharp fawce. 

Rom. And is it not well ferv'd in to a fweet goofe ? 
Mer. O, here's a wit of cheverel, that ftretches 
from an inch narrow to an ell broad. 

Rom. I ftretch it out for that word broad, which 
added to the goofe, proves thee far and wide abroad 

Mer. Why, is not this better, than groaning fcrlcve? 
Now thou art fociable j now art thou Romeo ; now art 
thou what thou art, by art, as well as by nature ; for 
this driveling loxe is like a great Natural, that runs 
lolling up and down to hide h.s bauble in a hole. 
Ben. Stop there, ftop there. 

Mer. Thou defneit me to ftop in my tale, againft 
the hair. • 
Ben. Thou would:! elfe have made thy tale large. 
Mer. O, thou art deceiv'd, I would have made it 
(hort ; for I was come to the whole depth of my tale, 
and meant, indeed, to occupy the argument no longer! 
Enter Nurfe, and Peter her Man. 

Rom. Here's goodly Geer : a Sayle ! aSiylef 
Mer, Two, two, a Shirt and a Smock. 
Nurfe. Peter. - 


Romeo and Juliet. 43 

Peter. Anon ? 

Nurfe. My Fan, Peter. v 

Mir. Po, good Peter, to hide her face ; for her 
fan's the fairer of the two. 

Nurfe. God ye good morrow, gentlemen. 

Mir. God ye good den, fair gentlewoman. 

Nurfe. Is it good den ? , 

Mer. 'Tis nolefs, I tell you ; for the bawdy hand 
of the dial is now upon the prick of noon. 

Nurfe. Out upon you ! what a man are you ? 

Rom. One, gentlewoman, that God hath made, 

hi t^°BymV troth, it is well faid : for bimfelf to 
mar, quotha? Gentlemen, can any of you tell me wnere 
I may find the young Romeo. 

Rom. I can tell you: but young tomeo will be 
older when vou have found him, than he was when 
you fought him : I am the yoangeft of that name, 
for fault of a worfe. 
Nurfe. You fay well. 
Mer. Yea, is the worft well ? 
Very well look, i' faith, wifely, wifely. 

Nurfe . If you be he, Sir, 
I defire fome confidence with you. 

Ben. She will indite him to fome fupper. 
Mer. A bawd, a bawd, a bawd, bo ho ! — 

Rom. What haft thou found ? 

Mer No hare, Sir, unlefs a hare, Sir, in alenten pye, 
that is fomething ftale and hoar ere it be ipent. 
An old hare hoar, and an old hare hoar, is very good 

meat in lent. 
But a hare, that is hoar, is too much for a fcore, when 

it hoars ere it be fpent. 
Romeo, will you come to your father s ?. we 11 to dm- 
ner thither. 
Rom. I will follow you. 
Mer. Farewel, antient lady ; _ 

Farewel, lady, lady, lady. {Exeunt Mercutio, BenvoliQ. 
Nurfe. I pray you, Sir, what fawcy merchant was 
this, that was (o full of his ropery ? 


44 Romeo and Juliet. 

(.uTn A *?*'%*?' nurfe ' that ,oves t0 - hear tfJ 
elf talk and will fpeak more in a minute, than he 
wiii Hand to in a month. 

Mf An , af P^k any thing againft me, I'll taJ 
hm .down an ne were luftier than he is, and twenty 
fuch 7^.. and ,f I cannot, I'll find thofe that mail. 
Scurvy knave, I am none of his flirt-gills; I am none 
orhis skains-mates. And thou muft ftand by too, 
and fufrer every knave to ufe me at his pleafure? 

P., r r /. V^° her man. 

Peter. I faw no man ufe you at his pleafure : if I had, 

my weapon mould quickly have been out, I warrant 

. >ou i dare draw as foon as another man, if I fee 

occafion in a good quarrel, and the law on my fide. 

Nurfe. Now, afore God, I am {o vext, that every 

Par* about roequivers —Scurvy knave ! Pray you 

Sir, a word: and as I told you, my young lady bid 
me enquire you out ; what me bid me fay, I will keep 

ornf l ? f ?°u S P a f ad,fe » as tey %J it were a very 
g.of, kind of behaviour, as they fay, for the gentle- 
woman is young ; and therefore if you mould dcA 
couble * lth Her, truly, ft wefC ar f ffl thi tQ gj 
onered to any gentlewoman, and very weak dealing 

tefWo th- ,niend me t0 th/ Iady 3Rd mhlrers ' J P f °" 

m ^ ?f ? *&$ *» d > ^faith, I will tell her as 
much : Lord, lord, fhe will be a joyful woman. 

^ tWllt!k -11 her, nurfe: thou do* 
which as I take it, is a gencieman-hke offer. 

thisX r n!l J ; erdev,!elome means to come »*»* 

And there me mall at friar ZWW Cell 
£e fhriv'd and married : here is for thy pains 

hurfe. No, truly, Sir, not a penny. 

&>». Go to, I fay, you mall. 

^ This afternoon, Sir ? well, me mall be there. 

feAndftay, good nurfe, behind the abby wail : 
Vv uhm this hour my man foall be with thee, 


Romeo and Juliet. 45 

And bring thee cords, made like a tackled fair, 
Which to the high top-gallant of my joy 
Mutt be my convoy in the fecf-et flight. 
Farewel, be trufty, and 111 quit thy pains. 

Nurfe Now, God in heaven blefs thee! nark you, Sir. 
Rom. What fayeft thou, my dear nurfe? 
Nurfe. Is your man fecret? did you ne'er hear lay, 
Two may keep counfel, putting one away ? ■ 

Rom. I warrant thee, my man's as true as fteel. 
Nurfe. Well, Sir, my miltrefs is the fweetett lady ; 
lord, lord ! when 'twas a little prating thing -~ — O, — 
there is a noble man in town, one Parity that won Id 
fain lay knife aboard; but me, good ioul, had as 
lieve fee a toad, a very toad, as fee him : I anger her 
fometimes, and tell her, that Paris is the F^r 
man ; but I'll warrant you, when I fay fo, ^ looks 
as pale as any clout in the verfal world. Doth not 
Rofemary and Romeo begirt both with a letter ? 

* Rom. Ay, nurfe, what of that ? both with an R. 
Nurfe' Ah, mocker! that's the dog's name. R. is 
for Thee r No ; I know, it begins with another letter ; 
and (he hath the prettieft fententious of it, of you and 
rofemary, that it would do you good to hear it. 

Ram. Commend me to thy lady [Exit Rom. 

Nurfe. Ay, a thoufand times. Peter. 

- Rom iAi nurfe, what of that ? both with an R. 
~ Nurfe. Ah, mocker ! thats the dcfs name. R. tsjfo the no 
I kJL it begii ™tb no other letter ;J I believe, I nave reftificd 
this odd ftuff ; but it is a little mortitymg, that the icnfe, vvhe» 
found, fhould not be worth the pains of retrieving it. 

' ..— ^ fpijis indigna Theatns 

Seritta oudet rediare, & nugis addere pottdus. 
The Nurfe is reprefented as a prating filly creature ; {he fays, flie 
will tell '***?+ good joke about Ins rn.frrefc ana afks him 
whether Rofemary and Rome* do not begin botnwith a letter : lie 
favs ves an R. She, who, we muft fuppofe, could not read, 
Sought he had rnock'd her, and fays, No fure, I know better: 
our Ws name is R. yours begins with anotner letter. J Kit it 
natural enough, and in charader. R. put her in mma of that 
found which is made by dogs when they fnarl , ** the,,. 
prefume, fliefays, that is the dog's name, L. in the I 
LmgcMtA the' Dcg's letter. Ben Jobnjt, ailtj %W>&*<*mar 
fays, R. » the Dogs letter, and btrretb in tbejound. 

Irritata cams quod R. R. auam piurttsa dtcat, ^ucil. 


46 Romeo and Juliet. 

Peter. Anon ? 

Nurfe. i Take my fan, and go before. [Exeunt. 

Changes to Capulet'j Houfe. 
Enter Juliet. 

Jul. nt* H E dock ftruck nine, when I did fend the 

X nurfe : 

In half an hour (he promiVd to return. 
Perchance, (he cannot meet him—— -That's not fo-^ 
Oh, (he is lame : love's heralds (hould be thoughts 
Which ten times fafterglide than the fun-beams, 
Driving back (hadows over lowring hills. 
Therefore do nimble-pinion'd doves draw love 
And therefore hath the wind-fwift Cupid wings! 
Now is the Sun upon the highmoft hill. 
Of this day's journey; and from nine 'till twelve 
Is three long hours— and yet (he is not come ; 
Had (he affe&ions and warm youthful blood, 
She'dbeas fwift in motion as a ball ; 
My words would bandy her to my fweet love, 
And his to me ; 

Enter Nurfe, nvitb Peter. 
OGod, (he comes. G honey Nurfe, what news? 
Halt thou met with him ? fend thy man away. 

Nurfe. Peter, (lay at the gate. [Exit Peter. 

Jul. Now, good fweet Nurfe, — 

O lord, why look'ft thou fad ? 

*• Tho' news be fad, yet tell them merrily: 

If good, thou fham'fl the muiick of fweet news, 

By playing't to me with fo fowre a face. 

Nurfe. I am a weary, let me reft a while ; 
Fy, how my bones ake, what a jaunt have I had ? 
Jul. I would, thou hadft my bones, and I thy news r 

Nay, come, I pray thee, fpeak Good, good nurfe 

fpeak. ' 

3 Take my fan, and go before.'] From the firft Edition. \ [ 

4 T%* newt be fad, &c] Thefe thxceline« notin the old edit iw 

Mr. Pope. 

Romeo and Juliet. 47 

Ttiofi. 5 Jefu ! what hafte ? Can^you not ftay a 
while ? 
Do yoa not fee, that I am out of breath ? 

Jul. How art thou out of breath, when thou haft 
To fay to me, that thou art out of breath ? 
Th' Excufe, that thou doft make in this delay, 
Is longer than the Tale thou doft excufe. 
Is thy news good or bad ? anfwer to that? 
Say either, and 1*11 ftay the circumftance -. 
Let me be fatisfled, is't good or bad ? 

Nurfe. Well, you have made a fimple choice ; you 
know not how to chufe a man : Romeo, no, not he ; 
6 though his face be no better than another man's, yet 
his legs excel all men's ; and for a hand, and a foot, 
and a body, tho' they be not to be talk'd on, yet they 
are paft compare. 7 He is not the flower of courtefie, 

but I warrant him, as gentle as a lamb Go thy 

ways, wench, ferve God What, have you dined at 

home ? 

Jul. No, no but all this did I know before : 

What fays he of our marriage ? what of that ? 

Nurfe. Lord, how my head akes ! what a head 
have 1 ? 
It beats as it would fall in twenty pieces. 
My back o'th'other fide— O my back, my back : 
Befhrew your heart, for fending me about 
To catch my death with jaunting up and down. 

Jul. Pfaith, I am forry that thou art fo ill. 
Sweet, fweet, fweet nurfe, tell me what fays my love? 

Nurfe. Your love fays like an honeft gentleman, 
And a courteous, and a kind, and a handfome, 
And, I warrant, a virtuous— where is your mother ? 

5 J e f u • rjJ bat hafte f &c] Thefe feven lines not in the firft 
edition. Mr. Pope. 

6 though his face be better than any man's,'] We ftiould read, 
he no better than another man's. 

7 He is not the flower of courtefie,] /- e. No Fop j this being 
one of their titles at that time. 


48 Romeo and ''Juliet. 

Jul. Where is my mother ? — why (he is within ; 
Where mould me be ? how oddly thou reply 'ft ! 
four hvefays like an honejl gentleman : — — ■ . . . 
Where is your mother ? 

Nur/e. O, God's lady dear, 
Are you fo hot ? marry, come up, I trow, 
Is this the poultis for my aking bones ? 
Hence-forward .do your meffages your felf. 

Jul. Here's fuch a coil ; come, what fays Romeo? 

Nur/e. Have you got leave to go to thrift to day ? 

Jul. I have. 

Nur/e. Then hie you hence to friar Laurence' cell, 
There ftays a husband to make you a wife. 
Now comes the wanton blood up in your cheeks, 
They'll be infcarlet ftraight at any news. 
Hie you to church, I muft another way, 
To fetch a ladder, by the which your love 
JVIuft climb a bird's neit foon, when it is dark. 
lam the drudge and toil in your delight, 
But you (hall bear the burthen foon at night. 
Go, I'll to dinner, hie you to the cell. 

Jul. Hie to high fortune j — honeft nuife, farewel. 

[ Exeunt. 

Changes to the Monajiery. 

Enter Friar Lawrence, and Romeo. 

Fri. O O fmile the heav'ns upon this holy Ad, 

O That after-hours with forrow chide us not ! 

Rom. Amen, amen ! but come what forrow can, 
It cannot countervail th' exchange of joy, 
That one fhort minute gives me in her fight : 
Do thou but clofe our hands with holy words, 
Then love-devouring death do what he dare, 
It is enough, I may but call her mine. 

Fri " Thefe violent delights have rident ends, 
" And in their triumph die ; like fire and powder, 
•' Which, as they meet, confume.The fweeteft honey 
Is loathiome in its own delicioulnefs, 


Romeo and Juliet. 49 

And in the tafte confounds the appetite ; 
Therefore love mod'rately, long love doth fo : 
Too fwift arrives as tardy as too flow. 
Enter Juliet. 
Here comes the lady. O, fo light a foot 
Will ne'er wear out the everlafting flint; 

• A lover may beftride the gcffamour, 

• That idles in the wanton fummer air, 

• And yet not fall, fo light is vanity. 

Jul. Good even to my ghoitly Confeflbr. 

Fri. Romeo (hall thank thee, daughter, for us both. 

Jul. As much to him, elfe are his thanks too much. 

Rom. Ah ! Juliet, if the meafure of thy joy 
Be heap'd like mine, and that thy fkill be more 
To blazon it, then fweeten with thy breath 
This neighbour air ; and Jet rich mufick's tongue 
Unfold th' imagined happinefs, that both 
Receive in either, by this dear encounter. 

Jul. Conceit, more rich in matter than in words, 
Brags of his fubftance, not of ornament : 
They are but beggars, that can count their worth ; 
But my true love is grown to fuch Excefs, 
I cannot fum up one half of my wealth. 

Fri. Come, come with me, and we will make fhort 
For, by your leaves, you (hall not flay alone, 
"Till Holy Church incorp'rate two in one. [Exeunt. 


The S T R E E T. 

Enter Mercutio, Benvolio, and Servants. 
Ben. T Pray thee, good Mercutio, let's retire ; 

J. The day is hot, the Capulets abroad ; 
And, if we meet, we (hall not 'fcape a brawl ; 
For now thefe hot days is the mad blood ftirring. 

Mer. Thou art like one of thofe fellows, that, when 

he enters the confines of a tavern, claps me his fword 

upon the table, and fays, God fend me no need of thee ! 

Vol. VIII. D and 

go Romeo and Juliet. 

and, by the operation of the fecond cup, draws it on the 
Drawer, when indeed, there is no need. 

Ben. Am I like fuch a fellow ? 

Mer. Come, come, thou art as hot a Jack in thy 
mood as any in Italy ; and as foon mov'd to be moody, 
and as foon moody to be mov'd. 

Ben. And what to ? 

Mer. * Nay, an' there were two fuch, weftiouldhave 

* none (horrly, for one would kill the other. Thou ! 

* why thou wilt quarrel with a man that hath a hair 

* more, or a hair lefs, in his beard, than thou haft : thou 
' wilt quarrel with a man for cracking nuts, having no 
4 other reafon but becaufe thou haft hafel eyes ; what 

* eye, but fuch an eye, would fpy out fuch a quarrel ? 
4 thy head is as full of quarrels, as an egg is full of meat ; 

* and yet thy head hath been beaten as addle as an egg, 

* for quarrelling : thou haft quarrell'd with a man for 

* coughing in the ftreet, becaufe he hath wakened thy 
' dog that hath lain afleep in the Sun. Didft thou not fall 
' out with a tailor for wearing his new doublet before 

* Eajler ? with another, for tying his new (hoes with old 

* ribband ? and yet thou wilt tutor me for quarrelling ! 

Ben. If I were fo apt to quarrel as thou art, any man 
fhould buy the fee fimple of my life for an hour and a 

Mer. The fee fimple ; O fimple ! 

Enter Tybalt, Petruehio, and others. 

Be??. By my head, here come the Capulets. 

Mer. By my heel, I care not. 

lyb. Follow me clofe, for I will fpeak to them. 
Gentlemen, good-den, a word with one of you. 

Mer. And but one word with one of us ? couple it 
with fomething, make it a word and a blow. 

Tyb. You {hall find me apt enough to that, Sir, if you 
will give me occafion. 

Mer. Could you not take fome occafion without giving? 

*Tyb< Mercutio, thou confort'ft with Romeo > 

Mer. Confort ! what doft thou make us minftrels ? if 
thou make minftrels of us, look to hear nothing but dif- 
cords : here's my fiddleftick ; here's That, (hall make you 
dance. Zounds! confort ! [.Laying kishandonkisfword. 


Romeo and Juliet. 51 

Ben. We talk here in the publick haunt of men : 
Either withdraw unto fome private place, 
Or reafon coldly of your grievances, 
Or elfe depart ; here all eyes gaze on us. 

Mer. Men's eyes were made to look, and let them 
I will not budge for no man's pleafure, I. 
Enter Romeo. 

Tyb. Well, peace be with you, Sir ! here comes my 

Mer. But I'll be hang'd, Sir, if he wear your 
livery : 
Marry, go firft to field, he'll be your follower ; 
Your wormip in that fenfe may call him man. 

Tyb. Romeo, the love, I bear thee, can afford 
No better term than this, thou art a villain. — . 

Rom. Tybalt, the reafon that I have to love thee 
Doth much excufe the appertaining rage 
To fuch a Greeting : villain I am none ; 
Therefore, farewel ; I fee, thou know'ft me not. 

Tyb. Boy, this (hall not excufe the Injuries 
That thou haft done me, therefore turn and draw, 

Rom. I do proteft, I never injur 'd thee, 
But love thee better than thou canft devife 5 
'Till thou (halt know the reafon of my love. 
And fo, good Capu/et, (whofe name I tender •': 

As dearly as my own,) be fatisfied. 

Mer. O calm, difhonourable, vile fubmiffion ! 
Ah ! la S toccata carries it away. 
'Tybalt, you rat-catcher, will you walk ? 

Tyb. What wouldft thou have with me ? 

Mer. Good King of cats, nothing but one of your 
nine lives, that I mean to make bold withal ; and as 
you ihall ufe me hereafter, dry-beat the reft of the 
eight. ■ Will you pluck your fword out of his pilche 
by the ears ? Make hafte, left mine be about your ears 
ere it be out. 

3 Will you pluck your fivord out of his Pilch er by the ears ?J 
"We /hould read Pilche, which fignifies a doke or coat of ikiiu, 
meaning the fcabbard, 

D2 Tyh 

52 Romeo and Juliet. 

Tyb. I am for you. [Drawing. 

Rom. Gentle Mercutio, put thy rapier up. 

Mer. Come, Sir, your paffado. 

[Mercutio and Tybalt/^/. 

Rom. Draw, ismyofo- -beat down their weapons- 
Gentlemen- — for fhame, forbear this outrage 

Tybalt Mercutio — — —the Prince exprefly hath 

Forbidden bandying in Verona ftreets. 

Hold, Tybalt,-— good Mercutio. [£>// Tybalt; 

Mer, I am hurt — - 

A plague of both the houfes 1 I am fped : 
Is he gone, and hath nothing ? 

Ben. What, art thou hurt ? 

Mer. Ay, ay, a fcratch, a fcratch ; marry, 'tis 
Where is my page ? go, villain, fetch a fnrgeon. 

Rom. Courage, man, the hurt cannot be much, 

Mer. No, 'tis not fo deep as a well, nor fo wide as 
a church-door, but 'tis enough, 'twill ferve : afk for 
me to morrow, and you (ball find me a grave man. I 
ampepper'd, I warrant, for this world : a plague of 
both your houfes ! What ? a dog, a rat, a mouie, a 
cat, to fcratch a man to death ? a braggart, a rogue, 
a villain, that fights by the book of arithmetick ? why 
the devil came you between us ? I was hurt under 
your arm. 

Rom. I thought all for the belt. 

Mer. Help me into fome houfe, Benvolio, 
Or I (hall faint ; a plague o' both your houfes ! 
They have made worms-meat cf me, 
I have it, and foundly too. Plague o' your houfes \ 

[Exeunt Mercutio «»^Benvolio, 


Rom. This Gentleman, the Prince's near allie. 
My very friend, hath got his mortal hurt 
In my behalf; my reputation ftain'd 
With Tybalt's flander ,• Tybalt, that an hour 
Hath been my coufin : O fweet Juliet, 


Romeo and Juliet. 53 

Thy beauty hath made me effeminate, 
And in my temper ibfcned valour's (leel. 
Enter Benvolio. 

Ben. O Pomeo, Romeo, brave Mercuticfs dead ; 
That gallant fpirit hach afpir'd the clouds, 
Which too untimely here did fcom the earth. 

Rom. This day's black fate on more days does 
depend ; 
This but begins the woe, others muft end. 
Enter Tybalt. 

Ben. Here comes the furious Tybalt back again. 

Rom. A live ? iri Triumph? and Mercutio flain I 
Away to heav'n, refpe&ive lenity, 
And flre-ey'd fury be my conduct now ! 
Now, Tybalt, take the villain bick again, 
That late thou gav'ii me ; for Mercutio's foul 
Is but a little way above our heads, 
Staying for thine to keep him company : 
Or thou or I, or both, mult go with him. 

Tyb. Thou wretched boy, that didfl confort him here, 
Shalt with him hence. 

Rom. This fhall determine that. 

[They fight, Tybalt /a///. 

Ben. Romeo, away, begone : 

The citizens are up, and Tybalt flain 

Stand not amaz'd ; the Prince will doom thee death, 
If thou art taken : hence, be gone, away. 

Rom. O ! I am fortune's fool. 

Ben, Why doll thou itay ? {.Exit Romeo. 

Enter Citizens, 

Cit. Which way ran he that kili'd Mercutio ? 
Tybalt, that murtherer, which way ran he ? 

Ben. There lyes that Tybalt. 

Cit. Up, Sir, go with me : 
I charge thee in the Prince's name, obey. 

Enter Prince, Montague, Capulet, their Wives, &c. 
Prin. Where are the vile beginners of this fray ? 

D 3 Ben. 

54 Romeo and Juliet. 

Sen. O noble Prince, I can difcover all 
Th' unlucky manage of this fatal brawl : 
There lies the man, {lain by young Romeo, 
That flew thy kinfman, brave Mercutio. 

La. Cap. "Tybalt my coufin ! O my brother's child !-- 
Unhappy fight ! alas, the blood is fpill'd 

Of my dear kinfman Prince, as thou art true, 

For blood of ours, flied blood of Montague. 

Prince. Benvolio, who began this fray ? 

Sen. Tybalt here {lain, whom Romeo's hand did flay : 
Rcmeo, that fpoke him fair, bid him bethink 
How nice the quarrel was, and urg'd withal 
Your high diipleafure : all this uttered 
With gentle breath, calm look, knees humbly bow'd, 
Could not take trace with the unruly fpleen 
Of Tybalt, deaf to peace ; but that he tilts 
With piercing Heel at bold Mercutio'** bread ; 
Who, all as hot, turns deadly point to point, 
And with a martial fcorn, with one hand beats 
Cold death afide, and with the other fends 
It back to Tybalt, whofe dexterity 
Retorts it : Romeo he cries aloud, 
Hold, friends ! friends, part ! and, fwifter than his 

His agilarm beats down their fatal points, 
And 'twixt !:hem rufhes j underneath whofe arm 
An envious thruft from Tybalt hit the life 
Of flout Mercutio, and then Tybalt fled ; 
But by and by comes back to Romeo, 
"Who had but newly entertain'd revenge, 
And to't they go like lightning : for ere I 
Could draw to part them, was flout Tybalt flain ; 
And as he fell, did Romeo turn to fly : 
This is the truth, or let Ben folio die. 

La. Cap. He is a kinfman to the Montague. 
Affection makes him falfe, he fpeaks not true. 
Some twenty of them fought in this black flrife, 
And all thofe twenty could but kill one life. 
I beg for juftice, which thou, Prince, muft give ; 
Romeo flew Tybalt, Romeo muft not live. 


Romeo and Juliet. $$ 

Prin. Romeo flew him, "he flew Mercutio; 
Who now the price of his dear blood doth owe ? 

La. Mont. Not Romeo, Prince, he was Mercutio's 
friend ; 
His fault concludes but what the law mould end, 
The life of Tybalt. 

Prin. And for that offence, 
Immediately we do exile him hence : 
I have an intereft in your (a) heats' proceeding, 
My blood for your rude brawls doth lye a bleeding j v ~ 
But I'll amerce you with fo ftrong a fine, 
That you (hall all repent the lofs of mine. 
I will be deaf to pleading and excufes, 
Nor tears nor prayers fhall purchafe out abufes ; 
Therefore ufe none ; let Romeo hence in hafte,. 
Elfe, wnen he's found, that hour is his laft. 
Bear hence this body, and attend our will : 
Mercy but murthers, pardoning thofe that kill. 



Changes to an. Apartment in Capulet*; Houfe. 

Enter Juliet alone. 
Jul. A^ALLOP apace, you fiery-footed fteeds, 

Vj" Tow'rds Phoebus' manfion ; fuch a waggoner,. 
As Phaeton, would whip you to the weft, 
And bring in cloudy night immediately. 
* Spread thy clofe curtain, love-performing Night, 


2 Spread thy clofe curtain, love-performing Night, 

That runaways eyes may wink j ] What runaways are thefe, 
whofe eyes Juliet is wifhing to have ftopt ; Macbeth, we may re- 
member, makes an invocation to Night much in the fame ftrain :■ 
1 Come, feeling Night, 

Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day, &c. 
£o Juliet here would have Night's darknefs obfeure the great eye 
of the day, the Sun ; whom confidering in a poetical light as Fho?- 
bus, drawn in his carr v/ithfery-foctcd fteeds, and pofing thro' the 

[ (a) heats 1 proceeding. Oxford Editor i Vulg. hearts? 


D 4 heavens, 

56 Romeo and Juliet. 

That th' Run away 's eyes may wink ; and Rome* 

Leap to thefe arms, untalkt of and unfeen. 

Lovens can fee to do their am'rous rites 

By their 6\vn beauties : or, if love be blind, 

It be^ agrees with night. Come, civil night, 

Tho-.i fober fuited matron, all in black, 

And learn me how to lofe a winning match, 

Plaid for a pair of ftainlef* maidenheads. 

Hrod my unmann'd blood baiting in my cheeks, 

With thy black mantle ; 'till ftrange love, grown bold, 

Thinks true love a£ted, fimple modefty. 

Come, night, come. Romeo ! come, thou day in night, 

For thou wilt lye upon the wings of night, 

Whiter than fnow upon a raven's back : 

Come, gentle night 5 come, loving, black-brow'd 

Give me my Romeo, and, when he fhalldie, 
Take him and cut him out in little flars, 
.And he will make the face of heav'n fo fine, 
That all the world mail be in love with night, 
And pay no worship to thegarifli fun. 
O, I have bought the manfion of a love, 
But not poffefs'd it ; and though I am fold, 
Not yet enjoy' d ; fo tedious is this day, 
As is the night before fome feftival, 
To an impatient child that harh new robes, 
And may not wear them. O, here comes my nurfe ! 

Enter Nurfe with cords. 
And fhe brings news ; and every tongue, that fpeaks 
But Romeo's name, fpeaks heav'nly eloquence ; 
Now, nurfe, what news ? what haft thou there I 
The cords that Romeo bid thee fetch ? 

Nurfe. Ay, ay, the cords. 

Jul. Ay me, what news ? 
Why doft thou wring thy hands ? 

heavens, rtie very properly calls him, with regard to the fwiftnefs 
of his coin fe, the Runaway. In the like manner our Poet fpeaks 
«f the Night in the Merchant of Venice 3 

For the clofe Night doth play the Runaway. 


Romeo and Juliet. 57 

Nurfe. Ah welladay, he's dead, he's dead, he'* 
dead ! 
We are undone, lady, we are undone. ■ 
Akck the day ! he's gone, he's kill'd, he's dead. 

Jul. Can heaven be fo envious? 

Nurfe. Romeo can, 
Though heav'n cannot. O Romeo ! Romeo ! 
Who ever would have thought it, Romeo? 

Jul. What devil art thou, that doft torment me 
thus ? 
This torture mould be roar'd in difmal hell. 
Hath Romeo flain himfelf ? fay thou buc, I ; 
And that bare vowel, I, fhall poifon more 
Than the 3 death-darting eye of cockatrice. 

Nurfe. I faw the wound, I faw it with mine eyes, 
(God fave the mark,) here on his manly breaft. 
A piteous coarfe, a bloody piteous coarfe ; 
Pale, pale as afhes, all bedawb'd in blood, 
All in gore blood ; I fvvooned at the fight. 

Jul. O break, my heart poor bankrupt, break 

at once ! 
To prifon, eyes ! ne'er look on liberty ; 
Vile earth to earth reiign, and motion here, 
And thou and Romeo prefs one h^avy bier ! 

Nurfe. O Tybalt, Tybalt, the beft friend I had : 
O courteous Tybalt, honeft gentleman, 
That ever I (hould live to fee thee dead \ 

Jul. What fiorm is this, that blows fo contrary ! 
Is Romeo flaughter'd ? and is Tybalt dead ? 
My dear lov'd coufm, and my dearer lord ? 
Then let the trumpet found the general Doom, 
For who is living, if thofe two are gone ? 

Nurfe. Tybalt is dead, and Romeo baniihed, 
Romeo, that kili'd him, he is baniihed. 

Jul. O God! did Roaeo's hand med Tybalt^ 
blood ? 

Nurfe. It did, it did, alas, the day ! it did, 

3 -— death-ddrting eyt of cockatrice.'] The lines 

that follow here in the common books are not in the old edition. 

Mr. Pope. 
JD 5 JuL 

58 Romeo and Juliet. 

Jul. O ferpent-heart, hid with a flow' ring face f 
Did ever dragon keep fo fair a cave ? 
Beautiful tyrant, fiend angelical ! 
4 Ravenous Dove, feather'd Raven ! Wolvifli ravening 

Lamb f 
Defpifed fubftance, of divined fhow ! 
Juftoppofite to what thou juftly feem'ft, 
A damned Saint, an honourable villain ! I 
O nature ! what badft thou to do in hell, 
When thou did'ft bower the Spirit of a fiend 
In mortal Paradife of luch fweet flefti ? 
"Was ever book, containing fuch vile matter, 
So fairly bound ? O, that deceit fhould dwell 
In fuch a gorgeous palace ! 
Nurfe. There's no truft,. 
No faich, no honefty, in men ; all perjur'd; 
All, all forfworn ; all naught ; and all diffemblers. 
Ah, where's my man ? give me fome Aqua <vita — — 
Thefe griefs, thefe woes,, thefe forrows make me old £ 
Shame come to Romeo ! 

Jul. Blifter'd be thy tongue, 
For fuch a wifn ! he was not born to fhame ; 
Upon his brow fhame is aiham'd to fit : 
For 'tis a throne where honour may be crown'd 
Sole monarch of the univerfal earth 
Q, what a beaft was I to chide him fo ? 

Nurfe. Will you fpeak well of him, that kill'd your 

coufin ? 
Jul. Shall I fpeak ill of him, that is my hufband ?• 
Ah, poor my lord, what tongue (hall fmooth thy 

When I, thy three-hours- wife, have mangled it ! 
But wherefore, villain, ditift.thou kill my coufin ?. 
That villain coufm would have kill'd my hufband. 

4 Ravenous Dove, feather d Raven, &c] The four following 
lines not in the fhit Edition, as well as fome others which I have 
omitted. Mr. Pope. 

He might as well have omitted thefe, they being evidently the 
Players traih, and as fuch I have marked them with a note of re- 


Romeo and Juliet. 59 

Back, foolifh tears, back to your native fpring ; 

Your tributary drops belong to woe, 

Which you, miftaking, offer up to joy. 

My hufband lives, that "Tybalt would have flain 5 

And Tybalt's dead that would have kill'd my hufband ; 

All this is comfort ; wherefore weep I then ? 

Some word there was, worferthan Tybalt's .death, 

Thatmurther'd me; I would forget it, fain ; 

But, oh ! it preffes to my memory, 

Like damned guilty deeds to Tinners' minds ; 

Tybalt is dead, and Romeo banijhed! 

That banijhed, that one word banijhed, 

Hath flain ten thoufand Tybalts : Tybalt's death- 

Was woe enough, if it had ended there : 

Or if fow'r woe delights in fellowfhip, 

And needly will be rahk'd with other griefs, 

Why follow'd not, when fhe faid Tybalt's dead, 

Thy Father or thy Mother, nay, or both? 

But with a rear- ward following Tybalt's death,. 

Romeo is banijhed to fpeak that word, 

Is, father, mother, Tybalt, Romeo, Juliet, 

All flain, ail dead ! -Romeo is banijhed ! 

There is no end, no limit, meafure, bound, 

In that word's death ; no words can that woe found. 

Where is my father, and my mother, nurfe ? 

Nurfe, Weeping and wailing over Tybalt's coarfe. 
Will you go to them ? I will bring you thither. 

Jul. Warn they his wounds with tears ? mine fhall 
be fpent, 
When thein are dry, for Romeo's banifhment. 
Take up thofe cords ; — poor Ropes, you are beguil'd j 
Both You and I ; for Romeo is exil'd. 
He made You for a high -way to my Bed : 
But I, a maid, dye Maiden widowed. 
Come, Cord ; come, Nurfe ; I'll to my wedding- Bed 5 
And Death, not Romeo, take my Maidenhead ! 

Nurfe. Hie to your chamber, I'll find Romeo 
To comfort you. I wot well, where he is. 
Hark ye, your Romeo will be here at night ; 
111 to him, he is hid at Lawremi cell, 



60 Romeo and Juliet. 

Jul. Oh find him, give this ring to my true knight, 
And bid him come, to take his laft farewel. [Exeunt, 

Changes to the Monaflery. 

Enter Friar Lawrence and Romeo. 

OMEO, come forth; come forth, thou 
fearful man ; 
Affliction is enamour'd of thy parts, 
And thou art wedded to calamity. 

Rom. Father, what news ? what is the Prince's 
doom ? 
What forrow craves acquaintance at my hand, 
That I yet know not ? 

Fri. Too familiar 
Is my dear fon with fuch fow'r company. 
I bring thee tidings of the Prince's doom. 

Rom. What lefs than doom's -day is the Prince'a 

doom ? 
Fri. $ A gentler judgment even'd from his lips, 
Kot body's death, bur body's banifhment. 

Rom. Ha, banifhment ! be merciful, fay, death ; 
For exile hath more terror in his look, 
Much more than death. Do not fay, banifliment. 

Fri. Here from Verona art thou bamfhed : 
Be patient, for the world is broad and wide. 

Rom. There is no world without Verona's walls, 
* But purgatory, Tartar, Hell it felf. 


5 A gentler judgmtnt van ish'd from his lips,'] Were the judg- 
ament pronounced, ineffectual, or made void, it might with fome 
proprietv be laid to have vanijh'' 'd from his lips, I fufpect Shake- 

Jjpcar wrote, 

A gentler judgment even' nfrom his lips, 
i.e. came equitably from his lips. The Poet frequently ufes the 
worcis even, ana to ev:n. in this fenfe. 

6 But purgatory, torture, hell it felf.] Place is. thefubje£fc 
here ipokc-n or, as appears from the preceding, words, There 

iznaiuorUx &£.. To which purgatory and bellanfwex lightly ; but 


Romeo and Juliet. 61 

Hence banimed, is baniuYd from the world ; 
And world-exil'd, is death. That banifned 
Is death mif-term'd ; calling death banilhment, 
Thou cut'ft my head off with a golden ax, 
And fmil'ft upon the ftroak that murthers me. 

Fri. O deadly fin f O rude unthankfulnefs f 
Thy fault our law calls death ; but the kind Prince, 
Taking thy part, hath rumt ailde the law, 
And turn'd that black word death to banifhment. 
This is dear mercy, and thou feeft it not. 

Rom. 'Tis torture, and not mercy : heav'n is her£ 
Where Juliet lives ; and every cat and dog 
And little moufe, every unworthy thing, 
Lives here in heaven, and may look on her ; 
But Rcmeomay not. More validity, 
More honourable ftate, more courtfhip lives 
In carrion flies, than Romeo ; they may feize 
On the white wonder of dear juliet\ hand, 
And ileal immortal blefiings from her lips ; 
(Which even in pure and veftal mcdefty 
Still blufh, as thinking their own knles fin.} 
This may flies do, when I from this muftfly ; 
(And fay'fl thou yet. that exile is not death ?) 

But Romeo may not; —he is banilhed. 

Hadft thou no Poifon mixt, no (harp- ground knife,, 

No fuadenmean of death, tho' ne'er fo mean, 

But baniflied to kill me ? banifhed ? 

O Friar, the Damned ufe that word in hell ; 

Howlings attend it : how haft thou the heart, 

Being a Divine, aghiftly ConfeiTor, 

A fin-abfolver, and my friend profeft, 

To mangle me with that word, baniiliment ? 

Fri. Fond mad -man, hear me fpeak.— =— . 

Rom. O, thou wilt fpeak again of banilhment. 

Fri. I'll give thee armour to keep off that word, 
Adverfity's fweet milk, philosophy, 

torture is not place , but punifhment. I think therefore that Shake- 
fpear wrote, 

But purgatory, Tartar, Hell it felf. 
So in Twelfth Night i—To the gates of Tartar. And in The Come- 
dy of Errors i.~~*~Nc x he's in Tartar, limbo,. 


€z Romeo and Juliet* 

To comfort thee, tho' thou art banifhed. 

Rom. Yet, banifhed? hang up philofophy: 
Unlefs philofophy can make a Juliet, 
Difpiant a town, reverfe a Prince's doom, 
It helps not, it prevails not, talk no more* 

Fri. O, then I fee that madmen have no ears. 
Rom. How mould they, when that wife men have no 

eyes ? 
Fri. Let me difpute with thee of thy eftate. 
Rom. Thou canft not fpeak of what thou doft not 
Wert thou as young as I, Juliet thy love. 
An hour but married, Tybalt murthered, 
Doating like me, and like me banifhed ; 
Then might'fl thou fpeak, then might'ft thou tear thy 

And fall upon the ground as I do now; 
Taking the meafure of an unmade grave. 

[Throwing himfelf on the ground. 
Fri. Arife, one knocks ; good Romeo, hide thy felf. 

[Knock 'within. 

Rom. Not I, unlefs the breath of heart-fick Groans, 

IVlift-like, infold me from the Search of eyes. [Kndck. 

Fri. Hark, how they knock ! (who's there ?) — 

Romeo, arife. -~ 

Thou wilt be taken (flay a while)— — fland up ; 

[ Knocks. 
Run to my Study — (By and by)— God's will ! 
What vvillfulneis is this ?— I come, I come [Knock. 
Who knocks fo hard? whence come you? what's 
your will ? 
Nutfe. [Within'] Let me come in, and you mail- 
know my errand : 
I come from lady Juliet. 
Fri. Welcome then. 

Enter Nurfe. 
Nurfe. O holy Friar, oh tell me, holy Friar 4j 
Where is my lady's lord? where's Romeo? 

Fri. There, on the ground, with his own tears made 

Nurfe. O he is even in my miflrefs* cafe, 


Romeo and Juliet. 6$ 

Juft in her cafe, O woful fy mpathy ! 
Piteous predicament ! even fo lies me, 
Blubb'ring and weeping, weeping and blubbering. 
Stand up, ftand up ;— Stand, an'you be a Man :. 
For Juliets Sake, for her Sake, rife and ftand. 
Why (hould you fall into fo deep an. oh ! - - 

Rom. Nurfe ! 

Nurfe. Ah Sir f ah Sir f Death is the end of all. 

Rom. Speak'ft thou of Juliet? how is it with her ? 
Doth not fhe think me an old murtherer, 
Now I have ftain'd the child hood of our joy 
With blood, remov'd but little from her own ? 
Where is fhe ? and how does (he ? and 7 what fays 
My confeaPd lady to our cancell'd love ? 

Nurfe. O, fhe fays nothing, Sir ; but weeps and 
weeps j 
And now falls on her bed, and then ftarts up ; 
And Tybalt cries, and then on Romeo calls^ 
And then down falls again. 

Rom. As if that name, 
Shot from the deadly level of a gun, 
Did murther her, as that name's curled hand 
MurtherM her kinfman. — Tell me, Friar, tell me, 
In what vile part of this anatomy 
Doth my name lodge ? tell me, that I may fack 
The hateful manfion. [Drawing his Sword* 

Fri. Hold thy defperate hand : 
Thy tears are womanifh, thy wild acls denote 
Th y unreafonable fury of a beaft, 

7 ■ ■ ' ■» ■ — 10 bat fays 

My concealed lady to our cancelled love ?] An antithesis or 
oppofition was here intended : but what oppofitionis there between 
conceal d and cancell'd? Befides, JJ>e was not conceal' d, tho' he.. 
was. We mould read, 

My conseal'd lady to our cane ell d love ? 
And then the oppofition is evident, and the fenfe exaft. For con~ 
fealdh a very proper defignment of one juft affianced to her Lo- 
ver. In the fame manner fhe herlelf fpeaks afterwards, 
And ere this band, by thee to Romeo sbal'd, 
Shall be the label to another d ee J _-___ 
So in Midfummer Night's Dream, the marriage day is called the 

lie s ealing-day between my love and me, 


64 Romeo and Juliet, 

8 Unfeemly Woman in a feeming Man f 
An ill-befeeming Beaft in feeming Groth I 
Thou halt amaz'd rne. By my holy Order, 
I thought thy difpofition better temper'd. 

Haft thou flam Tybalt ? wilt thou flay thy felf ? 
And flay thy lady, that in thy life lives., 
By doing damned Hate upon thy i'elf ? 

9 Why rail'ft thou on thy Birth, the Heav'n, and Earth, 
Since Birth, and Heav'n, and Earth, all three fo meet, 
In thee atone ; which Thou at once woulu'it lofe ? 
Fie! fie ! thou fhim'ft thy Shape, thy Love, thy Wit, 
Which, like an Ufurer, abound'ft in ail, 

And ufeft none in that true ufe indeed, 

Which (hould bedeck thy Shape, thy Love, thy Wit. 

8 Unfeemly Woman in a feeming Man ! 

And UUbefeeming Beaft in feeming both !] This ftrange non* 
fenfe Mr. Pope threw out of his edition for defperate. But it is ea- 
sily reftored as Sbakefpear wrote it into good pertinent fenfe. 
Unfeemly Woman in a feeming Man ! 
An Hi befeeminv Beaft in feeming groth ! 
i. e. you have the ill-bfeemirg paffions of a brute beaft in the 
vell-feeming fcape of a rational creature. For having in the 
jirft line fa id, he was a woman in the fhape of a man, he aggra- 
vates the thought in the ffcond, and fays, he was even a brute in 
the fhape of a rational creature. Seeming is ufed in both places, 
fox feemly. 

o Why rail" ft thou on thy Birth, the Heaven, and Earth y 
Since Birth, and Heav'n, and Earth, all three so meet, 
Jn thee at oicci, which thou at once ivould'ft lofe ?] Theftf 
were again thrown out by Mr. Pope, and for the fame reafon ; 
But they are eafily fet right. We mould read, 

Since Birth, and Heav'n, and Earth, all three so meet T 
In thee atone j vobicb thou at ence -would lofe. 
i, e. Why rail you at your Birth, and at Heaven, and Earth, which 
are a\lfo meet, or aufpkious to you: And all three yjur friends, 
Tall tk r ee in thee atone) and yet you would lofe them all by one 
rafh ftroke. Why he faid, — Birth, ^Heaven, and Earth, all three 

ftjtit wasbecaufe Romeo was of noble birth, of virtuGUs difpo- 

fitions, and heir to a large patrimony. But by fuicide he would 
difgrace the f-rft, offend the fecond, and forego the enjoyment of 
the third. Atoi.e is frequently ufed by Sbakefpear in the fenfe of, 
to agree, be finndly together, &c. So in, As you like it, 
then is there mi) ih in Heav'n 
Wven earthly things made even 
Atoms together* 


Romeo and Juliet. 65 

Thy noble Shape is but a Form of Wax, 

Duelling from the Valour of a Man ; 

Thy dear Love fworn, but hollow Perjury, 

Killing that Love, which thou haft vow'd to chenlh. 

Thy wit, that ornament to Shape and Love, 

Mif-tliapen in the Conduit of them Both, 

Like Powder in a skill-lei's Soldier's Flafk, 

Is fet on Fire by thine own Ignorance, 

And thou difmember'd with chine own Defenfe. 

What, roufethee, man, thy 'Juliet is alive, 

For whofe dear fake thou waft but lately dead : 

There art thou happy. Tybalt would kill thee, 

But thou ficw'ft Tybalt \ there thou'rt happy too. 

The law, that threatned death, became thy friend, 

And turn'd it to exile ; there art thou happy i 

A pack of bleffings light upon thy back, 

Happinefs courts thee in her belt array, 

But, like a misbehav'd and iullen wench, 

Thou pout'ft upon thy fortune and thy love. 

Take heed, take heed, for fuch die miferable. 

Go, get thee to thy love, as was decreed, 

Afcend her chamber, hence and comfort her : 

But, look, thou ftay not 'till the Watch be fet t 

For then thou canft not pafs to Mantua : 

Where thou (halt live, 'till we can find a time 

To blaze your marriage, reconcile your friends, 

Beg pardon of thy Prince, and call thee back 

With twenty hundred thoufand times more joy, 

Than thou went' ft forth in lamentation. 

Go before, nurfe; commend me to thy lady, 

And bid her haftcn all the houfe to bed, 

Which heavy ibrrow makes them apt unto. 

Romeo is coming. . 

Nurfe, O lord, I could have ftaid here all night 

To hear good counfel : oh, what Learning is ! 

My lord, I'll tell my lady you will come. 

Rom. Do fo, and bid my Sweet prepare to chide. 
Nurfe. Here, Sir, a ring (he bid me give you, Sir : 

Hie you, make hafte, for it grows very late. 
Rom. How well my comfort is reviv'd by this ! 


66 Romeo and Juliet. 

Fri. Sojourn in Mantua ; I'll find out your man, 
And he (hall fignifie from time to time 
Every good hap to you, that chances here : 
Give me rhy hand, 'tis late, farewel, good night. 

Rom. Cut that a joy, paftjoy, calls out on me, 
It were a grief, fo brief to part with thee. [Exeunt* 


1 Changes to Capulet'j Houfe. 

Enter Capulet, Lady Capulet, and Paris. 

Cap. / nt *Hings have fall'n out. Sir, fo unluckily, 

X That we have had no time to move our 
daughter : 
Look you, (lie lov'd her kinfman Tybalt dearly, 

And lb did I. Well, we were born to die. ■ 

'Tis very late, fhe'll not come down to night. 
I promife you, but for your Company, 
I would have been a bed an hour ago. 

Par. Thefe times of woe afford no time to wooe : 
Madam, good night; commend me to yourdaughter. 

La. Cap. I will, and know her mind early ta 
morrow : 
To night (he's mew'd up to her heavinefs. 

Cap. a Sir Paris, I will make a feparate tender 
Of my child's love : I think, (lie will be rul'd 
In all refpeds by me; nay more, I doubt it not. 

1 Scene VI.] Some few unneceffary verfes are omitted in this 
fcene according to the oldeft editions. Mr. Pope. 

2 Sir Paris, J tuill make a desperate tender 

Of my child's lave ; ] This was but an indifferent com- 

pliment bcth to Sir Paris and his Daughter ; As if there were fmall 
hopes of her ever proving good for any thing. For he could 
not call the tender, df per ate on the' little profpe£t there was of his 
performing his engagement, becaufe he is fure, he fays, that his 
daughter will be ruled in all refpefts by him. We mould read, 

Sir Paris, I ivill make a separate tender. * 
i. e. I ; will venture feparately on my own head, to make you a 
tender of my daughter's love without confulting her. For Sir 
faris was impatient, and the mother had faid, 

Things have faW 7i out, ^ir, fo unluckily, 

Tiat ive have bad no time to 7nove our daughter. 


Romeo and Juliet. 67 

Wife, go you to her ere you go to bed ; 
Acquaint her here with my fon Paris' love, 

And bid her, mark you me, on Wednefday next, » 

But, foft; what day is this? 

Par. Monday, my lord. . 

Cap. Monday? Ha! ha! well, Wednefday is too 
On Tburfday let it be : o' Tburfday, tell her, 
She (hall he married to this noble Earl. 
Wiil you be ready ? Do you like this Halle ? 

We'll keep no great a -do —-a friend or two — • 

For, hark you Tybalt being flair, fo late, 
It may be thought we held him caielefly, 
Being our kinfman, if we revel much: 
Therefore we'll have iome half a dozen friends, 
And there's an end. But what fay you to Tburfday P 
Par. My lord, I would that Tburfday were to 

Cap. Well, get you gone on Tburfday be it 

then : , 

Go you to Juliet ere you go to bed, [To lady Cap. 
Prepare her, wife, againft this wedding-day. 

Farewel, my lord light to my chamber, hoa \ 

'Fore me, it is fo very late, that we 

May call it early by and by. Good night. \ExeunK 

SCENE ¥11, 

Juliet'j Chamber looking to the Garden. 

Enter Romeo and J«liet ? above at a window ; a ladder 
of ropes fet. 

Jul. « T T Tilt thou be gone ? it is not yet near day : 
VV It was the Nightingale, and not the 
1 That pierc'd the fearful hollow of thine ear ; 
■ Nightly me lings on yon pomgranate tree: 
• Believe me, love, it was the nightingale. 

Rom. * It was the Lark, the herald of the mom, 
« No Nightingale. Look, love, what envious ftreaks 


68 Romeo and Juliet. 

* Do lace the fevering clouds in yonder eaft : 

^ Night's candles are burnt our, and jocund day 

Stands tiptoe on tne mifty mountains' tops. 
' I mull be gone and live, or ftay and die. 

. t • r Y ° n Kg 1 "* 8 "™ day-light, I know it well: 
It is fome meteor that the Sun exhales, 

* To be to thee this night a toich-bearer, 

* And light thee on thy way to Mantua ; 

* Then flay a while, thou malt not go fo foon. 

Rom. ■ Let me be ta'en, let me be put to death, 
I am content, if thou wilt have it fo. 
' Til fay, yon gray is not the morning's eye, 

* Tis but the pale reflex of Cyntbia\ brow ; 

4 Nor that is not the lark, whole notes do beat 

The vaulty heav'ns fo high above our heads. 
4 I have more care to ftay, than will to go. 

* Come death, and welcome : Juliet wills' it fo. 
4 How is'r, my Soul ? let's talk, it is not day'. 

Jul. It is, it is ; hie hence, be gone, away : 
It is the lark that fings (o out of tune, 
Straining harm difcords, and unpleafmg rtiarps. 
Some fay, tiie lark makes fweet divifion ; 
This doth not fo : for me divideth us. 
Some fay, the lark and loathed toad'change eyes; 
JO, now I woe they have chang'd voices too ! 
O now be gone, more light and light it grows. 
n Rom. More light and light ?_ More dark and dark 
our Woes. 

3 notv I would /% had changed -voices too /] The toad 
having very fine eyes, and the lark very ugly ones, was the oc- 
/ u°I l co ^fonhy\ng amongft the people, that the toad and 
lark bad changed eyes. To this the fpeaker alludes. But Aire fte 
need not have -zvij/jed that they Lad changed -voices too. The lark 

E^Jrtf 6 enough in all confcience : As appears 
by what fte And juft before, r 

It is the lark that Jags fa out of tune, 
rru- j- £ tratm "i harin difcords, and unpieafing foarps. 
Th,s direfts us to the right reading. For how natural was it for 
her after this to add, 

Some fay the lark avd loathed toad change eyes ; 

0, now I v*o~ they have changed voices too. 
7. e. the lark fmgs fo har/hly that I now perceive the toad and foe 
*ave cnanged voices as well as eyes. 


Romeo and JVliet. 69 

Enter Nurfe. 

Nurfe. Madam, 

Jul. Nurfe ? 

Nurfe. Your lady mother's coming to your 
chamber : 
The day is broke, be wary, look about. [Exit Nurfe. 
Jul. Then, Window, let Day in, and let Life out. 
Rom. Farcwel, farevvel ; one Kifs, and I'll defcend. 

[Romeo tiefcends. 
Jul. Art thou gone fo ? love ! lord ! ah husband J 
friend ! 
I muft hear from theeev'ry day in th' hour, 
For in a minute there are many days. 
O, by this count 1 mall be much in years, 
Ere I again behold my Romeo. 

Rom. Farewel : I will omit no opportunity, 
That may convey my greetings, love, to thee. 
Jul. O think'ft thou, we ftuili ever meet again ? 
Rom. I doubt it not ; and all thele woes (hall ferve 
For fweet difcourfes, in our time to come. 

Jul. O God ! I have an ill-divining foul. ■ 

Methinks, I fee thee, now thou art below, 
As one dead in the bottom of a tomb : 
Either my eye- fight fails, or thou look'ft pale. 

Rom. And trull me, love, in mine eye fo do you : 
Dry Sorrow drinks our blood. Adieu, adieu. 

[ Exit Romeo. 


Jul. O fortune, fortune, all men call thee fickle : 
If thou art fickle, what doft thou with him 
That is renown'd for faith ? be fickle, foitune: 
For then, I hope, thou wilt not keep him long, 
But fend him back. 

EnUr Lady Capulet. 

La. Cap Ho, daughter, are you up? 
Jul. Who is't, that calls ? is it my lady mother ? 
What unaccuftom'd caufe 4- procures her hither ? 

procures her hither? ] Procures, for brings. 

yo Romeo and Juliet. 

La. Cap. Why, how now, Juliet ? 

Jul. Madam, I am not well. 

La. Cap. Evermore weeping for your coufnVs death t 
What, wilt thou warn him from his Grave with tears ? 
An' if thou could'ft, thou could'ft not make him live ; 
Therefore, have done. Some Grief ftiews much of 

But much of Grief fiiews Hill fome want of Wit. 

Jul, Yet let me weep for fuch a feeling Lofs. 

La. Cap. So (hall you feel the Lofs, but not the 
Which you do weep for. 

Jul. Feeling fo the Lofs, 
I cannot chufe but ever weep the Friend. 

La. Cap. Well, girl, thou weep'ft not fo much for 
his death, 
As that the villain lives which flaughter'd him. 

Jul. What villain, Madam r 

La. Cap. That fame villain, Romeo. 

Jul. Villain and he are many miles afunder. 
God pardon him ! I do, with all my Heart : 
And, yet, No Man like He doth grieve my Heart. 

La. Cap. That is, becaufe the Traytor lives. 

Jul. I, Madam, from the Reach of thefe my 

hands : 

'Would, None but I might venge my Coufm's Death ! 
\ La. Cap. We will have Vengeance for it, fear 

Thou not: 
Then weep no more. I'll fend to one in Mantua, 
Where That fame baniuYd Runagate doth live, 
Shall give him fuch an unaccuftom'd Dram, 
That he mall foon keep Tybalt Company. 
And then, I hope, thou wilt be facisfied. 

Jul. Indeed, I never (hall be fatisfied 
With Romeo, till I behold him dead- 
Is my poor heart fd for a Kinfman vext. 
Maaam, if You could find out but a Man 
To bear a poyfon, I would temper it ; 
That Romeo mould upon receipt thereof 

Soon fleep in O, how my heart abhors 

To hear him nam'd— -~and cannot come to him-- 

Romeo and Juliet. 71 

To wreak the Love I bore my {laughter* d Coufin, 
Upon his body that hath flaughter'd him. 

La. Cap. Find Thou the Means, and I'll find fuck 
a Man. 
But now I'll tell thee joyful Tidings, Girl. 

Jul. And joy comes well in fuch a needful time. 
What are they, I befeech your ladyfhip ? 

La, Cap. Well, well, thou haft a careful father, 
One, who, to put thee from thy heavinefs, 
Hath forted out a fudden day of joy, 
That thou expecVft not, nor J look'd not for. 

Jul. Madam, in happy time, what day is this ? 

La. Cap. Marry, my child, early next Thurfday 
The gallant, young and noble Gentleman, 
The County Paris, at St. Peter's church, 
Shall happily make thee a joyful bride. 

Jul. Now, by St. Peter s church, and Peter too, 
He fhall not make me there a joyful bride. 
I wonder at this hafte, that I muft wed 
Ere he, that muft be husband, comes to wooe. 
I pray you, tell my lord and father, Madam, 
I will not marry yet : and when I do, 
It (hall be Romeo, whom you know I hate, ' 
Rather than Paris. — Thefe are news, indeed f 

La. Cap. Here comes your father, tell him fo 
your felf, 
And fee, how he will take it at your hands. 
Enter Capulet, and Nur/e. 

Cap. When the Sun fets, the Air doth drizzle 
Dew ; 
But for the Sunfet of my Brother's Son 

It rains downright.- 

How now ? a conduit, girl ? what, ftill in tears ? 
Evermore fhow'ring ? in one little body 
Thou counterfeit^ a bark, a fea, a wind ; 
For ftill thy eyes, which I may call the fea, 
Do ebb and flow with tears ; the bark thy body is, 
Sailing in this fait flood : the winds thy fighs, 
Which, raging with thy tears, and they with them, 


yi Romeo and Juliet. 

Without a fudden calm, will overfet 

Thy tempeft tofled body How now, wife ? 

Have yon deliver'd to her our decree ? 

La Cap. Ay, Sir ; but fhe will none, fhe gives yoa 
thanks : 
I would, the fool were married to her Grave ! 

Cap. Soft, take me with you, take me with you, 
How, will (he none > doth (he not give us thanks ? 
Is (he not proud, doth fhe not count her bleft, 
Unworthy as fhe is, that we have wrought 
So worth v a gentleman to be her bridegroom ? 

Jul. Not proud, you have ; but thankful, that yoa 
Proud can I never be of what I hate, 
But thankful even for hate, that is meant love. 

Cap. How now ! how now ! Chop Logick ? What 
is This ? 
Proud ! and L thank you ! and I thank you not ! 
And yet not proud ! —— Why, Miftrefs Minion, You, 
Thank me no thankings, nor proud me no prouds, 
But fettle your fine joints 'gainft Thurfday next, 
To go with Paris to Saint Peter's church : 
Or I will drag thee on a hurdle thither. 
Out, you green- ficknefs-carrion ! Out, you baggage I 
You Tallow- face! 

La, Cap. Fie, fie, what, are you mad ? 

Jul. Good father, I befeech you on my knees, 
Hear me with Patience, but to foeak a word 

Cap. Hang thee, young baggage! difobedient 
wretch ! 
I tell thee what, get thee to church o'Tburfday, 
Or never after look me in the face. 
Speak not, reply not, do not anfwer me ; 
My fingers itch. Wife, we fcarce thought us bleft, 
That God had fent us but this only child ; 
But now I fee this One is one too much, 
And that we have a Curfe in having her : 
Out on her hilding ! 

Nur/e. God in heaven blefs her ! 
You are to blame, my lord, to rate her (o. 


Romeo and Juliet. y$ 

Cap. And why, my lady Wifdom ? hold yoar 
Good Prudence, fmatter with your gofiips, go. 

Nurfe. I fpeak no treafon— -O, god-ye good -den— i 
May not one fpeak ? 

Cap. Peace, peace, you mumbling fool; 
Utter your gravity o'er a goffip's bowl, 
For here we need it not. 
• La. Cap. You are too hot. 

Cap. God's bread ! it makes me mad : day, night, 
late, early, 
At home, abroad, alone, in company, 
Waking, or fleeping, ftill my care hath been 
To have her match'd ; and having now provided 
A gentleman of noble parentage, 
Of fair demeafns, youthful, and nobly-allied, 
StufFd, as they fay, with honourable parts, 
Proportion'd as one's thought would wifn a man : 
And then to have a wretched puling fool, 
A whining mammet, in her fortune's Tender, 

Toanfwer, I'll not wed, 1 cannot love, — . -. 

I am too young, - I pray you pardon me 

But, if you will not wed, I'll pardon you : 

Graze where you will, you (hall not houfe with me ; 

Look to't, think on't, I do not ufe to jeft. 

Tburfday is near ; lay hand on heart, advife ; 

If you be mine, I'll give you to my friend : 

If you be not, hang, beg, ftarve, die i' th' itreets ; 

For, by my foul, I'll ne'er acknowledge thee, 

Nor what is mine {hall ever do thee good : 

Truft to't, bethink you, I'll not be forfworn. \JLxiti 

Jul Is there no pity fitting in the clouds, 
That fees into the bottom of my grief ? 
O, fweet my mother, call me not away, 
Delay this marriage for a month, a week ; 
Or, if you do not, make the bridal bed 
In that dim monument where Tybalt lies. 

La. Cap. Talk not to me, for I'll not fpeak a 
word : 
Do as thou wilt, for I have done with thee. [Exit. 

Vol. VIII. E l J u u 

74 Romeo and Juliet. 

Jul. O God ! O Nurfe, how (hall this be pre- 
vented ? 
My Hufband is on Earth ; my Faith in Heav'n ; 
How (hall rhat Faith return again to Earth, 
Unlefs that Hufband fend it me from Heav'n, 

jBy leaving Earth ? — Comfort me, counfel me. 

Alack, alack, that heav'n fhould pra&ife ftratagems 
Upon Fo foft a fubjeel as my ilelf ! 
What fay 'ft thou ? haft thou not a word of Joy ? 
Some Comfort, Nurfe ■ 

Nur/e. Faith, here it is : 
Romeo is banilh'd ; all the world to nothing, 
That he d^res ne'er come back to challenge you ; 
Or if he do, it needs mud be by ftealth. 
Then fmce the cafe fo ftands, as now it doth, 
I think it bed, you married with the Count. 
Oh, he's a lovely gentleman t 
Komeo's a dim-clout to him ; an eagle, Madam, 
Hath not (a) fo keen, fo quick, fo fair, an eye 
A* Paris hath. Befnrew my very heart, 
I think you happy in this fecond match, 
For it excels your firft ; or if it did not, 
Your firft is dead ; or 'twere as good he were, 
(b) As living hence, and you no uie of him. 
Jul. Speak'ft thou from thy heart ? 
Nur/e. And from my Soul too, 
Or elfe befhrcw them both. 
Jul. Amen. 
Nur/e. What? 

Jul. Well, thou haft comforted t me marvellous 
much ; 
Go in, and tell my lady I am' gone, 
Having difpleas'd my father, to Lawencf cell, 
To make confeifion, and to be abfolved. 

Nur/e. Marry, I will j and this is wifely done. 


r r a ) —~fo keen, fo quick, Oxford Editor.— —Vulg. /• green, 
fo quick.] 

f (b J Js /-vino- hence. Qxford Editor..— —Yulg. --' 

Romeo and Juliet. 75 

Jul. Ancient Damnation ! O mofl wicked Fiend ! 
Is it more fin to wifh me thus forfvvorn, 
Or to difpraife my lord with that fame tongue 
Which fhe hath prais'd him with above compare, 
So many thoufand times ? go, Counfellor,— — 
Thou and my bofom henceforth mail be twain : 
I'll to the Friar, to know his remedy : 
If all elfe fail, my felf have power to die. [Exit. 



.Enter Friar Lawrence and Paris. 

Fri, f\N Thurfday, Sir \ the time is very fhort. 

\Jr Par. My father Capulet will have it to, 
And I am nothing flow to flack his hafte. 

Fri. You fay, you do not know the lady's mind : 
Uneven in this courfe, I like it not. 

Par. Immoderately fhe weeps for Tybalt's de:..h, 
And therefore have I little talk'd of love, 
For Venus fmiles not in a houfe of tears. 
Now, Sir, her father counts it dangerous, 
That fhe mould give her forrow fo much fvvay ; 
And, in his wifdom, haftes our marriage, 
To flop the inundation of her tears ; 
Which, too much minded by herfelf alone, 
May be put from her by fociety. 
Now do you know the reafon of this hafte ? 

Fri. I would, J knew not why it fhould be flew'd. 

Look, Sir, here comes the lady towards my cell. 
Enter Juliet. 
Par. Welcome, my love, my lady and my wife ! 
Jul. That may be, Sir, when I may be a wife. 
Par. That may be, mult be, Love, on Ihurfday 

Jul. What muft be, mail be. 

E * Fri. 

j6 Romeo and Juliet. 

Fri. That's a certain text. 

Par. Come you to make Confeflion to this father * 

Jul. To anfwer That, were to confefs to you. 

Par. Do not deny to him, that you love me. 

Jul. I will confefs to you, that I love him. 

Par. So will ye, I am fure, that you love me. 

Jul. If I do fo, it will be of more price 
Eeing fpoke behind your back, than to your face. 

Par. Poor foul, thy face is much abus'd with tears. 

Jul. The tears have got fmall victory by that : 
Por it was bad enough before their fpight. 

Par. Thou wrong'ft it, more than tears, with that 

Jul. That is no (lander, Sir, which is but truth, 
And what I fpeak, I fpeak it to my face. 

Par. Thy face is mine, and thou hall flander'd it. 

Jul. It may be fo, for it is not mine own. - 
Are you at leifure, holy father, now, 
Or mall I come to you at evening mafs ? 

Fri. My leifure ferves me, penfive daughter, now. 
My lord, I muft intreat the time alone. 

Par. God ftreld, I mould difturb devotion : 
Juliet, on Thurfday early will I roufe you : 
'Till then, adieu ! and keep this holy kifs. [Exit Paris. 

Jul. Go, ftiut the door, and when thou haft done fo, 
Come weep with me, pall hope, paft cure, paft help. 

Fri. O Juliet, I already know thy grief, 
It (trains me paft the Compafs of my Wits. 
I hear, you muft, and nothing may prorogue it, 
On Tburfday next be married to this Count. 

Jul. Tell mejiot, Friar, that thouhear'ftcf this, 
Unlefs thou tell me how I may prevent it. 
If in thy wifdom thou canft give no help, 
Do thou but call my refolution wife, 
And with this knife I'll keep it prefently. 
God join'd my heart and Romeo's ; thou, our hands ; 
And ere this hand, by thee to Romeo feal'd, 
Shall be the label to another deed, 
Or my true heart with treacherous revolt 
Turn to another, this mall flay them both -, 
Therefore out of thy long-experienc'd time* 


Romeo and Juliet. 77 

Give me fome prefent counfel ; or, behold, 
'Twixt my extreams and me this bloody knife 
Shall play the umpire ; arbitrating that, 
Which the commiffion of thy years and art 
Could to no iilue of true honour bring : 
Be not fo long to fpeak ; I long to die, 
If what thou fpeak'il fpeak not of remedy. 

Fri. Hold, daughter, I do 'fpy a kind of hope, 
Which craves as defperate an execution, 
As Thatisdefp'rate which we would prevent. 
If, -rather than to marry County Pans, 
Thou haft the ftrength of will to flay thy felf, 
Then it is likely, thou wilt undertake 
A thing like death to chide away this fhame, 
That cop'ft with death himfelf, to 'fcape from it : 
And if thou dar'rt, I'll give thee remedy. 

Jul. O, bid me leap, rather than marry Parif, 
From off the battlements of yonder tower : 
5 Or chain me to fome fteepy mountain's top, 
Where roaring bears and favage lions roam ; 
Or fhut me nightly in a charnel houfe, 
O'er cover'd quite with dead men's ratling bones", 
With reeky (hanks, .and yellow chaplefs fkulls ; 
Or bid me go into a new- made Grave, 
And hide me with a dead man in his fhroud ; 
(Things, that to hear them nam'd, have made me 

tremble ;) 
And I will do it without fear or doubt, 
To live an unftain'd wife to my fweet love. 

Fri. Hold, then, go home, be merry, give confent 
To marry Paris ; Wednefday is to morrow ; 
To morrow Night, look, that thou lye alone. 
(Let not thy Nurfe lye with thee in thy chamber :) 
Take thou this vial, being then in Bed, 
And this diftilled liquor drink thou off; 
When prefently through all thy veins fhall rua 

5 Or chain me, &c.] 

Or iva/k in tbievijh zvays, or bid me lurk 
Where ferpents are, chain me with roaring bears, 
Or bide me nightly, Sec. 
It is thus the editions vary. Mr. Pope. 

E 3 A cold 

^8 Romeo and Juliet. 

A c Id and drow/ie humour, which (hall feize 

Each vital fpjrir ; for no PiJfe (hall keep 

His nat'ral progrefs. but furceafe to beat. 

No warmth; no oreath, (hall teftify thou liveft; 

The rofes in thy lips and cheeks (hall fade 

To paly dihcs ; thy eyes' windows fall, 

Like death, when he (huts up the day of life ; 

Each Part, de£fiv'd of fupple Government, 

Shall ft iff, and itark, and cold appear like Death : 

And in this borrowed likenefs of fhrunk death 

Thou (halt continue two and forty hours, 

And then awake, as from a pleafant deep. 

Now when the bridegroom in the morning comes 

To roufe thee from rhy bed, there art thou dead : 

Then, as the manner of our Country is, 

In thy beft robes uncover'd on the bier, 

Be borne to burial m thy kindred's Grave : 

Thou (halt be borne to that fame antient vault, 

Where all the kindred of the Capulets lye. 

In the meantime, againft thou (halt awake, 

Shall Romeo by my letters know our drift, 

And hither (hall he come ; and he and I 

Will watch thy Waking, and that very night 

Shall Romeo bear thee hence to Mantua j 

And This (hall free thee from this prefent Shame, 

If no unconiiant toy, nor womanifh fear, 

Abate thy valour in the acting it. 

Jul. Give me, oh give me, tell me not of fear. 

[ Taking the <viaL 

Fri. Hold, get you gone, be ftrong and profperous 
In this Reiolve ; I'll fend a Friar with fpe'ed 
To Mantua, with my letters to thy lord. 

Jul. Love, give me ilrength, and ftrength (hall help 
Farewel, dear father 1 u [Exeunt. 


Romeo and Juliet. 79 

SCENE 11. 
Changes to Capulet'j Houfe. 

Enter Capulet, Lady Capulet, Nurfe, and two or 
three Servants. 

^ a P- Q° many Guefls invite, as here are writ ; 
O Sirrah, go hire me twenty cunning cooks. 

Ser. You (hall have none ill, Sir, for I'll try if they 
can lick their ringers. 

Cap. How canft thou try them fo ? 

Ser. Marry, Sir, 'tis an ill cook that cannot lick his 
own fingers : therefore lie that cannot lick his fingers, 
gees not with me. 

Cap. Go, begone. 
We fhall be mnch unfurnifh T d for this time : 
What, is my daughter gone to Friar Lawrence* 

Nurfe. Ay, forfooth. 

Cap. Well,, he may chance to do fome good on her ; 
A peevifh felf-will'd harlotry it is. 

Enter Juliet. 

Nurfe. See, where ihe comes from Shrift with merry 

Cap. How now, my head-flrong ? where have you 
been gadding ? 

Jul. Where I have learnt me to repent the fin 
Of difobedient oppontion 
To you and your Behefts ; and am enjoin'd 
By holy Lawrence to fall proitrate here, 
And beg your pardon : Pardon, I befeech you I 
Henceforward I am ever rul'd by you. 

Cap. Send for the County, go tell him of this, 
I'll have this knot knit up to morrow morning. 

Jul. I met the youthful lord at Lawrence'' cell, 
And gave him what becoming love I might, 
Not ftepping o'er the bounds of Modeily. 

Cap. Why, I am glad on't, this is well, ftandup ; 
This is as't fhould be ; let me fee the County : 
Ay, marry, go, I fay, and fetch him hither. 

E 4 Now 

So Romeo and Juliet, 

Now, afore God, this reverend holy Friar, 
6 All our whole city is much bound to him. 

Jul. Nurfe, will you go with me into my clofet, 
To help me fort fuch needful ornaments 
As you think fit to furnifh me to morrow ? 

La. Cap. No, not 'tili Tburfday, there is time enough. 

Cap. Go, nurfe, go with her ; we'll to Church to 
morrow. [Exeunt Juliet and Nurfe. 

La. Cap. We mail be Ihort in our provifion ; 
*Tis now near night. 

Cap. Turn, 1 will ftir about, 
And ail things (hall be well, I warrant thee, wife : 
Go thou to Juliet, help to deck up her, 
I'll not to bed to night, let me alone : 
I'll play the houfewife for this once. - - What, ho I 

They are all forth j well I will walk my felf 
To County Paris, to prepare him up • 
Againft to morrow. My heart's wondrous light. 
Since this fame way-ward girl is fo reclaim'd. 

[Exeunt Capulet and lady Capulet. 


Change* to Julie Cs Chamber*. 

Enter Juliet and Nurfe. 

Jul. A Y, thofe attires are beft ; but, gentle nurfe, 
Jt\ I pray thee, leave me to my felf to night : 
For I nave need of many Orifons 
To move the heav'rs to fmile upon my State, 
Which, well thou know'lt, is crofs, and full of Sin. 
Enter lady Capulet. 

La. Cap. What, are you bufie, do you need my help ? 

Jul. No, Madam, we have cull'd fuch necefiaries 
As are behoveful for our ftate to morrow : 
So pleafe you, iet me now be left alone, 

6 All our. it-bole city is much bound to him.] For the fake of 
the grammar, I would fufpett Shakefpear wrote, 
■ ii jii muck bound to hymn. 

.'. e. praife, celebrate. 


Romeo and Juliet. Si 

And let the nurfe this night fit up with you : 
Iter, I am fure, you have your hands full all, 
Jn this fo Hidden bufinefs. • 

La. Cap. Good night, 
Get thee to bed and reft, for thou haft need. [Exeunt. 

Jul. ■ Farewel — God knows, when we (ball meet 
again ! 

* I have a faint cold fear thrills through my veins, 
« That almoft freezes up the heat of life. 

* I'll call them back again to comfort me. 

* Nurfe— what mould (he do here ? 

** My difmal fcene I needs muft aft alone : 

" Come, vial— What if this mixture do not work at all ? 

* Shall I of force be marry'd to the Count ? 

* No, no, this (hall forbid it ; lye thou there— 

[Pointing to a dagger* 

* What if it be a poifon, which the Friar 

« Subtly hath miniftred, to have me dead, 
•Left in this marriage he mould be diftionour'd, 
1 Becaufe he married me before to Romeo ? 

* I fear, it is ; and yet, methinks, it mould not, 

« For he hath (till been tried a holy man. — ■ 

* How, if, when I am laid into the tomb, 
' I wake before the time that Romeo 

' Comes to redeem me ? there's a fearful point ! 
' Shall I not then be ftifled in the vault, 

* To whofe foul mouth no healthfome air breathes in* 
1 And there be ftrangled ere my Romeo comes } 

* Or, if I live, is it not very like, 

4 The horrible conceit of death and night, 

* Together with the terror of the place, 
' (As in a vault, an ancient receptacle, 

« Where, for thefe many hundred years, the bones 

1 Of all my buried Anceftors are packt ; 

■ Where bloody Tybalt, yet but green in earth, 

' Lies feftringin his (hroud ; where, as they fay, 

* At fome hours in the night fpirits reibrt— ) 

* Alas, alas ! is it not like, that I 

' So early waking, what with loathfome fmells, 

5 And Ihrieks, like mandrakes torn out of the earth, 

E 5 • Thai 


82 Romeo and Juliet. 

* That living mortals, hearing them, run mad.' — m 
' Or, it I wake, (hall I not be diftraught, 

' Jnvironed with all thefe. hideous fears,) 

* And madly play with my fore- fathers' joints, 

* And pluck the mangled Tybalt from his (hroud? 

' And in this rage, with fome great kinfman's bone, 

* As with a club, dafh out my defp'rate brains ? 

* O look I metmnks, 1 fee my coufin's ghofl 

* Seeking out Romeo, that did fpit his Body 

* Upon a Rapier\ Point. Stay, Tybalt, ftay I 

* Romso> I come ! this do I drink to thee. 

[She throws kerf elf on the bed* 


Changes to CapuletV Halt. 

Enter Lady Capulet and Nurfe* 

la. Cap. T TOLD, take thefe keys and fetch more 
JlI fpices, nurfe. 

Nurfe. They call for dates and quinces in the paftry. 

Enter Capulet. 
Cap. Come, ftir, ftir, ftir, the fecond cock hath 
The curphew bell hath rung, 'tis three o' clock : 
Look to the bak'd Meats, gocd Angelica. 
Spare not for coll. 

Nurfe. Go, go, you cot-quean, go : 
Gei - you to bed ; faith, you'll be fick to morrow, 
For this night's watching. 

Cap No, not a whit : what, I have watch'd ere now 
All night for a lefs caufe, and ne'er been fick. 

La. ■ ap Ay, you have been a moufe-hunt in your 
But I will watch you, from fuch watching, now. 

[Exeunt Lady Capulet and Nurfs.. 

Cap. A jealous-hood, a jealous-hood 

JNfow, fellow, what's there ? 

Enter three or four nvitbfpits, and logs, and bafkets. 
Sir. Things ior the cook, Sir, but I know not what. 1 

9 a fr 

Romeo and Juliet. 83 

Cap. Make hade, make hafte ; Sirrah, fetch drier 
Call Peter, he will (hew thee where they are. 

Ser. I have a head, Sir, that will find oat logs, 
And never trouble Peter for the matter. 

Cap. 'Mafs, and well faid, a merry horfon, ha! 
Thou fhalt be logger-head.— good faith, 'tis day. 

[Play mufick* 
The, County will be here with mufick ftraight, 
For fo, he faid, he would. I hear him near. 
Nurfe, — wife,— what, ho ! what, nurfe, J fay ? 

Enter Nurfe. 
Go, waken Juliet, go and trim her up, 
I'D go and chat with Paris : hie, make hafte, 
Make hafte, the Bride-groom he is come already ; 
Make haite, I fay. . 

[Exeunt Capulet and Nurfe, federally* 


Changes to Juliet'/ Chamber, Juliet on a bed. 
Re-enter Nurfe, 
Nurfe. It /Tlftrefs,— what, . miftrefs ! Juliet— Faft, I 
IV JL warrant her, 

Why, Iamb— why, lady — Fie, you flug-a-bed • 

Why, love, I fay Madam, fvveet- heart why, 

What, not a word ! you take your penny worths now 5 
Sleep for a week ; for the next night, I warrant, 
The County Paris hath fet up his Reft, 
That you (hall reft but little — - God forgive me 

Marry, and amen ! — — How ibund is (he afleep I 

I muft needs wake her : Madam, madam, madam, 
Ay, let the County take you in your bed - 

He'll fright you up, i' faith. Will it not be ? 
What dreft, and in your cloaths— and down again }: 
I muft needs wake yea : Lady, lady, lady _— 
Alas ! alas ! help ! help ! my lady's dead, 
O v/ell-a-day, that ever I was born ! 
Some dquavittf, ho ! my loxd, my lady \ 


84- Romeo and Juliet. 

Enter Lady Capulct. 
La. Cap. What noife is here ? 
Nur/e. O lamentable day ! 
La. Cap. What's the matter ? 

Nur/e. Look, oh heavy day ! 

La. Cap. Oh me, oh me, my child, my only life !" 
Revive, look up, or I wiil die with thee ; 
Help, help ! call help. 

Enter Capulet. 
Cap. For fhame, bring Juliet forth ; her lord is, 

Nur/e. She's dead, deceased, fhe's dead : alack the 
day ! 

Cap. Ha I let me fee her Out, alas ! (he's cold j 

Her blood is fettled, and her joints are ftiff: 
Life and thefe lips have long been feparated : 
Death lies on her, like an untimely frofl 
Upon the fweeteft fiow'r of all the field. 
Accurfed time ! unfortunate old man ! 
Nur/e. O lamentable day ! 
La. Cap. O woful Time I 

Cap. Death, that hath ta'en her hence to make me 
Tyes up my tongue, and will not let me fpeak. 

Enter Friar Lawrence, and Paris *y?7£ Muficians* 

Fri. Come, is the bride ready to go to church I 

Cap. Ready to go, but never to return. 
O fon, the night before thy wedding-day 
Hath Death lain with thy wife : fee, there (he lies, 
Flower as {he was, deflowerM now by him : 
Death is my fon-in-law. « 

Par. Have 1 thought long to fee this morning's face^ 
And doth it give me fuch a fight as this ! 

La Cap. Accurs'd, unhappy, wretched, hateful day ! 
Moil miferable hour, that Time e'er faw 
In lailing labour of his pilgrimage! 
But one, poor one, one poor and loving child. 
But one thing to rejoice and folace in, 
^.nd cruel dea;h hath catch'd it from my fight. 


Romeo and Juliet. 85 

Nurfe. 7, O woe ! oh woful, woful, woful day ! 
Molt lamentable day ! moft woful day I 
That ever, ever, I did yet behold. 
Oh day ! oh day ! oh day ! oh hateful day X 
Never was feen lb black a day as this : 
Oh woful day, oh woful day ! 

Par. Beguil'd, divorced, wronged, fpighted, flam, 
Mcftdeteftable Death, by Thee beguil'd, 

By cruel, cruel Thee quite over-thrown :- 

O Love, O Life, not Life, but Love in Death! — — 

Cap. Defpis'd, diftrefled, hated, martyr'd, kili'd. 
Uncomfortable Time ! why cam'it thou now 
To murther, murther our Solemnity ? 
O Child ! O Child ! My Soul, and not my Child f 
Dead art Thou ! dead ; alack ! my Child is dead ; 
And, with my Child, my Joys are buried. 

Fri. Peace, ho, for Shame ! Confunon's Cure lives 
In thefe Confufions : Heaven and Your felf 
Had Part in this fair Maid ; now Heav'n hath All ; 
And all the better is it for the Maid. 
Your Part in her you could not keep from Death;, 
But Heav'n keeps his Part in eternal Life. 
The moft, you fought, was her Promotion ; 
For 'twas your Heaven, {he mould be advanced : 
And weep you now, feeing me is advanc'd, 
Above the Clouds, as high as Heav'n himfelf ? 
Oh, in this Love you love your Child fo ill, 
That you run mad, feeing, that (he is well. 
She's not well married, that lives married long; 
But ihe's beft married, that dyes married young. 
Dry up your Tears, and ftick your Rofemary 
On ihis fairCoarfe j" and, as theCuftom is,_ 
And in her befl Array, bear her to Church. 
For tho' fome Nature bids us all lament, 
Yet Nature's tears are Reafon's Merriment. 

7 ivoe ! ob woful, Sec] This fpeech of exclamations ii not 
in the edition above cited. Several other parts, unneceiTary or 
^otology, are not to be found in the faid edition j which occafiona 

th« variation, in this from the common, books, Mr. Pop^ 


86 Romeo and Juliet. 

Cap. All things, that we ordained feftival, 
Turn from their Office to black Funeral ; 
Our Instruments to melancholy Bells, 
Our wedding Chear to a fad Funeral Feafl; 
Our folemn Hymns to fullen Dirges change, 
Our bridal Flow'rs ferve for a buried Coarfe ; 
And all things change them to the contrary. 

Fri. Sir, go you in, and, Madam, go with him | 
And go, Sir Paris; every one prepare 
To follow this fair Coarfe unto her Grave. 
The Heavens do lowr upon you. for feme II! ; 
Move them no more, by crofllng their high Will. 

[Exeunt Capulet, Lady Capulet, Paris, and Friar. 

Manent Mufcians, and Nurfe. 

Muf. Faith, we may put up our pipes and be gone, 
Nurfe. Honeft good fellows : ah, put up, put up; 
For, well you know, this is a pitiful cafe. 

[Exit Nurfe. 
Muf. Ay, by my troth, the cafe may be amended. 

Enter Peter. 
Pet. Muficians, oh mufkiar.s, heart's eafe ; hearfs 
eafe : 
Oh, an you will have me live, play heart's eafe, 
Muf Why, heart's eafe? 

Pet. O muficians, , becaufe my heart it felf plays,. 
my hart it felf is full of woe. O, play me fome merry 
dump, to comfort me ! 

Muf. Not a dump we, 'tis no time to play now. 
Pet. You will not then ? 
Muf No. 

Pet. I will then give it you foundly. 
Muf What will you give us ? 
Pet. No money, on* my faith, butthegleek: I will 
give you the Minftrell. 

Muf. Then will 1 give you the Ferving Creature. 
Pet. Then will I lay the Serving Creature's Dagger 
on your Pate. I will carry no Crotchets. I'll re you, 
I'll/a you, do you note me f 

Romeo and Juliet. 8* 

Muf An you re us, and/aus, you note us. 

2 Ma/~. Pray you, put up your dagger, and put out 
your wit. 

Pet. Then have at you with my wit : I will dry^beat 
you with an iron Wit, and put up my iron dagger :— - 
anfwer me like men : 
When griping g>ief the heart doth wound, 

Then mufick with her filler found 

Why, fd<ver found ? why, mujick with her fiver found ?' 
What fay you, Simon Catling ? 

Muf Marry, Sir, becaufe filver hath a Tweet found. 

Pet. Pretty ! what fay you, Hugh Rebeck? 

2 Muf I fay, filver found, becaufe muficians found 
for filver. 

Pet. Pretty too! what fay you, Samuel Sound- 
board ? 

3 Muf Faith, I know not what to fay. 

Pet. O, I cry you mercy, you are the linger, I will 
fay for you. It is mufick with her filver found, be- 
caufe fuch fellows, a3 you, have no gold for founding. 

The Mufick with her fil<ver found 

Doth lend redrefs. {Exit Jtnging, 

Muf. What a peftilent knave is this fame ? 

2 Muf Hang him, Jack; come, we'll in here, tarry 
for the mourners, and ftay dinner. {Exeunt. 

A C T V. S C E N E L 



Enter Romeo. 
• I may truft the flattering ruth of fleep, 
My dreams prefage fome joyful news at hand r 


I If I may truft tbe flattering Truth of fleep,] This man was 
of an odd composition to be able to make it a queftion, whether 
he fliould believe what he confefl'ed to be true. Tho' if he thought 
Truth capable of Flattery, he might indeed fuppofe her to be 
turnM apoftate. But none of this aonienfe cams from Sbakcfpear. 
He wrote, Jr 


88 Romeo and Juliet.. 

My bofom's Lord fits lightly on his Throne, 
And, all this day, an unaccuftom'd fpirit 
Lifts me above the ground with chearful thoughts,. 
L dreamt, my lady came and found me dead, 
(Strange dream ! that gives a dead man leave to think)' 
And breath'd. fuch life with kifles in my lips, 
That I reviv'd, and was an Emperor. 
Ah me! how fweet is love it felf pofleft, 
When but lovers fhadows are fo rich in joy ? 
Enter Balthafar. 

News from Verona- How now, Balthafar? 

Dod thou not bring me letters from the Friar ? 
How doth my lady ? is my father well ? 
How doth my Juliet ? That I afk again j 

For nothing can be ill, if fhe be well. 

Baltb. Then (he is well, and nothing can be ill ; 

Her body fleeps in Capulet's monument, 

And her immortal part with angels lives : 

I faw her laid low in her kindred's vault, . 

And prefently took poll to tell it you : 

O pardon me for bringing thefe ill news, 

Since you did leave it for my Office, Sir. 
Rom. Is it even fo ? then I defy you, Stars ! 

Thou know'ft my lodging, get me ink and paper, 

And hire poft-horfes. I will hence to night. 

Balib. Pardon me, Sir, I dare not leave you thus* 

Your looks are pale and wild, and do import 

Some mifadventure. 

If I may trujl the flattering Ruth of fleep, 
i. e. Pity. The companionate advertisement of fleep. This was a 
reasonable queftion ; and the epithet given to Ruth fuits its nature. 
But/ above all, the character which the poet always gives us of 
Sleep is here well defcribed in this reading j that it is pitiful, corn- 
pa iljonatc, the 

Balm of hurt minds, great Nature's fecond courfe, 

Chief nourijher.of life^sflea/i.— 

But becaufe I had corrected it, 

' the flattering Ruth of fleep, 

the Oxford Editor would be even with me, and reads it, 

-•- the flattery of fleep , 
And he has done it. For tho' a reafonable man might make it a 
queftion whether he ihould believe a compaiTionate advertifementj 

rat who would heiitate whether he Jhould believe a flatterer, 


Romeo and Juliet. §9 

Rom. Tuft, thou art deceiv'd ; 
Leave me, and do the thing I bid thee do i 
Haft thou no letters to me from the Friar r 

Baltb. No, my good lord. 

Rom. No matter : get thee gone, 
And hire ftofctofe. m bewuh thee ftra.ght. ^_ 

Well, Juliet, I will lye with thee to night; 
I et's fee for means— O mifchief ! thou art iwifi 
To enter in the thought of defperate men L 
« I do remember an Apothecary, 
« And hereabouts he dwells, whom late I noted 
« In tatter'd weeds, with overwhelming brows, 
< Culling of fimples j meager were his looks i 

* Sharp mifery had worn him to the bones: 
■ And in his needy (hop a tortoife hung, 

* An alligator ftuft, and other (kins 

* Of ill-map 1 d fifties; and about his (helves 

* * A beggarly account of empty boxes ; 

« Green earthen pots, bladders, and mufty feeds 
- Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of role* 

* Were thinly fcatter'd to make up a (how. 
Noting this penury, to my felf, I faid, 
An if a man did need a poifon now, 
Whjofe faie is prefent death in Mantua, 
Here lives a caitiff wretch would fell it him. 

Oh, this fame thought did but fore-run my need, 
And this lame needy man mull fell it me. 
As I remember, this mould be the houfe. 
Being holy day, the beggar's (hop is (hut : 
What, ho! apothecary! 

a A beggarly account of empty boxes ;.] Tho' the boxes were 
empty, yet their titles, or the accounts of their contents, it hkethoic 
in the mops of other apothecaries, we may be Cure, were magnificent 
enough. I fufpeft therefore that Sbahefpear wrote, 

^braggartly account cf empty boxes ; 
Which, is fomewhat confirmed by the reading of the old -Quarto 

of 1597 j 

ivhofe needy floop is ftufft 

With beggarly accounts of emptie boxes ; 

Not but account may fignify number as well as contents } if the firit, 

the common reading is right. 


go Romeo and Juliet. 

Enter apothecary. 

Jp. Who calls fo loud ? 

Rom. Come hither, man; I fee, that thou art poor j 
Hold, there is forty ducats : let me have 
A dram of poifon, fuch foon-fpeeding geer, 
As will difperfe it felf thro* all the veins, 
That the life-weary Taker may fall dead ; 
And chat the Trunk may be difcharg'd of breath, 
As violently as hafty powder hVd 
Doth hurry from the fatal cannon's womb. 

Jp. Such mortal drugs I have, but Mantua's law 
Is death to any he that utters them. 

Rom. * Artthou (o bare and full of wretchednefs, 
« And fear'ft to die ? famine is in thy cheeks j 
' Need and oppreffion flare within thine eyes, 

* Contempt and beggary hang upon thy back : 

■ The world is not thy friend, nor the world's law 5 
« The world affords no law to make thee rich, 

• Then be not poor, but break it and take this. 
Ap. My poverty, but not my will, confents. 
Rem. I pay thy poverty, and not thy will. 
At. Put this in any liquid thing you will, 

And drink it off, and if you had the ftrength 
Of twenty men, it would difpatch you ftraight. 

Rom. There is thy gold ; .vvorfe .poifon to men's fouls, 
Doing more murthers in this loathfome world, 
Than thefe poor compounds that thou may'ft not feil : 

I fell thee poifon, thou haft fold me none..- =- 

Farevvel, buy food, and get thee into flefh. 
Come, cordial, and net poifon; go with me 
To Juliet's grave, for there muft I ufe thee. 


S C E N E If. 


Changes to the Monafiery at Verona. 

Enter Friar John. 
O L Y Fra?icifcan Friar ! brother ! ho f 

Enter Friar Lawrence to him. 
Law)* This fame mould be the voice of Friar John.*-* 
Welcome from Mantua ; what fays Romeo? 


Romeo and Juliet. 91 

Or, if his mind be writ, give me his letter. 

John. Going to find a bare-foot brother out, 
One of our Order, to afibciate me, 
Here in this city vifiting the fick ; 
And finding him, the Searchers of the town, 
Sui peeling that we both were in a houfe 
Where the infectious peftiience did reign, 
Seal'd up the doors, and would not let us forth ; 
So that my fpeed to Mantua there was (laid. 

Law Who bore my letter then to Romeo ? 

John. I could not fend it ,- here it is again ; 
Nor get a MeiTenger to bring it thee, 
So fearful were they of infe&ion. 

Law. Unhappy fortune ! by my Brotherhood, 
3 The letter was not nice, but full of charge 
Of dear import; and the neglecting it 
May do much danger. Friar John, go hence, 
Get me an iron Crow, and bring it ftraight 
Unco my cell, 

John. Brother, I'll go and bring it thee. [2?a?V. 

Law. Now muft I to the Monument alone ; 
Within thefe three hours will fair Juliet wake ; 
She will befhrew me much, that Romeo 
Hath had no notice of thefe accidents : 
But I will write again to Mantua, 
And keep her at my cell 'till Romeo come. 
Poor living coarfe, clos'd in a dead man's tomb f 



Changes to a Church-yard : In it, a Monument beleng<- 
ing to the Capulets. 

Enter Paris, and his Page, with a light. 

Par. f~^ I V E me thy torch, boy ; hence and fland 

VJT aloof. 
Yet put it out, for I would not be feen : 
Under yond yew-trees lay thee all along, 

3 Tbe Utter was not nice,— — Nice, for of trifling import. 


92 Romeo and Juliet. 

Laying thy ear clofe to the hollow ground ; 
So fhall no foot upon the church-yard tread, 
(Being loofe, .unfirm, with digging up of Graves) 
But thou (halt hear it : whittle then to me, 
As Jignal that thou hear'ft fomething approach. 
Give me thofe flow'rs. Do as I bid thee ; go. 

Page. I am almofl afraid to fland alone 
Here in the church-yard, yet I will adventure. [Exit. 

Par. Sweet flow'r ! with flow'rs thy bridal bed I • 
drew : [Strewing flowers. 

* Fair Juliet, that with angels doll remain, 
Accept this lateft favour at my hand j 
That living honour'd thee, and, being dead, 
With fun'ral obfequies adorn thy tomb. 

{The hoy whifiles. 
- The boy gives warning, fomething doth ap- 
proach ; 

What curfed foot wanders this way to night, 
To crofs my Obfequies, and true love's rite ? 
Wijat ! with a torch ? muffle me, night, a while.. 


Eater Romeo and Balthafar with a light. 

Rom. Give me that mattock, and the wrenching 
Hold, take this letter, early in the morning 
See thou deliver it to my lord and father. 
Give me the light ; upon thy life, I charge thee, 
Whate'er thou hear ft or feed, Hand all aloof, 
And do not interrupt me in my couife. 
Why I defcend into this bed of death, 
Is partly to behold my lady's face : 
But chiefly to take thence from her dead finger 
A precious ring, a ring that I mull ufe 
In dear employment ; therefore, hence, be gone : 
But if thou, jealous. do(l return to pry 
In what I further (hall intend to do, 

4 Fair Juliet, that with angeh &c. Thefe four lines from the 
•Id edition. Mr Pope. 


Romeo and Juliet. 93 

By heaven, I will tear thee joint by joint, 

And ftrew this hungry church-yard with thy limbs; 

The time and my intents are favage, wild, 

More fierce and more inexorable far 

Than empty tygers, or the roaring Tea. 

Balth. I will begone, Sir, and not trouble you. 

Rom. So (halt thou fhew me Friendship. Take 

thou that ; 
Live and be profp'rous, and farewel, good fellow. 
Balth. For all this fame, I'll hide me hereabout ; 
His looks I fear, and his intents I doubt. [Exit Balth. 

Rom. Thou deteftable maw, thou womb of death, 
<5org'd with the deareft morfel of the earth, 
Thus I enforce thy rotten jaws to open, 

[Breaking open the Monument* 
And in defpight I'll cram thee with more food.. 
Par. This is that banifht haughty Montague, 
That murther'd my love's coufin ; (with which grief, 
It is fuppofed, the fair Creature dy'd,) 
And here is come to do fome villanous fhame 
To the dead bodies : I will apprehend him. 
Stop thy unhallow'd toil, vile Montague : 
Can vengeance be purfu'd further than death ? 
Condemned villain, I do apprehend thee j 
•Obey, and go with me, for thou muft die. 
. Rom. I muft, indeed, and therefore came I hither.— 
Good gentle youth, tempt not a deip'rate man ; 
Fly hence and leave me : think upon thefegone, 
Let them affright thee. I befeech thee, youth, 
Pull not another fin upon my head, 
By urging me to fury. Oh be gone ! 
By heav'n, I love thee better than my felf; 
For I come hither arm'd againft my felf. 
Stay not, be gone ; live, and hereafter fay, 
A madman's Mercy bade thee run away. 

Par. I do defie thy commiferation, 
And apprehend thee for a felon here. 

Rom. Wilt thou provoke me ? then have at thee, 

boy. [They fight, Paris falls. 

Page. Oh lord, they fight! I will go call the 



94 Romeo and Juliet. 

Par. Oh, I am flain; if thou be merciful, 
Open the tomb, lay me with Juliet. [/) 

Rom. In faith, I will : let meperufethis face— — 
Murcutio's kinfman I Noble County Paris! 
What faid my man, when my betcffed foul 
Did not attend him as we rode ? I think, 
He told me, Paris mould have married Juliet, 
Said he not fo ? or did I dream it fo ? 
Or am I mad, hearing him talk of Juliet, 
To think it was fo ? Oh give me thy hand, 
One writ with me in four Misfortune's book, 
I'll bury thee in a triumphant Grave. 
A Grave? O no; a Lanthorn, ilaughter'd Youth; 
For here lyes Juliet ; and her beauty makes 
This vault a feafting Prefence full of Light. 
Death, lye tijcu there, by a dead man interr'd :• 
[Laying Paris in the Monument. 
How oft, when Men are at the point of Death, 
Have they been merry ? which their Keepers call 

A Lightning before death. O, how may I 

Call this a Lightning ! O my love, my wife ! 

Death, that hath fuc-u the honev of thy breath, 
Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty : 
Thou art not conque.'d ; beauty's enfign yet 
Is crimfon in tny lips, and in thy cheeks, 
And death's pale flag is not advanced there. 
Tybalt, ly'ft thou there in thy bloody meet ? 
Oh, what more favour can I do to chee 
Than with that hand, that cu*- thy youth in twain, 
To funder his, that was thy enemy ? 

Forgive me, coufin,— — Ah dear Juliet, 

Why art thou yet fo fair ? fhall I believe 

That unfubftantial death is amorous, 

And that the lean abhorred monfter keeps 

Thee here in dark, to be his paramour? 

For fear of ihat, J ftill will ihy with thee; 

And never from this Palace of dim night 

Depart again : Here, here will I remain, 

With worms that are thy chamber-maids ; oh here 

W T lil I let up my everlafting Rett ; 

And make the yoke of inaufpicious ftars 


Romeo and Juliet. 95 

From this world- weary' d fleOi. Eyes, look your laft ! 
Arms, take your laft embrace ! and lips, oh you 
The doors of breath, feal with a righteous kils 
A datelefs bargain to engrofTmg death ! 
Come, bitter conduct ! come, unfav'ry guide ! 
Thon defp'rate pilot, now at once run on 
The darning r< :ks my fea-fick, weary, bark: 
Here's to my love ! oh, .rue apothecary ! 

[Drinks the poifon. 
Thy drugs are qukk. Thus with a k:is I die. [Dies. 
Enter' Friar Lawrence ninth lantborn, trono, and 
Fri. St. Francis be my ipeeci ! haw oft to night 
Have my ofd feQt Humbled at graves ? who's there ! 
Enter Balthafar. 
Bat. Here's one, a frisnd, and one that knows 

you well. 
Fri. Blifs be upon ycu ! Tell me, good my friend, 
Whar torch is yond, that vainly lends his iighc 
To grubs and eyelefs fcuils ? as I difcern, 
It burneth in the Capulets Monument. 

Balth It ao-.h lb, holy Sir, 
And there's my mailer, one you dearly love. 
Fri. W no is it ? 
Balth. Romeo. 

Fri How long hath he been there ? 
Balth. Full half an hour. 
Fri. Go with me to the vault. 
Balth. I dare not, Sir. 
My matter koows not, but I am gone hence ; 
And fearfully did menace me with death, 
If I did ttay to look on his intents. 

Fri. Stay then, I'll go alone; fear comes upon me ; 
O, much I fear fome iO unlucky thing. 

Balth. As I did fleep under this yew-tree here, 
I dreamt my mailer and another fought, 
And tha: my mailer flew him. 

Fri. Romeo! 
Alack, I ick, what blood is this, which flams 
The ftony entrance of this fepulchre ? 
What iuean theie maiteriefs and goary fwords, 


gG Romeo and Juliet. 

To lye difcolour'd by this place of peace ? 
Romeo I oh pale ! who elfe ? what, farts too ? 
And fteep'd in blood ? ah, what an unkind hour 
Is guilty of this lamentable chance ? 
The lady ftirs. 

Jul. [anuakingJ] Oh comfortable Friar, where is 
my lord ? 
I do remember well, where I fhould be ; 
And there I am ; but where is Romeo ? 

Fri. I hear fome noife ! Lady, come from that neft 
Of death, contagion, and unnatural fleep ; 
A greater Power, than we can contradict, 
Hath thwarted our intents ; come, come away ; 
Thy husband in thy T>ofom there lyes dead„ 

And Paris too Come, I'll difpofe of thee 

Amongft a fifterhood of holy Nuns: 

Stay not to queftion, for the Watch is coming. 

Come, go, good Juliet ; I dare no longer itay. [Exit, 

Jul Go, get thee hence, for I will not away. 
What's here ? a cup, closed in my true love's hand ? 
Poifon, I fee, hath been his timelefs end. 
Oh churl, drink all, and leave no friendly drop 
To help me after ? I will kifs thy lips ; 
Haply fome poifon yet doth hang on them ; 
To make me die with a Reftorative. 
Thy lips are warm. 

Enter Boy and Watch, 

Watch. Lead, boy, which way ? 

Jul. Yea, noife ? 
Then I'll be brief. O happy dagger ? 

[Finding a dagger. 
This is thy fheath, there ruft and let roe die. 

[Kills herfelf. 

Boy. This is the place; there, where the torch doth 

Watch. The ground is bloody. Search about the 
church-yard ; 
Go, fome of you, whom e'er you find, attach. 
Pitiful fight ! here lies the County flain, 
And Juliet bleeding, warm, and newly dead, 
Who here hath lain thefe two days buried. 


Romeo and Juliet. 97 

Go, tell the Prince, run to the Capulets, 
Raife up the Montagues ; Some others, fearch ■ 

We fee the Ground whereon thefe Woes do lye : 
But the true ground of all thefe piteous Woes 
We cannot without Circumftance defcry. 

Enter fome of the Watch, with Balthafar. 

2 Watch. Here's Romeo's man, we found him in the 

1 Watch. Hold him in fafety, 'till the Prince comes 

Enter another Watchman with Friar Lawrence. 

3 Watch. Here is a Friar that trembles, fighs and 

weeps : 
We took this mattock and this fpade from him, 
As he was coming from this church-yard fide. 
1 Watch. A great fufpicion : ftay the Friar too. 


Enter the Prince, and attendants. 

Prince. What mifadventure is fo early up, 
That calls our perfon from our morning's Reft ? 

Enter Capulet and lady Capulet. 

Cap. What mould it be, that they fo fhriek abroad r 

La. Cap. The people in the ftreet cry, Romeo ; 
Some, Juliet ; and forne, Paris ; and all run 
With open out-cry tow'rd our Monument. 

Prince. What fear is this, which ftartles in your 
ears ? 

Watch. Sovereign, here lyes the County Paris flain, 
And Romeo dead, and 'Juliet (dead before) 
Warm and new kill'd. 

Prince. Search, feek, and know, how this foul mur- 
ther comes. 

Watch. Here is a Friar, and fiaughter'd Romeo's 
With instruments upon them, fit to open 
Thefe dead men's tombs. 

Vol. VIII. F Cap. 

g8 Romeo and Juliet. 

Cap. Oh, heav'n ! oh, wife ! look how our daughter 
bleeds ! 
This dagger hath mifta'en ; for, loe ! the iheath 
Lies empty on the back of Montague, 
The point mif fheathed in my daughter's bofom. 

La. Cap. Oh me, this fight of death is as a bell, 
TJiat warns my old age to a fepulchre. 
Enter Montague. 

Prince. Come, Montague, for thou art early up, 
To fee thy fon and heir now early down. 

Mon. Alas, my liege, my wife is dead to night ; 
Grief of my fon's exile hath ftopt her breath ; 
What further woe confpires againft my age ? 

Prince. Look, and thou (halt fee. 

Mon. Oh, thou untaught ! what manners is in this, 
To prefs before thy father to a Grave ? 

Prince. Seal up the mouth of outrage for a while, 
fTill we can clear thefe ambiguities, 
And know their fpring, their head, their true defcent ; 
And then will I be General of your woes, 
And lead you ev'n to Death. Mean time forbear, 
And let mifchance be flave to patience. 
Bring forth the parties of fufpicion. 

Fri. I am the greateft, able, to do leaft, 
Yetmoft fufpecled ; as the time and place 
Doth make againft me, of this direful murther ; 
And here I ftand both to impeach and purge 
My fe]£ condemned, and my felf excus'd. 

Prince. Then fay at once what thou doft know in 

Fri. I will be brief, for my fhort date of breath 
Is not fo long as is a tedious tale. 
Romeo, there dead, was hufband to that Juliet % 
And fhe, there dead, that Romeo's faithful wife : 
I married them j and their ftoln marriage-day 
Was Tybalfs dooms-day, whofe untimely death 
BaniuYd iht new-mnde bridegroom from this city ; 
For whom, and not for Tybak, Juliet pin'd. 
You, to remove thatfiege of grief from her, 
Betroth'd, and would have married her perforce 
To Countr Paris. Then comes fhe to me, 

J AnJ, 

Romeo and Juliet. $f 

And, with wild looks, bid me devife fome means 

To rid her from this fecond marriage ; 

Or, in my Cell, there would (he kill herfelf. 

Then gave I her (fo tutor' d by my art) 

A fleeping potion, which fo took effect 

As I intended ; for it wrought on her 

The form of death. Mean time I writ^to Romee, 

That he mould hither come, as this dire night, 

To help to take her from her borrowed Grave j 

Being the time the potion's force mould ceafe. 

But he which bore my letter, Friar John, 

Was ftaid by accident ; and yefternight 

Return'd my letter back ; then all alone, 

At the prefixed hour of her awaking, 

Came I to take her from her kindred's Vault : 

Meaning to keep her clofely at my Cell, 

'Till I conveniently could fend to Romeo. 

But when I came, (fome minute ere the time 

Of her awaking) here untimely lay 

The noble Paris, and true Romeo dead. 

She wakes, and I intreated her come forth, 

And bear this work of heav'n with patience : 

But then a noife did fcare me from the tomb, 

And fhe, too defp'rate, would not go with me : 

But, as it feems, did violence on herfelf. 

All this I know, and to the marriage 

Her nurfe is privy j but if aught in this 

Mifcarried by my fault, let my old life 

Be facrific'd, fome hour before the time, 

Unto the rigour of kvercH law. 

Prince. We ftill have known thee for an holy maa, 
Where's Romeo's man ? what can he fay to this ? 

Baltb. I brought my matter news of Julief% death, 
And then in poft he came from Mantua 
To this fame place, to this fame Monument. 
This letter he early bid me give his father, 
And threatned me with death, going to the Vault, 
If I departed not, and left him there. 

Prince. Give me the letter, I will look on it. 
Where is the County's page, that rais'd the Watch f 
Sirrah, what made your matter in this place ? 

JF 2 Pagr % 

Joo Romeo and Juliet. 

Page. He came with flowers to ftrewhis lady's Grave, 
And bid me ftand aloof, and fo I did : 
Anon comes one with light to ope the tomb, 
And, by and by, my matter drew on him ; 
And then I ran away to call the Watch. 

Prince. This letter doth make good the Friar's words, 
Their courfe of love, the tidings of her death : 
And here he writes, that he did buy a poifon 
Of a poor 'pothecary, and therewithal 
Came to this vault to die, and lye with Juliet. 
Where be thefe enemies ? Capulet f Montague/ 
See, what a fcourge is laid upon your hate, 
That heav'n finds means to kill your joys with love ! 
And I, for winking at your difcords too, 
Have loft a brace of kinfmen : all are punifh'd ! 

Cap. O brother Montague, give me thy hand, 
This is my daughter's jointure ; for no more 
Can I demand. 

Mon. But I can give thee more, 
For I will raife her Statue in pure gold ; 
That, while Verona by that name is known, 
There (hall no that rate be fet, 
As that of true and faithful Juliet. 

Cap. As rich fhall Romeo's by his lady lye ; 
Poor facrifices of our enmity ! 

Prince. A gloomy Peace this morning with it 
The Sun for Sorrow will not Ihew his head ; 
Go hence to have more talk of thefe fad things ; 
Some fhall be pardon'd, and fbrne punifhed. 
For never was a ftory of more woe, 
Than this of Juliet, and her Romeo. [Exeunt omtuu 



Prince of Denmark. 


Dramatis Perfonse. 

CLAUDIUS, King of Denmark. 

Fortinbras, Prince of Norway. 

Hamlet, Son to the former, and Nephew to theprefent, 


Polonius, Lord Chamberlain* 

Horatio, Friend to Hamlet. 

Laertes, Son to Polonius. 

Vokirr.and, "1 

Cornelius, I n 

-an > Courtiers, 

Rofmcrantz, f 

Guildenftern, J 

Ofrick, a Fop. 

Marcellus, an Officer. 

Bernardo, 1 ■ c , ,. 
D ~Jui t two bo Idier s, 

Francsico, 5 

Reynoldo, Servant to Polonius. 

Ghof of Hamlet*; Father. 

Gertrude, Queen of Denmark, and Mother to Hamlet. 
Ophelia, Daughter to Polonius, below d by Hamlet. 
Ladies attending on the Queen. 

Players, Grave makers, Sailors, Mejengers, and other 


The Story taken from Saxo Grammaticus*/ Danifh 


[ I0 3 3 

H A M L E T, 

Prince of Denmark. 


A Platform before the Palace. 

Enter Bernardo and Francifco, two Ctntinels* 


WHO's there ? 
Fran, Nay, anfwer me : Hand, and unfold 
your felf. 
Ber. Long live the King ! 
Fran. Bernardo ? 
Ber. He. 

Fran. You come mod carefully upon your hour. 
Ber, 'Tis now ftruck twelve ; get thee to bed, 

Fran. For this relief, much thanks : 'tis bitter cold, 
And I am fick at heart. 

Ber. Have you had quiet Guard ? 
Fran. Not a moufe flirring. 
Ber. Well, good night. 
If you do meet Horatio and Marcellus, 
* The rivals of my Watch, bid them make hafte. 

I The rivals of my Watch,— -\ Rivals, for partners, 

F 4. Enfr 

104 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Enter Horatio WMarcellus. 

Fran. I think, I hear them. Stand, ho ! who is 
there ? 

Hor. Friends to this ground. 

Mar. And liege-men to the Dane. 

Fran. Give you good night. 

Mar. Oh, farewel, honefl foldier ; who hath re- 
lie v'd you ? 

Fran. Bernardo has my place : give you good night* 

[Exit Francifco. 

Mar. Holla ! Bernardo," . 

Ber. Say, what, is Horatio there ? 

2 Her. A piece of him. [Giving his hand. 

Ber. Welcome, Horatio, welcome, good Marcel/us. 

Mar. What, has this thing appear'd again to night ? 

Ber. I have feen nothing. 

Mar. Horatio fays, 'tis but our phantafie ; 
And will not let belief take hold of him, 
3 Touching this dreaded fight, twice feen of us ; 
Therefore I have intreated him along 
With us, to watch the minutes of this night ; 
That if again this apparition come, 
.lie may approve our eyes, and fpeak to it. 

Hor. Tufh ! tufh f 'twill not appear. 

Ber. Sit down a while, 
And let us once again affail your ears, 
That are fo fortified againfl our ftory, 
What we have two nights feen. 

Hor. Well, fit we down, 
And let us hear Bernardo fpeak of this. 

Ber. Laft night of all, 
When yon fame Star, that's weftward from the Pole,. 
Had made his courfe t'illume that part of heav'n 
Where now it burns, Marcellus and my felf, 
The bell then beating one,- 

2 Hor. A piece of him.'] But why a piece f He fays this as he 
gives his hand. Which direction fhould be marked. 

3 Touching this dreaded sight ,— ] VtxhapsSbakefpear wrote 



Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 105 

Mar. Peace, break thee off ; 

Enter the Gboft. 
Look where it comes again. 

Ber. In the fame figure, like the King that's dead. 

Mar. Thou art a fcholar, fpeak to it, Horatio. 

Ber. Looks it not like the K^ng ? mark it, Horatio. 

Hor. Moft like : it harrows me with fear and 

Ber. It would be fpoke to. 

Mar. Speak to it, Horatio, 

Hor. What art thou, that ufurp'fl this time of 
Together with that fair and warlike form, 
In which the Majefty of buried Denmark 
Did fometime march ? by Heav'n, I charge thee, 

Mar. It is offended. 

Ber. See ! it ftalks away. 

Hor. Stay ; fpeak ; I charge thee, fpeak. 


Mar. 'Tis gone, and will not anfwer. 

Ber. How now, Horatio ? you tremble and look 
Is not this fomething more than phantafie ? 
What think yc« of it ? 

Hor. Before my God, I might not this believe, 
* Without the fenfible and try'd avouch 
Of mine own eyes. 

Mar. Is it not like the King ? 

Hor. As thou art to thy felf. 
Such was the very armour he had on, 
When he th' ambitious Norway combated : 
So frownM he once, when in an angry parle, 

4 Without the fenfible and true avouch] I am inclinable t© 
think that Shake/pear wrote, 

—1 try'd avouch. 
For no one could believe a report but on a fuppofition of a true 
avouch : but many might believe it without a try "d avouch, i. e. 
to- the credit of another, 

106 Hamlet, Prince cf Denmark. 

5 He fmote the fleaded Poiack on the ice. 
*Tis ftrange- 

Mar. Thus twice before, 6 and juftat this dead hour,. 
With martial ftalk, he hath gone by our Watch. 

Hor. In what particular thought to work, I know 
not ; 
But, in the grofs and Icope of my opinion, 
This bodes fome ftrange eruption to our State. 

Mar. Good now fit down, and tell me, he that 
Why this fame flrift andmoft obfervant Watch 
So nightly toils the Subjects of the Land ? 
And why fuch daily call of brazen Cannon, 
And foreign mart for impie ments of war ? 
Why fucn imprefs of mi„ .vrighcs, whofe fore talk. 
Does not divide the Sunday from the week ? 
What might be toward, that this fvveaty hafte 
Doth make the night joint labourer with. the day: 
Who is't, that can inform me > 

Hor. That can f ; 
At leaft, the whifper goes (o. Our laft King, 
Whofe image even but now appear'd to us, 
Was, as you know, by Tortinbras of Norway, 
(Thereto prickt on by a moil emulate pride) 
Dar'd to the fight : In which, our valiant ttimkt\ 
(For (o this fide of our known world ef.^em'd him) 
Did flay this Fortinbras : r who by feal'd compacl, 


5 He fmote the fleaded Pvhck on the ice.~\ Pole-axe in the com- 
mon edition?. He fpeaks of a prince of Pola nd whom he flew in 
battle, Heufes the word Poiack again, Atl z, Scene 4.. 

Mr. Pope . . 

6 — ■ — - and just at this dead hour,'] The old quarto reads 
jumpe: but the following editions difcarded it for a more fa^ 
ihionable word. 

j — _»_„—». —_~__ luho l,y feal'd conpatly 

Well ratified by laiv and berdlefry.1 The fubjecT: fpoken of' 
is a duel between two monarchs, who fought for a wager, and 
entered into articles for the juft performance of the terms agreed 
Upon. Two forts of law then were neceUVry to regulate the deci-. 
lion of the affair ! the Civil Laiv , nnd the Laiv of \Arms ; as, had 
there bten z wager without a duel, it had" been the civil law only y 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 107 

Well ratified by law of heraldry, 

Did forfeit (with his life) all thofe his Lands, 

Which he flood feiz'd of, to the Conqueror : 

Againft the which, a moiety competent 

Was gaged by our King ; which had Return 

To the inheritance of Fortinbras, 

Had he been vanquifber ; » as by the fame comart, 

And carriage of the articles defign'd, 

His fell to Hamlet. Now young Fortinbras, 

9 Of unimproved mettle hot and full, 

Hath in the fkirtsof Norway, here and there, 

Shark'd up a lift of landlefs refolutes, 

For food and diet, to fome enterprize 

That hath a ftomach in't : which is no other, 

As it doth well appear unto our State, 

But to recover of us by ftrong hand, 

" And terms compulfatory thofe forefaid Lands 

So by his father loft : and this, I take it, 

is the main motive of our preparations,. 

or a duel without a wager, the ft» of arm only. Let us fee new 
how our author is made to eacprefs this fenfe. 

_ a feaVd compact 

Well by law and heraldry. 
Vow law, as aiftingujfhed from heraldry, fignifying the erud 
law : and this fearduunpatt being a ci-viljaw *&, it is as much 
as xohy, An acl of law well ratified by law, which is abfurd. 
For the nature of ratification requires that which stifles, and that 
which is ratified, fhould not be one and the fame, but different. 
For thefereafons I conclude Shake/pear wrote, 
^ . - iv bo by feal'd compact 
• Well ratified by law of heraldry. 
f. e. the execution of the civil compact was- ratified by the law of 
arms : which, in our author's time, was called the law of ber alary 
So the beft and exafteit fpeaker of that age: In the third kind, 
[i.e. of the Jus gentium] the law of heraldry in war it 
pofitive, Sec. Hooker' s Ecclefiafiical Polity . 

g —■ . as by that cov'nant, 

' And carriage of the articles defign'd,'] The old quaTto reads 
_^~ . as- by. the fame com ART}. 

And this is- right. Comart fignifie^ a bargain, and Carriage of the 
articles, the covenants entered into to confirm that bargain. 
Hence we fee the common reading makes a tautology. 

9 Of unimproved mettle ] Unimproved, for unrefined. 

1 ^«</fcrm*ompulfativ*— ~— - ITJm old quarto, better, com. 

io8 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 
The fourcc of this our watch, and the chief head 
Of this poft-hafte and romage in the Land. 

Ber. I think, it be no other, but even fo : 
Well may it fort, that this portentous figure 
Comes armed through our watch fo like the King> 
That was, and is the queftion of thefe wars. 

Hor. A mote it is to trouble the mind's eye. 
" In the moft high and 2 palmy State of Rome, 
" A little ere the mightieft Julius fell 
" The Graves flood tenantlefs ; the fheeted Dead 
M Did fqueak and gibber in the Roman ftreets ; 
" Stars (hone with trains of fire, Dews of blood fell { 
*' 3 Difafters veil'd the Sun ; and the moift ftar, 
" Upon whofe influence Neptune's Empire ftands, 
" Was fick almoft to dooms -day with eclipfe. 
And even the like * precurfe of fierce events,. 
As harbingers preceding ftill the fates, 
$ And prologue to the omen coming on, 
Have heav'n and earth together demonftrated 
Unto our climatures and country- men. 

Enter Ghoft again. 
But foft, behold ! lo, where it comes again \ 
I'll cro£s it,, though it blaft me. Stay, illufion \ 

[Spreading his arms* 
If thou haft any found, or ufe of voice, 
Speak to me. 

If there be any good thing to be done, 
That may to thee do eafe, and grace to me ;; 
Speak to me. 

Xf thou art privy to thy Country's fate, 
Which, happily, Foreknowing may avoid,. 

Ohfpeak!- . 

Or, if thou haft uphoorded in thy life 

6 Extorted treafure, in the womb of earth, [Cockcrows*. 

2 -palmy State of Rome] Palmy, for victorious j in the. 

*'ther editions, fiourifhing.. ftfr. p p et 

j Difaftexs veifd the Sun ;] Difajiers is here finely ufed in its 
original fignificaticn of evil conjunction of ftars. 

4 precurfe of fierce events,'] Fierce, for terrible.. 

5 And prologue to the omen coming on.] Omen, for fate. 

6. Extorted treafure,. \ /, f) . uJijuftly extorted from thy 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 109 

For which, they fay, you Spirits oft walk in death, 
Speak of it. Stay, and fpeak— Stop it, Marcellus*-~ 

Mar. Shall I ftrike at it with my partizan ? 

Hor. Do, if it will not Hand. 

Ber. 'Tishere 

Hor. 'Tis here 

Mar. 'Tis gone. [Exit Ghoft. 

We do it wrong, being fo majefticaL, 
To offer it the (hew of violence ; 
For it is as the air, invulnerable ; 
And our vain blows, malicious mockery. 

Ber. It was about to fpeak, when the cock crew. 

Hor. " And then it ftarted like a guilty thing 
" Upon a fearful Summons. I have heard, 
" The cock, that is the trumpet to the morn, 
** Doth with his lofty and fhrill-founding throat 
F* Awake the God of day ; and, at his warning,, 
** Whether in fea or fire, in earth or air, 
" 7 1 h r extravagant and erring Spirit hies 
" To his Confine : And of the truth herein 
This prefent object made probation. 

Mar. It faded on the crowing of the cock. 
*' Some fay, that ever 'gainft that feafon comes 
" Wherein our Saviour r s birth is celebrated, 
** The bird of Dawning fingeth all nightlong: 
** And then, they fay, no Spirit walks abroad ; 
•* The nights are wholefome, then no planets ftrike, 
** No Fairy takes, no witch hath power to charm ; 
** So hallow'd and fo gracious is the time. 

Hor. So have I heard, and do in part believe it. 
M But look, the morn, in rufTet mantle clad, 
" Walks o'er the dew of yon 8 high eaftward hill;, 
Break we our watch up ; and, by my advice, 
Let us impart what we have feen to night 
Unto young Hamlet. For, upon my life, 
This Spirit, dumb to us, will fpeak to him : 
Do you confent, we fhall acquaint him with it, 

7 TP extravagant ] /. e. got out of its bounds. 

8 -high eaftern hill-—* \ The old quarto has it better 
t*Jl%vard % . 

no Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

As needful in our loves, fitting our duty ? 

Mar. Let's do't, I pray; and I this morning 
Where we ihaM find him moft conveniently. [Exeunt. 


Changes to the Palacr. 

Enter Claudius King of Denmark, Gertrude the Queen, 
Hamlet, Polonius, Laertes, Voltimand, Cornelius, 
Lords and Attendants. 

King, + I ^Hough yet of Hamlet our dear brother's. 

X death 

The memory be green, and that it fitted 
To bear our hearts in grief, and our whole Kingdom: 
To be contracted in one brow of woe ; 
Yet fo far hath Difcretion fought with Nature, 
That we with wifeft forrow think on him, 
Together with remembrance of our felves. 
Therefore our fornetime filler, now our Queen, 
Th' imperial Jointrefs of this warlike State, 
Have we, as 'twere, with a defeated joy, 
With one aufpiciotis, and one dropping eye, 
With mirth in funeral, and with dirge in marriage^ 
In equal fcale weighing delight and dole, 
Taken to wife.— Nor have we herein barr'd 
Your better wifdoms, which have freely gone 
With this affair along : (for all, our thanks.) 
Now follows, that you know, young Fortinbras 9y 
Holding a weak fuppofal of our worth °, 
Or thinking by our late dear brother's death 
Our State to be disjoint- and out of frame ; 
9 Colleagued with this dream of his advantage,,. 
He hath not faiTd to peiler us with meiTage, 
Importing the furrender of thofe lands 
Loir, by his father, by all bands of law, 

9 Colle2gued ivith this dream of his advantage ,] The meaning 
is, Pe goes to wai fo indifcreetly, and unprepared, that he has 
no all ; es to fupport him but a Dream, with tvhjch' he k cclUagusd 
ci> confederated* 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, tit 

To our moft valiant brother.— So much for him.— 

Now for our felf, and for this time of meeting : 

Thus much the bufinefs is. We have here writ 

To Norway, uncle of young Fortinbras, 

(Who, impotent and bed rid, fcarcely hears 

Of this his nephew^s purpofe,) to fupprefs 

His further gate herein ; in that the Levies* 

The Lifts, and full Proportions are all made. 

Out of his Subjects, and we here diipatch 

You, good Cornelius, and you Voltimand, 

For bearers of this Greeting to old Norway ; 

Giving to you no further perfonal power 

To bufinefs with the King, more than the fcope- 

Which thefe dilated articles allow. 

Farewel, and let your hafte commend your duty. 

Vol. In that, and all things, will we (hew our duty. 

King. We doubt it nothing ; heartily farewel. 

[Exeunt Voltimand and Cornelius. 
And now, Laertes, what v s the news with you ? 
You told us of fome fuit. What is*t, Laertes f. 
You cannot fpeak of Reafon to the Dane, 
And lofe your voice. What wouldft thou beg, Laertes 
That (hall not be my offer, not thy afeing ? 
* The blood is not more native to the heart, 


tThe head is not-tnore native to the- heart,. 

The hand more infirumentalto the mouth, 

'Than is the throne of Denmark to thy father.] This is a fla- 
grant inftance of the firft Editor's ftupidity, in preferring found to 
fenfe. But head, heart and hand, he thought muft needs ^o together 
•where an honeft man was the fubjefl of the encomium j tho' what 
he could mean by the head's being native to the heart, I can- 
not conceive. The mouth indeed of an honeft man might, per- 
haps, in fome fenfe, be faid to be native, that is,, allied to the 
heart. But the fpeaker is here talking net of a moral, but z.phy- 
Jical alliance. And the force of what is faid is fupported only by 
that diftin£tion. I fuppofe, then, that Sbakefpear wrote, 
The blood if not more native, to the heart, i ■ ■■■ 
Than to the Throne cf Denmark is thy father. 
This makes the kntiment juft and pertinent. As the blood is formed 
and fuftaincd by the labour of the heart, the mouth fupplied by the 
office of the hand, fo is the throne of Denmark by your father, &c. 
The expreffion. too of the blood's being native to the heart, is ex- 
tremely fine, for the heart is the laboratory where that vital lv- 


ii2 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

The hand more inftrumental to the mouth, 
Than to the Throne of Denmark is thy father. 
What would'ft thou have, Laertes ? 

Laer. My dread lord, 
Your leave and favour to return to France ; 
From whence, though willingly I came to Denmark 
To fhew my duty in your Coronation ; 
Yet now I muft confefs, that duty done, 
My thoughts and wifhes bend again tow'rd France :■■ 
And bow them to your gracious leave and pardon. 

King. Have you your father's leave ? what fays 
Polonius ? 

P °I' He nat h, my lord, by labourfome petition,. 
Wrung from me my flow leave ; and, at the laft, 
Upon his will I feal'd my hard confent. 
I do befeech you, give him leave to go. 

King. Take thy fair hour, Laertes, time be thine i- 
And thy beft Graces fpend it at thy will. 
* But now, my coufin Hamlet. Kind my fon— — 

Ham. A little more than kin, and lefs than kind. 

Ktng. How is it, that the clouds ftill hang on you ? : 

quor is digefted, diftributed, and (when weakned and debilitated) 
again reftored to the vigour neceffary for the difcharge of ita 

2 But now, my coufin Hamlet, and my fon 

Ham. A little more than kin, and lefs than kind.] The King had 
called him, coufin Hamlet, therefore Hamlet replies, 

A little mere than kin, 
i. e. A little more than coufin ; becaufe, by marrying his mother,, 
he was become the King's fon-in-law : So far is eafy. But what 
means the latter part of the fentence, 

— — and lefs than kind? 

The King, in the prefent reading, gives no occafion for this reflec- 
tion, which is fufficient toihew it to be faulty, and that we mould' 
read and point the nrft line thus, 

But noiv, my coufin Hamlet. Kind my fon 

/. e. But now let us turn to you, coufin Hamlet. Kind my fon, (or,, 
as we now fay, Good my fon) lay afide this clouded look. For 
thus he was going to expostulate gently with him for his melan- 
choly, when Hamlet cut him mort by reflecting on the titles he 
gave him. 

A little more than kin, and lefs than kind, 

which we now fee is a gertinent reply,- 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 113 

Ham. Not fo, my lord, I am too much Pth' Sun. 

Queen. Good Hamlet, caft thy nighted colour off, 
And let thine eye look like a friend on Denmark. 
Do not, for ever, with thy veiled lids, 
Seek for thy noble father in the duft ; 
Thou know'ft, 'tis common ; all that live, muft diej 
Pafling through nature to eternity. 

Ham. Ay, Madam, it is common, 

Queen. If it be, 
Why feems it fo particular with thee ? 

Ham. Seems, Madam ? nay, it is ; I know not feems: 
'Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother, 
Nor cuftomary fuits of folemn Black, 
Nor windy fufpiration of forced breath, 
No, nor the fruitful river in the eye, 
Nor the deje&ed 'haviour of the vifage, 
Together with all forms, moods, (hews of grief. 
That can denote me truly. Thefe indeed feem, 
For they are actions that a man might play ; 
But I have That within, which paffeth {hew : 
Thefe, but the trappings, and the fuits of woe. 

King. 'Tis fweet and commendable in your nature, 
To give thefe mourning duties to your father : 
" But you mull know, * your father loft a father j 
*' That father, his ; and the furviver bound 
" In filial obligation, for tome term, 
'* To do obiequious forrow. But to perfevere 
" 4* In obflinate condolement, is a courfe 

j — ,, your father loft a father ; 

'That father, his : and the furviver bound] Thus Mr. Pope 
judicioufly corrected the faulty copies. On which the Editor 
Mr. Theobald thus difcants ; This fuppofed refinement is from Mr, 
Pope, but all the editions elfe, that 1 have met with, old and mo- 
dern, read, 

That father loft, loft his ; 

Tbe reduplication of iuhich luord here gives an energy and an eh~ 
gance which is much easier to be conceived than 
explained in terms. I believe fo: For when explained in 
terms it comes to this ; That father after he had loft himfelf, loft 
his father But the reading is exfideCodicis, and that is enough. 

4 In obftinate condolement, ] Condolement, for forrow j be- 
caufe forrow is ufed to be condoled, 

« Of 

ii4 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

" Of impious ftubbornnefs, unmanly grief* 

*' It (hews 5 a will moft incorrecl to heav'n, 

*• A heart unfortify'd, a mind impatient, 

" An undemanding fimple. and unfchool'd : 

M For, what we know muft be, and is as common? 

" As any the moft vulgar thing to fenfe, 

" Why mould we, in our peevifti oppofition, 

" Take it to heart ? fie f 'tis a fault to heav'n, 

" A fault againft the dead, a fault to nature, 

" 6 To Reafon moil abfurd ; whofe common theanx 

" Is death of fathers, and who ftill hath cry'd, 

n From the firft coarfe. 'till he that died to day, 

" This rauft be (o. We pray you 7 throw to earth 

8 This unprevailing woe, and think of us 
A3 of a father : for let the world take note, 
You are the moft immediate to our Throne; 

9 And with no lefs nobility of love, 

Than that which deareft father bears his fon, 
1 Do I impart tow'rd you. For your intent 
In going back to U hool to Wittenberg, 
It is moft retrograde to our defire : 
And we befeech you, bend ;, ou to remain. 
Here in the cheer and comfort of our eye* 
Our chiefeft courtier, couiin, and our fon. 

Queen. Lei not thy mother lofe her prayers, Hamlet, 
I pr'ythee. ftay with us, go not to Wittenberg. 

Ham I Jhall in all my befl chey you, Madim. 

King. Why, 'tis a loving, and a fair reply;. 
Be as our felf in Denmark. Madam, come;. 
This gentle and unfbre'd accord of Hamlet 
Sits Trailing to my heart, in grace whereof 
No jocund health, that Denmark drinks to day, 
But the great Cannon to the clouds fhall tell ; 
And the King's rowfe the heav'n fhall bruit again, 
Re-fpeaking earthly thunder. Come, away. [Exeunti 

5 — . a ivill moji incorrect — ] IncorreEi, for untutor'd. 

6 To Reafon moji abfurd-,—.] Reafon, for experience. 

j —- « — tkroiu to earth] i. e. Into the grave with y or father* 

8 This unprevailing ivoe, — j Unprevailing, for unavailing. 

9 And ivitb no lefs nobility of love,~\ Nobility, for magnitude, 
i Do /impart tvw'rdy ;«.— -] Impart, for profefs. 


Hamlet, Prince tf Denmark, 115 


Manet Hamlet. 
Bam. « Oh, that this too-too-fotid fldh would 
« Thaw, and refolve itfelf into a dew ! 
" OrthattheEverlaftmghadnotfixt 
- H s canon 'gainftfelf-flaughter ! Oh God ! oh God* 
" How weary, ftale, flat and unprofitable 
" Seem to me all the ufes of this world ! 
« Fie on't ! oh fie ! 'tis an unweeded garden, # 

« That grows to feed j things rank, and grofs m 

" Poffefs it merely. That it mould come to this ! 
" But two months dead! nay, not fo much; not 

two ; 

" * So excellent a King, that was, to this, 

" Hyperion to a Satyr : fo loving to my mother, 

«< That he permitted not the winds of heav'n 

« Viiit her face too roughly. Heav'n and earth ! 

«« Muft 1 remember -why, (he would hang on him> 

«« As if Increafe of Appetite had grown 

" By what it fed on ; yet, within a month,- — - 

« Let me not think Frailty, thy name is Woman! 

«.« A little month ! or ere thofe (hoes were old, 
«« With whicn (he follow'd my poor father's body, 

" Like Niobe., all tears Why (he, ev'n (he. 

" (O heav'n ! * a bead that wants difcourfe of reafon-, 
" Would have moum v d longer—) married with mine 

u. cle, 
«' My father's brother ; but no more like my father, 

Z So exc ! !cnt a King, that was, to this, 

Hyperion ti a Satyr : j This fimilitude at firft fight feejns 
to be a little far-fetch'd ; but ;t has an exquifite beauty. By the 
Satyt is meant ran, as by hypcrion, Apollo. Pan and Jpollow.eve 
brothers, and the ailufion is "to the contention between thofe two 
Gods for the preference in mufick. 

3 ~— a bcaji that ivants difcourfe of reafon,] This is finely 
exprefled, and with a philofophical exaftnefs. Eeafts want not 
reafon, but the difcourfe of rcafin: i. e. the regular inferring one 
thing from another by the afiiftajice of univerfals. 

« Than 

n6 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

" Than I to Hercules. Within a month !- . 

u Ere yet the fait of mod unrighteous tears 
** Had left the flufhing in her gauled eyes t 

" She married. Oh, moft wicked fpeed, to polt 

* With fuch dexterity to inceftuous meets ! 

It is not, nor it cannot come to Good. 

But break, my heart, for I mutt hold my tongue. 


Enter Horatio, Bernardo, and Marcellus. 
Hor. Hail to your lordfhip ! 
Ham. I am glad to fee you well ; 

Horatio, -or I do forget my felf? 

Hor. The fame, my lord, and your poor fervant ever.' 
Ham. Sir, my good friend ; I'll change that name 
with you : 
And what make you from Wittenberg, Horatio ? 
Marcellus ! 

Mar. My good lord ■ 

Ham. I am very glad to fee you ; good morning, Sir* 
But what, in faith, make you from Wittenberg ? 
Hor. A truant difpofition, good my lord. 
Ham. I would not hear your enemy fay fo ; 
Nor {hall you do mine ear that violence, 
To make it Trufter of your own report 
Againft your felf. I know, you are no truant £ 
But what is your affair in Eljinoor P 
We'll teach you to drink deep, ere you depart. 
Hor. My lord, I came to fee your father's funeraK 
Ham. I pr'ythee, do not mock me, fellow- ftudent ; 
I think, it was to fee my mother's wedding. 
Hor. Indeed, my Lrd; it follow'd hard upon. 
Ham. Thrift, thrift, Horatio ; the funeral bak'd 
meats * 

Did coldly furnilh forth the marriage tables. 
'Would, I had met my deareft foe in heav'n, 
Or ever I had feen that day, Horatio! 
My father — methinks 1 fee my father. 
Hor. Oh where, my lord ? 

With fuch dexterity . ] Dexter ity, for quicknefs fimply - 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 117 

Ham. In my mind's eye, Horatio. 
Hor. I faw him once, he was a goodly King. 
Ham. He was a man, take him for all in all, 
I fhall not look upon his like again. 
Hor. My lord, I think, I faw him yefternight. 

Ham. Saw ! who ? 

Hor. My lord, the King your father. 
Ham. The King my father ! 
Hor. s Seafon your admiration but a while, 
With an attentive ear ; 'till I deliver 
Upon the witnefs of thefe gentlemen, 
This marvel to you. 

Ham. For heaven's love, let me hear. 
Hor. Two nights together had thefe gentlemen, 
Marcellus and Bernardo, on their watch, 
In the dead wafte and middle of the night, 
Been thus encountred : A figure like your father, 
Arm'd at all points exactly, Cap-a-pe, 
Appears before them, and with folemn march 
Goes flow and {lately by them ; thrice he walk'd, 
By their oppreit and fear-furprized eyes, 
Within his truncheon's length ; whilft they (diftiU'd 
Almoft to jelly 6 with th' effect of fear) 
Stand dumb, and fpeak not to him. This to me 
In dreadful fecrecy impart they did, 
And I with them the third night kept the watch ; 
Where, as they had deliver'd both in time, 
Form of the thing, each word made true and good, 
The Apparition comes. I knew your father : 
Thefe hands are not more like. 
Ham. But where was this? 

Hor. My lord, upon the Platform where we watcht* 
Ham. Did you not fpeak to it? 
Hor. My lord, I did ; 
But anfwer made it none ; yet once, methoucht, 
It lifted up its head, and did addrefs 
Itfelf to motion, like as it wouid fpeak : 

5 Seafon your admiration ] Seafon, for moderate 

6 - - -w/tf the act of fear] Shakefpear could never write 
fo jmproperly as to call thtpaffion of fear, the a& of fear With, 
out doubt the true reading is, J J * 

— ■ with th'effect f fear. 


xi 8 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

But even then the morning-cock crew loud ; 
And at the found it ftirunk in hafte away, 
And vanifht from our fight. 

Ham. *Tis very ft range. 

Hor. As I do live, my honoured lord, 'tis true ; 
And we did think it writ down in our duty 
To let you know of it. 

Ham. Indeed, indeed, Sirs, but this troubles me. 
Hold you the watch to night ? 

Both. We do, my lord. 

Ham. Arm'd, fay you > 

Both. Arm'd, my lord. 

Ham. From top to toe ? 

Both. My lord, from head to foot. 

Ham. Then faw you not his face ? 

Hor. Oh, yes, my lord j he wore his beaver up. 

Ham. What, look'd he frowningly ? 

Hor. A count'nance more in forrow than in anger. 

Ham. Pale, or red ? 

Hor. Nay, very pale. 

Ham. And fixt his eyes upon you ? 

Hor. Mod conftantly. 

Ham. I would I had been there ! 

Hor. It would have much amaz'd you. 

Ham. Very like ; ftaid it long ? 

Hor. While one with moderate hafte might tell a 

Both. Longer, longer. 

Hor. Not when I faw't. 

Ham. 7 His beard was grifl'd ? no. 

Hor. It was, as I have feen it in his life, 
A fable filver'd. 

Ham. I'll watch to night ; perchance, 'twill walk 

Hor. I warrant you, it will. 

Ham. If it aflume my noble father's perfon, 
I'll fpeak to it, tho* hell itfelf mould gape 

7 His beard was grljly ?] The old Quarto reads, 
His beard was grift d? no. 
And this is right. A natural mode of Interrogation in Hamhft 
kxumftances. . . 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 119 

And bid me hold my peace. I pray you all, 
If you have hitherto concealed this fight, 
* Let it be ten'ble in your filence ftill: 
And whatfoever ihall befall to night, 
<Jive it an underftanding, but no tongue ; 
I will requite your loves : fo, fare ye well. ! 
Upon the platform 'twixt eleven and twelve 
I'll vifit you. 

All. Our duty to your Honour. [Exeunt. 

Ham. Your loves, as mine to you : farewel. 
My father's Spirit in arms ! all is not well : 
I doubt fome foul play : 'would, the night were 

come ! 
•Till then fit ftill, my foul : foul deeds will rife 
(Tho' all the Earth o'erwhelm them) to men's eye*. 



Changes to an Apartment in Polonius*/ Hou/e. 

Enter Laertes and Ophelia. 

Laer.'Vi If Y neceflaries are imbark'd, farewel ; 

JLVJL And, filler, as the winds give benefit, 
And Convoy is afliftant, do not deep, 
But let me hear from you. 

Oph. Do you doubt That ? 

Laer* For Hamlet > and the trifling of his favour, 
" Hold it a faftiion and a toy in blood ; 
•• A violet in the youth of primy nature, 
" Forward, not permanent, tho* fweet, not lading; 
" The perfume, and fuppliance of a minute ; 
No more ■ 

Oph. No more but fo ? 

3 Let it be treble in jour fiknee fiUli] If treble be right, in pro- 
priety it /hould be read, 

Let it be treble in your filence novo. 
But the old quarto reads, 

Let it be tenable in your Jllencejlill, 
And this is right. 


i2o Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Laer. Think it no more : 
For nature, crefcent, does not grow alone 
In thews and bulk ? but, as this Temple waxes, 
The inward fervice of the mind and foul 
Grows wide withal. Perhaps he loves you now ; 
9 And now no foil of cautel doth befmerch 
The virtue of his will : but you muft fear, 
His Greatnefs weigh'd, his will is not his own : 
For he himfelf is fubjecl to his Birth ; 
He may not, as unvalued perfons do, 
Carve for himfelf ; for on his choice depends 
1 The fafety and the health of the whole State : 
And therefore muft his choice be circumfcribM 
Unto the z voice and yielding of that body, 
Whereof he's head. Then, if he fays, he loves you, 
It fits your wifdom * fo far to believe it, 
As he in his peculiar act and place 
May give his Saying deed ; which is no further, 
Than the main voice of Denmark goes withal. 
Then weigh, what lofs your Honour may fuftain, 
If with too credent ear you lift his fongs ; 
Or lofe your heart, or your chafte treafure open 
To his unmafter'd importunity. 
Fear it, Ophelia, fear it, my dear fifter j 

^ 9 Andnoiv no foil, nor cautel, ~] From cautela, which fig. 

nines only a prudent for efight or caution ; but, patting thro' French 
hands, it Jpft its innocence, and now figmhcs fraud, deceit. And 
fo he ufes the adjeclive in Julius Cafar, 

Swear priefis and coiuards and men cautelous . 
But I believe Sbakcfpear wrote, 

And novj no foil of cautel * 

which the following words confirm.* 

_ d t/j befmerch 

The virtue of his ivill ; - - — - 
For by virtue is mennbthefimplicity of his will, not virtuous ivilh 
and both this and befmerch refer only to foil, and to the foil of 
craft and infincerity. 

I The sanctity and health of the nvhole State:] What has 
the fanclity of the ftate to do with the prince's difproportioned 
marriage ? We fhould read with the old quarto safety. 

a- -voice and yielding ] Yielding, for confent fimply. . 

3 fo far to believe it,} To believe, for to act conform- 

ably to. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, m 

And keep within the rear of your affection, 
Out of the (hot and danger of defire. 
" The charieft maid is prodigal enough, 
" If (he unmafk her beauty to the moon : 
" Virtue itfelf 'fcapes not calumnious ftrokes; 
" The canker galls the Infants of the Spring, 
" Too oft before their buttons be difclos'd ; 
• And in the morn and liquid dew of youth 
" Contagious blaftments are moft imminent. 
Be wary then, bell fafety lies in fear ; 
Youth to it ielf rebels, though ncr.e tK& near. 

Oph. + I fnall th' effects of this good leffon keep, 
As watchman to my heart. '■• But, good my brother, 
** Do not, as fome ungracious paftors do, 
u Shew me the fteep and thorny way to heav'n ; 
" s Whillt, he a puftand recklefs libertine, 
" Himfelf the primrofe path of dalliance treads, 
" And 6 recks not his own reed. 

Leer. Oh, fear me not. 


Enter Polonius. 
I ftay too long ;< but here my father comes : 

4 IJballtb* etfeffs—-] Effedls, for fi&ftance. 

5 Wbiift, l ike a puft and carelefs libertine ,J This reading gives 
us a fenfe to this eft'ecl, Do not you he. like an ungracious preacher 
who is like a carelefs o libertine. And there we find, that he who 
is fo like a carelefs libertine, is the carelefs libertine himfelf. This 
could not come from Shaktfpcar. The old quarto reads, 

WJbilcszpuft and recklefs libertine t 
which dire£h us to the right reading, 

Wbilft, he a f lift dndrtcklefa liberiint. 
The firft impreffion of thefe piays being taken from the play- 
houfe copies, and thcfe, for the better dire&ion of the aclors, being 
written as they were pronounced, thefa circumftanccs have oc- 
cafioned innumerable errors. So a for be every where. 

> — 'a was a goodly King, 

'A tvas a man take bimfor all in all, 

• ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ ~~ I warn't it will 
for I warrant. This fhould be well attended t« in correcting 

6 recks not bis own reed.} That is, heeds not his own 

leffons - Mr. Pope. 

Vol. VIII. G A double 

12.2 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

A double Blefling is a double grace ; 
Occafion fmiles upon a fccond leave. 

Pol. Yet here, Laertes \ aboard, aboard forfhame; 
The wind fits in the ihoulder of your fail, 
And you are (laid for. There, my blefling with you ; 
[Laying bis hand on Laertes'j bead. 
And thefe few precepts in thy memory 
See thou character. * Give thy thoughts no tongue, 

* Nor any unpioportion'd thought his a£l : 

* Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar ; 

* The friends thou haft, and their Adoption try'd, 

* Grapple them to thy foul with hooks of freel : 

* But do not dull thy palm with entertainment 

* Of each new-hatch'd, unfledg'd comrade. Beware 

* Of Entrance to a quarrel : but being in, 

* Bear't that the oppofed may beware of thee. 

« Give ev'ry Man thine ear ; but few thy voice. 

* Take each man's cenfure ; but referve thy judgment. 
Cofily thy habit as thy purfe can buy, 

But not expreft in fancy ; rich, not gaudy : 
For the apparel oft proclaims the man, 
And they in France of the befl rank and ftation 
7 Are moft felect and generous, chief in That. 
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be ; 
For Loan oft lofes both itfelf and friend : 
And Borrowing dulls the edge of Hufbandry. 
This above all ; to thine own felf be true ; 

* And it mull follow, as the light the Day, 


7 Art tnojl feleft and generous , ■ ■ ■ ■ ] Seleel, for elegant. 

8 And it muft follow as the night the Day,~\ The fenfe here 
requires, that the fimilitude fhould give an image not of tiuo ef~ 
feels of different natures, that follow one another alternately, but 

"of a caufe and effetl , where the efteft follows the caufe by a fbyfi. 
cal neceffty. For the affertion is, Be true to thy felf, and then thou 
tnuft neceffarily be true to others. Truth to himfelf then was the 
caufe, truth to others, the effetl. To illuftrate this neceffity, the 
fpeaker employs a fimilitude : But no fimilitude can illuftrate it but 
Tr-hat prefents an image of a caufe and effetl ; and fuch a caufe as. 
that, where the effeft follows by a pbyfical, not a moral neceffity : 
for if only by a rzo>W neceffity, the xhrn^illujirating would not be 
more certain than the thing illuflratcd\ which would be a great 
tbfordity. This beir>s piemifed, let us fee what the text fays, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 12 $ 

Thou canft not then be falfe to any man. 
Farewel ; 9 my BleiTing feafon this in thee ! 

Laer. Moft humbly do I take my leave, my lord. 

Pol. The time invefh you • go, your fervants tend. 

Laer. Farewel, Ophelia, and remember well 
What I have faid. 

Oph. 'Tis in my mem'ry lockt, 
And you your felf fhall keep the key of it. 

Laer. Farewel. [Exit Laer. 

Pol. What is't, Ophelia, he hath faid to you ? 

Oph. So pleafe you-, fomething touching the lord 

Pol. Marry, well bethought ! 
'Tis told me, he hath very oft of late 
Given private time to you ; and you your felf 
Have of your audience been moft free and bounteous 
H it be fo, (as fo 'tis put on me, 
And that in way of caution,) I mud tell you, 
You do not underftand your felf fo clearly, 
As it behoves my daughter, and your honour. 
What is between you ? give me up the truth. 

Oph. He* hath, my lord, of late, made many 
Of his affection to me. 

Pol. Affe&ion ! puh ! ' you fpeak like a green girl, 
x Unfifted in fuch perilous circumftance. 
Do you believe his tenders, as you call them ? 

And it muft follow, as the night the Day. 
In this we are fo far from being prefented with an cffeEl following 
a caufe by a phyfical neceflity, that there is no caufe at all : but 
only two different effects, proceeding from two different caufes, and 
fucceeding one another alternately. Shakefpear, therefore, with- 
out queftion wrote, 

And it muf follow, as the light the Day. 
As much as to fay, Truth to thy felf, and truth to others, are m- 
feparable, the latter depending neceffarily on the former, as light 
depends upon the day ! where ir. is to be obferved, thzlfday is ufed 
figuratively for the Sun. The ignorance of which, I fuppofe, con- 
tributed to miflead the editors. 

9 my Blefjing feafon this in thee !] Sea/on, for infufe. 

I Unfifted in fuch perilous circumftance.'] Unfifted, for untried. 
Untried fignifies either not tempted, or not refned? unfitted, figni- 
£es the latter only, tho' the fenfe requires the former. 

G 2 Oph, 

124 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Oph. I do not know, my lord, what I mould 

Pol. Marry, I'll teach you ; think your felf a baby, 
That you have ta'en his tenders for true pay, 
Which are not fterling. * Tender your felf more 

dearly ; 
Or (not to crack the wind of the poor phrafe, 
Wringing it thus) you'll tender me a fool. 

Oph. My lord, he hath importun'd me with love, 
In honourable fafliion. 

Pol. Ay, faftiion you may call't : go to, go to. 

Oph. And hath giv'n count'nance to his fpeech, 
my lord, 
With almoft all the holy vows of heaven. 

Pol. Ay, fpringes to catch woodcocks. I do 
When the blood burns, how prodigal the foul 
Lends the tongue vows. Thefe blazes, oh my 

daughter, ■ 
Giving more light than heat, extinfl in both, 
Ev'n in the promife as it is a making, 
You muft not take for fire. From- this time, 
Befomewhat fcanter of your maiden -prefence, 
i Set your intraitments at a higher rate, 
Than a command to parley. For lord Hamlet, 
Believe fo much in him, that he is young ; 

2 Tender your felf more dearly ; 

Or (not to crack the wind of the poor phrafe) 
Wronging it thus, you'll tender me a fool.] The parenthefis 
is closM at the wrong place ; and we muft make llkewife a flight 
ccrreaion in the laft verfe. Polonius is racking and playing on 
the word tender, 'till he thinks proper to correct himfelf for the li- 
cence ; and then he would fay — — - •— not farther to crack the wind 
of the phrafe by tioijling and contorting it, as I have done ; & c. 

3 Set your in treatments at a higher rate,] I know not 
what to make of this reading. Thefe ir.treatments were not hers 
but Hamlet's. Or if, in fome fenfe, they might be called hers, as 
paid to her, yet they could not be called fo here, for fne is bid to 
fet a high rate upon them, fo certainly, not thofe which Hamlet 
made to her. I f-jfpeft Shakefpear wrote, 

Set yur intraitments at a higher rate, 
i. t. coynefs. A word in ufe among the old Englijh writers. The 
£tn(c is this, Sell your coynefs, before you put it off, at a higher 
rate than a bare command to lay it afide, and become familiar. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 125 

And with a + larger tether he may walk, 
Than may be given you. In few, Ophelia, 
Do not believe his vows ; for they are brokers, 
Not of that Die which their inveftments (hew, 
But meer implorers of unholy fuits, 

5 Breathing like fanftified and pious Bonds, 
The better to beguile. This is for all : 

6 I would not, in plain terms, from this time forth, 
Have you fo flander any moment's leifure, 

As to give words or # talk with the lord Hamlet. 
Look to't, I charge you, come your way. 

Oph. I mail obey, my lord. [Exeunt. 

Changes to the Platform before the Palace. 

Enter Hamlet, Horatio, and Marcellus. 
Ham. * I \HE Air bites fhrewdly ; it is very cold. 
JL Hor. It is a nipping and an eager air. 
Ham. What hour now r 
Hor. I think, it lacks of twelve. 
Mar. No, it is ftruck. 

Hor. I he'ard it not : it then draws near the feafon, 
Wherein the Spirit held his wont to walk. 

[Noife of warlike mufick within. 

4 —larger tether ■ ] A firing to tye horfes. Mr. Pope. 

5 Breathing like fanilifed and pious Bends,'] On which the edi- 
tor Mr. Theobald remarks, T£o' all the editions have fwaUoived this 
reading implicitly, it is certainly corrupt ; and I have been furpri fed 
hew men of genius and learning could let it pafs without fome fufpieion. 
What ideas can nve frame to ourf elves of a breathing bond, or of itt 
keing fanilifed and pious, &c. But he was too hafty in framing 
ideas before h« underftood thofe already framed by the poet, and 
expreffed in very plain words. Do not believe (fays Polonius to his 
Daughter) Hamlefs amorous vows made to you ; which pretend reli- 
gion in them (the better to beguile,) like thofe fanclhied and pioui 
vows [or bonds] made to heaven. And why fhould not this pafs 
•without fufpicion ? 

6 J would not, in plain terms, from this time forth, 

Have you fo /lander any moment's leifure,] The'humour of 
this is fine. The fpeaker's character i- all affectation. At laft 
he fays he will fpeak plain, and yet canajt for his life ; his plain 
fpeech of flander: ng a moment's leifure being of the like fuftian 
fluff with the reft. 

G 3 What 

126 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

What does this mean, my lord ? 

Ham. The King doth wake tonight, and takes his 
Keeps waflel, and the fwagg'ring up-fpring reels ; 
And as he drains his draughts of Rhenifh down, 
The kett!e-drum and trumpet thus. bray out 
The triumph of his pledge. 

Hor. Is it a cuftom ? 

Ham. Ay, marry, is't: 
But, to my mind, though I am native here, 
And to the manner born, it is a cuttom 
More honour'd in the breach, than the obfervanee. 
7 This heavy-headed rtve], eaft and weft, 
Makes us traduc'd, and tax'd of other nations ; 
Th?y clepe us drunkards, and with fwinilh phrafe 
Soil our addition; and, indeed, it takes 
From our achievements, though perform'd at height* 
The pkh and marrow of our attribute. 
So, of. it chances in particular men, 
That for fome vicious mole of nature in them, 
As, in their birth, (wherein they are not guilty,. 
Since nature cannot chufe his origin) 
JBy the 3 o'ergrowth of fome complexion, 
Oft breaking down the pales and forts of reafon y 
Or by fome habit, that too much o'er-leavens 
The form of plaufive manners; that thefe men 
Carrying, I fay, the (lamp of one defect, 
{.Being nature's livery, or fortune's fear) 
Their virtues elfe, be they as pure as grace* 
As infinite as man may undergo, 
Shall in the general cenfure take corruption 
From that particular fault, (a) The dram of Bafe 
Doth all the noble fubftance of Worth out, 
To his own feandal. 

7 This heavy-headed revel, eaft and weft,] i. e. this revelling that 
ebferves no hoars, but continues from morning to night, &c. 

g _ — o\ of fome complexion,] i.e. humour j as fan- 
guine, melancholy, phlegmatic, &c. 

[(a)— -The dram ofbafe- -fubftance of Worth out. Mr. Theobald.-- 
Vulg. The dram of eafe-— fubftance of a- doubt. \ 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, ny 

Enter Gbojl. 
Hoy. Look, my lord, it comes ; . 
Ham. " Angels and minifters of grace defend us ?' 
• Be thou a Spirit of health, or Goblin damn'd, 
" Bring with thee airs from heav'n, or blafts from 

r 9 Be thy advent wicked or charitable, 
*1 Thou com'ft in fuch a questionable fhape, 
-i That I will fpeak to thee. I'll call thee Hamlet ', 
" King, Father, Royal Dane: oh! anfwer me ; 
" Let me not burft in ignorance j but ■ tell, 

« Why 

9 Be thy intents 'wicked or cbaritabh ,] Some of the old edi- 
tions read events j from whence I fufpecV that Shake/pear wrote, 

Be thy Advent wickeder charitable. 
7. e. thy coming. 

x , a tell, 

Why thy canonized bones, hear fed in death, 
Have burji their cearments P] Hamlet here fpeakf with won- 
der, that he who was dead mould rife again and walk. But this, 
according to the vulgar fuperftitfion here, followed, was no wonder. 
Their only wonder was, that one, who had the rites of fepuhure 
performed to him, mould walk ; the want of which was fuppofed 
to be the reafon of walking gholls. Hamlets wonder then lhould 
have been placed here : And fo Sbakefpear placed it, as we mall 
fee prefently. For hear fed is ufed figuratively to fignify repejited,. 
therefore the place -ubere fhould be defigned : but death being no 
place, but a privation only, hearfed in death is nonfenfe. We 
ihould read, 

1 tell, 

Why thy canonized bones, hearfed in earth, 
Have burft their ceannents. 
It appears, for the two reafons given above, that earth is the true 
reading. It will further appear for thefe two other reafons. Firft,From 
the words, canonized bones ; by which is not meant (as one would 
imagine) a compliment, for, mads holy or fainted ; but for boms to 
which the rites of fepulture have been performed $ or which were 
buried according to the canon. For we are told he was murder'd 
with all his fins frefh upon him, and therefore in no way to be 
fainted. But if this licentious ufe of the word canonized be allow- 
ed, then earth muft be the true reading, for inhuming bodies 
was one of the effential parts of fepukhral rites. Secondly, From 
the words, have burft their cearments, which imply the preceding 
mention of inhuming, but no mention is made of it in the common 
reading. This enabled the Oxford Editor to improve upon the 
emendation ; fo he reads, 

Why thy bones hears* d in canonized earth, 
1 fuppofe for the fake of harmony, not of fenfe. For tho 1 the 
G 4 rites 

128 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

" Why thy canoniz'd bones, hearfed in Earth, 
" Have burft their cearments ? why the fepulchre, 
" Wherein we favv thee quietly in-urn'd, 
" Hath op'd his ponderous and marble jaws, 
M To call thee up again ? What may this m*ari ? 

That thou, dead ccarfe, again, in compleat fteel, 
■" Revifit'ft thus the glimpfes of the moon, 
u Making night hideous, and * us fools of nature 
" So horribly 3 to make our difpofition 
" With thoughts beyond the reaches of our foujs ? 
Say, why is this ? wherefore ? what mould we do ? 

\Gboft beckons Hamlet. 
Bar. It beckons you to go away with it, 
As if it {bme impartment did defire 
To you alone. 

Mar. Look, with what courteous aclion 
It waves you to a more removed ground : 
But do not go with it. 

Bar. No, by no means. [Balding Hamlet. 

Bam. It will not fpeak ; then I will follow it. 
Bor. Do not, my lord. 
Bam. Why, what mould be the fear? 
J do not x r et my life at a pin's fee -, 
•And, for my foul, what can it do to That, 
Being a thing immortal as itfelf? 

It waves me forth again. .I'll follow it—- 

Bor. " What if it tempt you tow'rd the flood, my 
lord ? ' r 

" Or to the dreadful fummit of the cliff, 
" That beetles o'er his Bafe into the fea ; 
" A r nd lr ' ere affume *° me ot k c r horrible form, 
*' Which might 4 deprave your fov'reignty of reafon, 

" And 

rites of fepulture performed canonizes the body buried j yet it does 
not canonize the earth in which it is laid, unlefs every funeral fer- 
vice be a new confecration. 

a —us fools of nature] The expreffion is fine, as intimating we 
were only kept (as, formerly, fools in a great family) to make fport 
for nature, who lay hid only to mock and laujh at us, for our vain 
fearches into her myfteries. 

3 — to pake our difpofition] Difpofition, for frame. 

4 -—deprive jour fov'reignty of reafon,] i, ^deprive your 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 129. 

" And draw you into madnefs ? think of it. 
" 5 The very place 6 puts toys of defperation, 
« Without more motive, into ev'ry brain, 
" That looks fo many fathoms to the fea ; 
" And hears it roar beneath. 

Ham. It waves me ftill : go on, I'll follow thee— 

Mar. You Qiall not go, my lord. 

Ham. Hold off your hands. 

Mar. Be rul'd, you (hall not go. 

Ham. My fate cries out, 
And makes each petty artery in this body 
As hardy as the Nemean lion's nerve ; 

Still am I call'd : unhand me, gentlemen > 

[Breaking from them* 
By heaven, I'll make a Ghoft of him that lets me— 

I fay, away- go on— -I'll follow thee 

[Exeunt Gboji and Hamlet, 

Hor. He waxes defp'rate with imagination. 

Mar. Let's follow, 'tis not fit thus to obey him. 

Hor. Have after.— To what iflue will this come ? 

Mar. Something is rotten in the State of Denmark. 

Hor. Heav'n will diredl it. 

Mar. Nay, let's follow him, 


fOv'reignty of its reafon. Nonfenfe. Sovereignty of reafon is the 
fame as fovereign or fupreme reafon : Reafon which governs man. 
And thus it was ufed by the beft writers of thofe times. Sidney fays, 
It is time for us both to let reafon enjoy its due fiver aigntie. Arcad. 
And King Charles, At once to betray the foveraignty of reafon in 
my foul. E Uw j3*(ti*»*j» . It is evident that Shakefpear wrote, 

— deprave your fi-v'reignty of reafon. 
7. e. difcrder your undemanding and draw you into madnefs. So 

Now fee that noble and mofi fovereign reafon 

Likeftueet bells jangled out of tune, 
e. The very place'] The four following lines added from the firft 
edition. Mr.Ptf*. 

6 —puts toys of defperation,] Toys, for whims. 

G 5. S C E N £ 

130 Hamlet,' Prince 0/ Denmark * 


Changes to a more remote Part of the Platform. 

Re-enter Ghoft and Hamlet. 

^w.TT7HERE wilt thou lead me ? fpeak.; I'll go. 
V V no further, 

Ghoft. Mark me. 

Ham. I will. 

Ghoft. My- hour is almoft come^ 
When I to fulphurousand tormenting flames' 
Mufl render up my felf." 

Ham: Alas, poor Ghoft ! 

Ghoft. Pity me not, but lend thy ferious hearing* 
To what I (hall unfold. 

Ham. Speak, I am bound to hear. 

Ghoft. So art thou to revenge, when thou malt hear*. 

Ham. What?- 

Ghoft. I am thy fathers Spirit ; 
Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night, 
And, for the day, 7 confin'd too faft in fires ; 
'Till the foul crimes, done in my days of nature*. 
Are burnt and purg'd away. But that I am forbid 
To tell the fecretsof my prifon-houfe, 
I coujd a tale unfold, whofe lighteft word 
Would harrow up thy foul, freeze thy young blood, 
Make thy two eyes, like ftars, ftart from their fpheres, ( 
3 Thy knotty and combined locks to part, 
And each particular hair to ftand on end 
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine : 
JSut this eternal blazon muft not be 
To ears cf fleih and blood ; lift, lift, oh lift f 
If thou didft ever thy dear father love ' ■ «- 

Ham. O heav'n ! 

■j — cotifnd T o faft w fires ;] We fliould read,, 

._« -too faft in fifes j 

i.e. very clofely confined. The particle too is ufed frequently far 
.{he fuperlative moft, or 'very. 

% Tby kaottj~-J Or as the old quarto read knotted, for curled* 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 131 

Ghoft. Revenge his foul and moft unnatural mur- 

Ham. Murther ? 

Ghojl. Murther moft foul, as in the befl it is ; 
But this moft foul, ftrange, and unnatural. 

Ham. " Hafteme to know it, that I, with wings 3? 
" 9 As meditation or the thoughts of love, 
" May fweep to my revenge. 

Gbefl. I rind thee apt ; 
M « And duller fhouldft thou be, than the fat weed 
" That roots itfelf ineafeon Lethe's wharf, 
Wouldft thou not ftir in this. Now, Hamlet, hear : 
'Tis given out, that, fleeping in my orchard, 
A ferpent ftung me. So, the whole ear of Denmark 
Is by a forged procefs of my death 
Rankly abus'd : but know; thou noble Youth, 
The ferpent, that did (ting thy father's life, 
Now wears his crown. m 

Ham. Oh, my prophetick foul ! my uncle I 

Gboji. hy, that inceftuous, that adulterate beaft, 
With witchcraft of his wit,- with trait'rous gifts, 
(O wicked wit, and gifts, that have the power 
So to feduce !) won to his (hameful luft 
The will of my moft feeming-virtuous Queen. 
Oh Hamlet, what a falling off was there ! 

9 As meditation or tbc thoughts of love,] This fimilitude h ex>- 
tremely beautiful. The word, meditation, is confecrated, by the 
mjftics, to iignify that ftretch. and flight of mind which afpires to 
the enjoyment of the fupreme good. So that Hamlet, considering 
with what to compare thefwlftnefs of his revenge, choofes two the 
moft rapid things in nature, the ardency of divine and human paf- 
fion, in an entbufiaft and a lover. 

I And duller jhauldft thou b:, than the fat ivecd 

That roots itfelf in eafe en Lethe' 5 wharf &c] Shake/fear, 
apparently thro' ignorance, makes Reman CathoHchs of thefe pa- 
gan Danes ; and here- gives a description of purgatory : But yet 
mixes it with the pagan fable of Lethe's wharf. Whether he did 
it to icfinuate to the zealous Proteftavts of his time, that the pagan 
and popilh purgatory ftcod both upon the fame footing of credibi- 
lity ; or whether it was by the fame kind of licentious inadvertence 
that Michael Angelo brought Charon's baik-inco his pi&ureof the 
■laft judgment, is notify to decide* *. 


132 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

From me, whofe love was of that dignity, 

That it went hand in hand ev'n with the vow 

I made to her in marriage ; and to decline ' 

Upon a wretch, whofe natural gifts were poor 

To thofe of mine ! 

But virtue, as it never will be mov'd, 

Though lewdnefs court it in a fliape of heav'n 5 

So lult, though to a radiant angel link'd, 

Will fate itfelf in a celeftial bed, 

And prey en garbage- 

But, foft ! Rethinks, I fcent the morning air— — 
Brief let me be ; Sleeping within mine orchard, 
My curtom always of the afternoon, 
Uponmy fecure hour thy uncle Hole 
With juice of curfed hebenon in a viol, 
And in the porches of mine ears did pour 
The leperous diftilment ; whofe exfecl 
Holds fuch an enmity with blood of man, 
That fwift as quick-fiiver it courfes through 
The nat'ral gates and allies of the body ; 
And, with a fudden vigour', it doth poflet 
And curd, like eager droppings into milk, 
The thin and wholefome blood : fo did it mine* 
And a mofi inftant tetter bark'd about, 
Moft lazar-like, with vile and loathfome cruii 

All my fmooth body. 

Thus was I fleeping, by a brother's hand* 

Of life, of Crown, of Queen, 2 at once difpatcht: 

Cut off eyen in the bloflbms of my fin, 

3 Unhoufel'd, 4 unanointed, 5 unanel'd : 

No reckoning made, but fent to my account 

With all my imperfections on my head. 

Oh, horrible ! oh, horrible ! "molt horrible ! 

If thou haft nature in thee, bear it not ; 

Let not the royal bed of Denmark be 

A codth for luxury and damned incefL 

2 at once difpatcht j] Difpatcht, for bereft. 

3 Unboufetd.] Without the facrament beiag taken.. Mr. Pope* 

4 Unanointed.] Without extreme Ulrica, Mr. Pope, 
. 5 UnantPd:} N© kadi rung, . Mr, Pope, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 133 

But howfoever thou purfu'ft this aft, 
Taint not thy mind, nor let thy foul contrive 
Againft thy mother aught ; leave her to heav'n, 
And to thofe thorns that in her bofom lodge, 
To prick and fting her. Fare thee well at once ! 
The glow-worm (hews the Matin to be near, 
And 'gins to pale his 6 unefFe&ual fire. 
Adieu, adieu, adieu ; remember me. [Exit, g 

Ham. Oh, all you hoft of heav'n ! oh earth ! what 
elfe ? 
And fhall I couple hell ? oh ? hold my heart f 
And you, my finews, grow not inftant old j 
But bear me ftiffly up. Remember thee ! 
Ay, thou poor Ghoft, while memory holds a feat 
In this diftradled globe ? " remember thee I 
** Yea, from the table of my memory 
•■ I'll wipe away all trivial fond records, 
" All faws of books, all forms, all prefiures pair, 
•• That youth and obfervation copied there ; 
" And thy commandment all alone (hall live 
V Within the book and volume of my brain, 
" Unmix'd with bafer matter. Yes, by heav'n ; 
Oh moft pernicious woman ! 
Oh villain, villain, fmiling damned villain I 

My tables, meet it is, I fet it down, 

That one may fmile, and fmile, and be a villain ; 
At leaft, I'm fure, it may be fo in Denmark. 

So, uncle, there you are ; now to my word ; 
It is ; Adieu, adieu, remember me : 


Enter Horatio «»^Marcellusv 

Hor. My lord, my lord, — . 

Mar. Lord Hamlet , 

Hor. Heav'n fecure him ! 

g —uneff&a U aljire.\ i, e , Mwng without heat. 

134 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Mar. So be it. 

Hor. Illo, ho, ho, my lord ! 
Ham, Hillo, ho, ho, boy; 7 come, bird, come.. 
Mar. How is't, my noble lord ? 
Hdr. What news, my lord ? 
Ham. Oh, wonderful ! 
Hor. Good my lord, tell it. 
Ham. No, you'll reveal it.. 
Hor. Not I, my lord, by heav'n. 
Mar. Nor I, my lord. 

Ham. How fay you then, would heart of man orrce 
think it ? 
But you'll be fecret— 

Both. Ay, by heav'n, my lord. 
Ham. There's ne'er a villain, dwelling in all Den- 
But he's an arrant knave. 

Hor. There needs no Ghoft, my lord, come from 
the Grave 
To tell us this. 

Ham. Why, right, you are i' th' right ; 
And fo without more circumftance at all, 
I hold it fit that we (hake hands, and part ; 
You, as your bufinefs and defires (hall point you n 
(For every man has bufinefs and defire, 
Such as it is) and, for my own poor part,, 
I will go pray. 

Hor. Thefe are but wild and whurling vvords^ my 

Ham. I'm forry they, oirend you, heartily ; 
Yes, heartily. 

Hor. There's no offence, my lord. 

Ham. Yes, 8 by St. Patrick, but there is, my lord, 

7 ■■■ ■ come, bird, tome.] This is the call which Falconers ufe 
to their hawk in She air, when they would have him come down to 
them. Oxford Editor. 

8 By St. Patrick, — ] Hoy/ the Pcet comes, to make Hamlet 
fwear by St, Patrick, I know not. However at this time all the 
whole northern world had their learning from Ireland ; to which 
place it had retired, and there flourifhed under the aufpices cf this 
Saint. But i* «, I fuppofe, only faid at random j lox he makes 
fljmlii a ftudeat ©f Wittenberg^ 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 1^5 

And much offence too. Touching this Vifion here— - 
It is an honeft Ghoft, that let me tell you : 
For your defire to know what is between us, 
O'er-mafler it as you may. And now, good friends, 
As you are friends, fcholars, and fold iers, 
Give me one poor requeft. 

Hor. What is't, my lord } 

Ham, Never make known what you have feen to? 

Both. My lord, we will not* 

Ham. Nay, but fwear't. 

Hor. In faith, my lord, not F.. 

Mar. Nor I, my lord, in faith.. 

Ham. Upon my fword. 

Mar. We have fworn, my lord, already. 

Ham, Indeed, upon my fword, indeed. 

Ghoft. Swear. [Gb:ft cries under the Stage* 

Ham, Ah ha, boy, fay'ft thou fo ? art thou there^. 
true -penny ? 
Come on, you hear this fellow in the cellaridge.. 
Confent to fwear. 

Hor. Propofe the oath, my lord. 

Ham. Never to fpeak of this that you have feen, 
9- Swear by my fword. 

Ghofi. Swear. 

Ham. Hie & ubique ? then we'll fhiftour ground,.. 
Come hither, gentlemen, 
And lay your hands again upon my fword. 
Never to fpeak of this which you have heard, r 
Swear by my fword. 

Ghoft, Swear by his fword. 

Ham. Well faid, old mole, can'ft work i'th\ ground 
fo fall ? 
A worthy pioneer I Once more remove, good friends. 

Hor. Oh day and night, but this is wondrous 

9 Sivear by my fword.'] Here the poet has preferved the man- 
ners of the ancient Danes, with whom it was Religion to fwear upon 
their fwor&. See Bartboline, De caujis cwttrnp, mert, apud Dan, 


136 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. ■ And therefore as a ftranger give it wel- 
There are more things in heav'n and earth, Horatio, 
Than are dreamt of in your philofophy. But come 
Here, as before, never (fo help you mercy !) 
How flrange or odd foe'er I bear my felf, 
(As I, perchance, hereafter fhall think meet 
To put an antick difpofition on) 
That you, at fuch time feeing me, never (hall, 
With arms encumbred thus, or this head-fhali, 
Or by pronouncing of fome doubtful phrafe, 

As, well we know or, we could, and if we 


Or, if we lift to fpeak or, there be, and if there 

might ■ 
(Or fuch ambiguous givings out) denote . 
That you know aught of me ; This do ye fwear, 
So grace and mercy at your molt need help you !. 

Ghoji. Swear. 

Ham. Reft, reft, perturbed Spirit. So, Gentlemen,, 
With all my love do I commend me to you ; 
And what fo poor a man as Hamlet is 
May dot' exprefs his love and friending to you, 
God willing, fhall not lack ; let us go in together, 
And ftiil your fingers on your lips, I pray : 
The Time is out of joint ; oh, curfed fpight \ 
That ever I was born to fet it right. 
Nay, come, let's go together. [Exeunt* 

1 And therefore a's a fir anger give it welcome, ,] i.e. receive it to 
ycur lelf j take it under your own roof j as much as to fay, Keep 
it.faret. Alluding to the laws of hofpitality. 

A, CX 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 137 
A C T II. S C E N E I. 

An Apartment in Polonius'j Houfe. 

Enter Polonius and Reynoldo. 

Pol. f~* I V E him this money , and thefe notes, Reynoldo. 
VJ Rey. I will, my lord. 

Pol You (hall do marvellous wifely, good Reynoldo, 
Before you vifit him, to make inquiry 
Of his be'iaviour. 

Rey. My lord, I did intend it. 

Pol. Marry, well faid ; very well faid. Look you, 
Enquire me firft what Danjkers are in Paris ; 
And how, and who, what means, and where they 

What company, at what expence ; and finding, 
By this encompafiment and drift of queftion, 
That they do know my fon, comeyo.i more near 5 
Then your particular demands will touch it ; 
Take you, as 'twere fome diitant knowledge of him, 
As thus— I know his father and his friends, 
And, in part, him— Do you mark this, Reynoldo P 

Rey. Ay, very well, my lord. 

Pol. And, in part, him— but you may fay not 

well ; 
But if 't be he, I mean, he's very wild ; 
Addicted fo and fo— and there put on him 
What forgeries you pleafe ; marry, none fo rank, 
As may difhonour him ; take heed of that ; 
But, Sir, fuch wanton, wild, and ufual flips, 
As are companions noted and mod known 
To youth and liberty. 

Rey, As gaming, my lord . 

Pol. Ay, or " drinking, [fencing,] fwearing, 

Quarrelling, drabbing You may go fo far. 

Rey. My lord, that would dilhonour him. 

I _ drinking, [fencing,] /wearing,] Fencing, an interpolation. 


138 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

xL° ! ' F ft" h ' n °' as you ma y feafo n * in the Chora • 
Vou muft not pu: (a) an utter fcand «£ ^arge, 

Thatlie u open to incontinency, 

That they may Jeem the taints of liberty , 
Theflalh andout-break of a fiervmind, 

A favagenefs in unreclaimed blood 
'Of general aflault. 

.%. But, my good lord— . 

Pol. Wherefore (bould you do this f 

And I believe it is a fetch of wit 

You laying thefe flight follies on my fo„, 

Ma*™" ga 1Me f ° H ' d P tf wo* "g, 

fou'ndf " ^^ C ° nVerfe ' he y ° U W0U,i 
Having ever feen in the prenominate crimes, 

?He y dof« y °, U Drea!he °'' S ui ^> * aflur-d, 
♦He clofes with you in this confequence ; 

JGoodfir, or fire, or friend, or gentleman, 

(According » the phrafe or the addition 

v-T man and country.) 

%-. Very good, my lord* 

Pf. And then, Sir, does he this ; 
He does- what was I about to fay ? 
I was about to fay fomething-whe're did I leave *_* 

*€?■ At, clofes in the confequence. 

He £f£ll in the T ? nfe< 5 u;nce A X> niarr^.. 

He clofes thus; 1 know the gentleman, 

Ifawhimyefterday, or V other day, 
Urthen, with fuch and fuch ; and/ as you fay, 

The™ Zu- g3ming ' thete O ' ert00k in ' s r °vvfe,. 
Ihere falling out at tennis j or, perchance, 

* ^favagenefs- J Swages, for wildnefs. 

i&SSS^jf^ i'- *? 3S y° Ulh in ^ eral » liable to.. 
t Gcl/r y ° U ln < J M CGnfe ^nce ;] Confluence, for fequeJ 

5 Gcod jir, or so, cr< friend &c.J We ftould read, * 

IY„ i ~ 7~ cr s '' R E > '• e. father, 
jeni^" 1 Utt < r ^ nd ° 1 ' Mr. W^,. vulg. , w ,fc r 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 139 
1 faw him enter fuch a houfe of fale, 
Videlicet, a Brothel, orfo forth.-See you now ; 
Your bait of Falfhood takes this carp of Truth * 
And thus do we of vvifdom and of reach, 
With windlaces, and with allays of byas, 
By indireaions find direaions out : 
So by my former Mure and advice 
Shall you my fon ; you have me, have you not? 

Rev. My lord, I have. 

Pol. God b' w' you ; fare you welL 

Rev. Good my lord — 

Pol. Obferve his inclination/* J e'en your ieii. 

Rey. I lhall my lord. 

Pol. And let him ply his mufick. 

Rey. Well, my lord. L««* 


Enter Ophelia. 
Pol. Farewel. Jlow now, O^.Wr*, what's thr 

matter ? *,'«.. v._j t 

0;^. Alas, my lord, I have been fo affrighted ! 
JW. With what, in the name of heaven ? 
Op£. My lord, as I was fewing in my cloiet^ 
Lord Hamlet, with his Doublet all unbrac d, 
No hat upon his head, his dockings loole, 
Ungarter'd, and down-gyred to his ancle ; 
Pale as his fhirt, his knees knocking each other. 
And with a look fo piteous in purport, 
As if he had been loo fed out of hell, 
To fpeak of horrors ; thus he comes before mev 
Pol. Mad for thy love ? 
Oph. My lord, I do not know : 
But, truly, I do fear it. 

Pol. Whatfaid he? . 

Oph. He took me by the wrift, and held me nam , 
Then goes he to the length of all his arm ; 
And with his other hand, thus o'er his brow, 
He falls to fuch perufal of my face, 
As he would draw it. Long-time ftaid he fo ; 

1(a) _ e'cnyourfelf, Oxford Editor Vul. » your feijjj} 

140 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 
At lait, a little making of mine arm, 
And thrice his head thus waving up and down, 
He rais'd a ilgh, fo piteous and profound, 
I hat it did Teem to ihatter all his bulk, 
And end his Being. Then he lets me go, 
And, with his head over his moulder turn'd, 
He ieem'd to find his way without his eyes j 
*or out o'doors he went without their help, 
And, to thelaft, bended their light on me. 

Pot. Come, go with me, I will go feek the King. 
I ins is the very ecftafie of love ; • 

Whofe violent property foregoes itfelf, 
And leads the will to defp'rate undertakings, 
As oft as any paffion under heav'n, 
That does afHicl our natures. I am forry } 
What, have you giv'n him any hard words of late ? 
Opb. No, my good lord ; but, as you did com- 
I did repel his letters, and deny'd 
His accefs to me. • • 

Pol. That hath made him mad. 
I'm forry, that with better fpeed and judgment 

l had not noted him. I fear'd, he trifl'd, 
And meant to wreck thee; but befhrevv my jea- 

loufy; ' J 

It feems, it is as proper to our age 
To cart beyond our feives in our opinions, 
As it is common for the younger fort 
To lack difcretion. Come ; go we to the King. 
7 Ihis muft be known ; which, being kept clofe, might 
move 0^ 

More grief to hide, than hate to utter love. [Exeunt. 

6 I had not ^votso him. ] The old quarto reads toted. It 

-ppears Shake/pear wrote noted. Quoted is nonfenfe. 

7 rbnmujlbeknwn j wbitb, being kept elofe, might move 
More grief fohtde, than baje to utter love A i. e . This muft 

be made known to the King, for (being kept fecret) the hiding 
Hamlet s Jove might occafion more mifchief to us from him and 
tne l^eea, than the uttering or revealing of it will occafion hate 
and resentment from Hamlet. The poet's ill and obfcu^e expref-. 
fion feems to have been caufed b r his affectation of concluding the • 
icsne with a couplet. 6 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 141 

Changes to the Palace. 

Enter King, Queen, Rofincrantz, Guildenftern, Lords, 
and other Attendants* 

King.\X7 E L C O M E, dear Roftncrantx, and Guil- 

V V g dtnftern ! 

Moreover that we much did long to fee you, 
The need, we have to ufe you, did provoke 
Our hafty fending. Something you have heard 
Of Hamlet's transformation ; fo I call it, 
Since not th' exterior, nor the inward man 
Refembles That it was. What it mould be 
More than his Father's death, that thus hath put him 
So much from th' undemanding of himfelf, 
I cannot dream.of. I entreat you Both, 
That being of fo young days brought up with him, 
And fince fo neighbour'd to his youth and *havour, 
That you vouchfafe your Reft here in our Court 
Some little time j fo by your companies 
To draw him on to pleafures, and to gather, 
So much as from occasions you may glean, 
If aught, to us unknown, afflicts him thus, 
That open'd lies within our remedy. 

Queen. Good gentlemen, he hath much talk'dofyou; 
And, fure I am, two men there are not living, 
To whom he more adheres. If it will pleafe you 
1 To (hew us fo much gentry and good will, 
As to extend your time with us a while, 
9 For the fupply and profit of our hope, 
Your vifitation mail receive fuch thanks, 
As fits a King's remembrance. 

Rof. Both your Majefties 
Might, by the fov'reign power you have of us, 
Put your dread pleafures more into command 
Than to entreaty. 

8 To flew us fo much gentry] — - — Gentry, for compkSfance, 

9 F$r tbefupplj and profit of our hope J Heft, for purpofe. 


142 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Guil. But we both obey, 
And here give up our felves, * in the full bent, 
To lay our fervice freely at your feet. 

King. Thanks, Rojincrantz, and gentle Guildenftern. 

Queen. Thanks, Guildenjlern, and gentle Rojin- 
And, I befeech you, inflantly to vifit 
My too much changed fon. Go, fome of ye, 
And bring thefe gentlemen where Hamlet is. 

Guil. Heav'ns make our prefence and our practice* 
Pleafant and helpful to him ! [Exeunt Rof. and Guil. 

Queen. Amen. 

Enter Polonius. 

Pol. Th'ambaffadors from Norway, my good Lord, 
Are joyfully return'd. 

King. Thou Hill haft been the father of good news. 

Pol. Have I, my lord? allure you, my good" liege, 
I hold my duty, as I hold my foul, 
Both to my God, and to my gracious King ; 
And I do think, (or elfe this brain of mine 
Hunts not the trail of policy fo fure 
As I have us'd to do) that I have found 
The very caufe of Hamlets lunacy. 

King. Oh, fpeak of that, that do I long to hear. 

Pol. Give firft admittance to th* ambaffadors : 
My news (hall be the fruit to that great feaft. 

Kin?. Thy felf do grace to them, and bring them in. 

[Exit Pol. 
He tells me, my fweet Queen, that he hath found 
The head and fource of all your fon's diftemper. 

Queen. I doubt, it is no other but the main, 
His father's death, and our o'er-hafty marriage. 


Re-enter Polonius, nvitb Voltimand, and Cornelius. 

King. Well, we (hall fift him. Welcome, my 

good friends ! 
Say, Voltimand, what from our brother Norway ? 

* in the /«//bent,] Bent, for endeavour, application. 

J Volt. 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 143 

Volt. Moft fair return of Greetings, and Defires. 
Upon our firft, he fent out to fupprefs 
His Nephew's levies, which to him appear'd 
To be a preparation 'gainft the Polack : 
But, better look'd into, he truly found 
It was againft your. Highnefs : Whereat griev'd, 
That fo hii ficknefs, age, and impotence 
Was falfely borne in hand, fends out Arrefts 
On Fortinbras ; which he, in brief, obeys ; 
Receives rebuke from Norway ; and, in fine, 
Makes vow before his uncle, never more 
To give th' afTay of arms againft your Majefty. 
Whereon old Norway, overcome with joy, 
Gives him three thoufand crowns in annual fee ; 
And his Commiffion to employ thofe foldiers, 
So levied as before, againft the Polack: 
With an entreaty, herein further (hewn, 
That it might pleafe you to give quiet Pafs 
Through your Dominions for this enterprize, 
On fuch regards of fafety and allowance, 
As therein are fet down. 

King. It likes us well ; 
And at our more confider'd time we'll read, 
Anfwer, and think upon this bufinefs. 
Mean time, we thank you for your well -took labour. 
Go to your Reft ; at night we'll feaft together. 
Moft welcome home ! [Exit Ambaf. 

Pol. This bufinefs is well ended. 
44 ■ My Liege, and Madam, * to expoftulate 

" What 

I My Liege, and Madam, to expoftulate'] Theftrokes of humour 
in this fpeech are admirable. Polonius's character is that of a weak., 
.pedant, minifter of ftate. His declamation is a fine fatire on the 
impertinent oratory then in vogue, which placed reafon in the for- 
mality of method, and wit in the gingle and play of words. With 
Avhat art is he made to pride himfelf in his tuit : 

That be is mad, 'tis true j 'tis true, 'tis pity j 
And pity 'tis, 'tis true; A foolifh figure j 

But farewel it. 

And how exquifitely does the poet ridicule the reafoning infajkion 
where he makes Polonius remark oa Hamlet' sinadnefs^ 

Though this be madnefs, yet there's method int ; 
As if method, which the wits of that age thought the moftefien- 
tial quality of a good difcourfe, would make amends for the mad- 


144 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

•' What Majefty (hould be, what duty is, 

4( Why day is day, night night, and time is time, 

" Were nothing but to wafte night, day, and time. 

" Therefore, fince brevity's the foul of wit, 

■* And tedioufnefs the limbs and outward flourifhes, 

«' I will be brief : your noble fon is mad ; 

*' Mad, call I it ; for, to define true madnefs, 

" What is't, but to be nothing elfe but mad ? 

" But let that go. — 

!i>ueen. More matter, with lefsart. 

Pol. " Madam, I fwear, I ufe no art at all : — 

nefs. It was madnefs indeed, yet Polonius could comfort himfelf 
with this reflexion, that at leaft it was method. It is certain Shake- 
fpear excels in nothing more than in the pvefervation of his cha- 
racters j To this life and variety of char abler (fays our great poet 
in his admirable preface to Shakefpear) iue mufi add the wonderful 
pvefervation of it. We h?.ve faid what is the character of Polonius ; 
and it is allowed on all hands to be drawn with wonderful life and 
fpirit, yet the unity of it has been thought by fome to be grofljr 
violated in the excellent Precepts and Inftrutlions which Shakefpear 
makes his ftatefman give to his fon and fervant in the middle of the 
Jirfi, and beginning of the fecond atl. But I will venture to fay, 
thefe criticks have not entered into the poet's art and addrefs in this 
particular. He had a mind to ornament his fcenei with thofe fine 
leffons of fecial life ; but his Polonius was too weak to be the author 
of them, tho' he was pedant enough to have met with them in hit 
reading, and fop enough to get them by heart and retail them for 
his own. And this the poet has finely fhewn us was the cafe, 
where, in the middle of Polonius^ inftructions to his fervant, he 
makes him, tho' without having received any interruption, forget 
his leiTon, and fay, 

And then, Sir, does he this ; 

He does — •• • 'what was I about to fay ? 

I ivas about to fay fomeihir.g -— — where did Ilesve ? ■ 
The fervant replies, 

At, clofes in the 
This fets Polonius right, and he goes on, 

At, clofes in the confluence ■ Ay marry, 

He clofes thus ; -* " ■ I know the gentleman, &c. 
which fhews they were words got by heart which he was repeating. 
Otherwife clofes in the corfequence, which conveys no particular idea 
of the fubject he was upon, could never have made him recollect 
where he broke off. This is an extraordinary inftance of the poet'f 
art, and attention to the prefervation of Character. 

z — -•-- * * iQ expofiulate] To expoflulate, for to 

tnquirc or difcufi. 

" That 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 145 
* l That he is mad, 'tis true; 'tis true, 'tis pity; 
" And pity 'tis, 'tis true; A foollifh figure ; 
" But farewel it ; for I will ufe no art. 
" Mad let us grant him then ; and now remains 
4t That we find out thecaufe of this effecft, 
" Or rather fay, the caufe of this defeft, 
" For this effecl, defedive, comes by caufe ; 
M Thus it remains, and the remainder thus Per- 
pend , — 

" I have a daughter; have, whilft me is mine ; 

" Who in her duty and obedience, mark, 

" Hath giv'n me this ; now gather, and furmife. 

[He opens a letter, and reads.'] 

To the celeftial, and my foul" s idol, the mofi {a) Beatified 
Ophelia.— That's an ill phrafe, a vile phrafe: bea- 
tified is a vile phrafe ; but you (hall hear Thefe to 

her excellent white bofom, thefe. . 

Queen. Came this from Hamlet to her ? 

Pol. Good Madam, flay a while, I will be faithful. 

Doubt thou, the fiars are fire, [Reading. 

Doubt, that the Sun doth move ; 
Doubt truth to be a liar, 
But never doubt, 1 love. 
Oh, dear Ophelia, lam ill at thefe numbers ; I have 
not art to reckon my groans ; but that I love thee bejf. 
ob mofi befi, believe it. Adieu. 

Thine evermore, mofi dear Lady, nukiljl 
r _,. m ' \ this Machine is to him, Hamlet. 

This in obedience hath my daughter fhewn me : 
And, more above, hath his follicitings, 
As they fell out by time, by means, and place, 
All given to mine ear. 

King.. But how hath me receiv'd his love ? 
Pol. What do you think of me ? 
King. As of a man, faithful and honourable 
Pol. I would fain prove fo. But what mi*ht you 
think ? ■. -* 

When I had feen this hot love on the wing, 
[(*) *<*tifi*i Mr, Tbtobald Vulg. h&utijicdA 

Vol. VIII. H (As 

.146 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

(As I perceiv'd it, I mull tell you that, 
Before my daughter told me:) what might you, 
Or my dear Majcfty your Queen here, think ? 
3 If I had play'd the defk or table-book, 
Or giv'n my heart a working mute and dumb, 
■Or look'd upon this love with idle fight ; 
■« What might you think ? no, I went round to work, 
*• And my young miilrefs thus I did befpeak ; 
«« Lord Hamlet is a Prince out of thy fphere, 
«« This muft not be ; and then, I precepts gave her, 
" That fhe mould lock herfelf from his refort, 
•« Admit no mefiengcrs, receive no tokens : 
** 4 Which done, lee too the fruits of my advice ; 
" For, he repulfed, s a ftiort tale to make, 
■*■ Fell to a fadnefs, then into a fad, 
*' Thence to a watching, thence into a weaknefs, 
Thence to a lightnefs, and, by this declenfion, 
" Into the madneis wherein now he raves, 
■J - And all we wail for. 

3 If I had play'd the desk or table-hook, 
Or giv'n my heart a working mute and dumb, 
Or looked upon this love with idle fight j 

What might you think f] i. e. If either I had conveyed intel- 
ligence between them, and been the confident of their amours, 
{play d the dejk or table-hock,] or had connived at it, only obferved 
them in fecret without acquainting my daughter with my difcovery, 
V given my heart a mute and dumb working,] orlaftly, had been neg- 
ligent in obferving the intrigue and over-looked it, [look' d upon this 
love with idle fight r] what would you have thought of me ? 

4 Which done, she took the fruits of my advice ; 

And he repulfed, - ] The fruits of advice are the effects of 
advice. But how could me be faid to take them ? the reading is 
corrupt. Shah/pear wrote, 

Which done, see too the fruits of my advice ; 

For, he repulfed, 

c _————• a port tale to make, 

Fell to a fadnefs, then into a f aft, &c] The ridicule of this 
character is here admirably fuftaincd. He would not only be thought 
to have difcovered this intrigue by his own fagacity, but to have 
remarked all the ftages of Hamlet 's diforder, from his fadnefs to 
his raving, as regularly as his phyfician could have done ; when all 
the while the madneis was only feigned. The humour or this i 
exqiiifite from a man who tells us, with a confidence peculiar to 
Imall politicians, that he could find 

Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed 
Within the center. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 147 

King. Do you think this ? 

Queen. It may be very likely. 

Pol. " Hath there been fuch a time, I'd fain know 
" That I have pofitively faid, 'tis fo, 
" When it prov'd otherwife ? 

King. Not that I know. 

Pol. Take this from this, if this be otherwife. 

. [Pointing to his Head and Shoulder. 

" If circumflances lead me, I will find 
" Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed 
" Within the center. 

King. How may we try it further ? 

Pol. You know, fometimes he walks four hours 
Here in the lobby. 

Queen. So he does, indeed. 

Pol. At fuch a time I'll loofe my daughter to him ; 
Be you and I behind an Arras then, 
Mark the encounter : If he love her not, 
And be not from his reafon fall'n thereon, 
Let me be no affiftant for a State, 
But keep a farm and carters. 

King. We will try it. 


Enter Hamlet reading. 
Queen. But, look, where, fadly the poor wretch 

comes reading. 
Pol. Away, I do befeech you, both away. 
HI board him prefently. [Exeunt King and Queen. 

Uh, give me leave -How does my good lord 

Hamlet ? 
Ham. Well, God o'mercy. 
Pol. Do you know me, my lord. 
^Excellent well ; you are a fishmonger. 
Pol. Not I, my lord. & 

Ham. Then I would you were fo honetf a man. 
Pel, Honeft, my lord ? 

3 * mm] 

148 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham, Ay, Sir; to be honeft, as this world goes* 
is to be one man pick'd out of ten thoui'and. 
Pol. That's very true, my lord. 
Ham. 6 For if the Sun breed maggots in a dead dog. 


6 For if the Sun hretd maggots m a dead dog, 

Be: i:g a g o o d kiffing carrion — *■ t j 

Have you a daughter ?] The Editors feeing Hamlet counter- 
feit madnefs, thought they might lately put any nonfenfe into hit 
mouth. But this- ftrange paffage, when fet right, will be feen to • 
contain as great and fublime a reflexion as any the poet puts into 
ihis Hero's mouth throughout the whole play. We fhall firft give 
the true reading, which is this, 

For if the Sun breed maggots in a dead dog 3 

Being a God, kifilng carrion, 

As to the fenfewemay obferve, that the illative rr.i tide [for; ihev.s 
the fpeaker to be reafoning from fomething he had faid before : 
What that was we learn in thefe words, to be honefi, as this ivonJd 
goes, is to be one picked out of ten tkoufand. Having faid this, the 
chain of ideas led him to reflect upon the argument which liber- 
tines bring againft Providence from the circumftance of abounding 
'Evil. In the next fpeech therefore he endeavours to anfwer that 
©biection, and vindicate Providence, even on a fuppofition of the 
iact, that almoftall men were wicked. His argument in the two 
lines in queftion is to this purpofe, But ■why need ive wonder at 
this abounding of evil f for if the Sun breed maggots in a dead dog, 
ivbich thd" a God, yet fhedding its heat and upon carrion— 
Here he flops fliort, left talking too confequentially the hearer 
ihould fufpect his madnefs to be feigned j and fo turns him oft" frcm 
the fubject by enquiring of his daughter. But the inference whicli 
he intended to make, was a very noble one, and to this purpofe, 
If this (fays he) be the cafe^ that the effect follows the thing ope- 
rated upon \_carrion] and not the thing operating [a GW;] why 
sieed we wonder, that the fupreme caufe of all things diffufing its 
bleffings on mankind, who is, as it were, a dead carrion, dead in 
original fin, man, inftead of a proper return of duty, ihould breed 
only conuption and vices ? This is the argument at length 5 and is 
as noble a one in behalf of providence as ccild come frcm the 
ichools of divinity. But this wonderful man had an art not enly 
of acquainting the audience with what his Actors /tv, but with 
what they think. The fentimenttoo is altogether in character, far 
Hamlet is perpetually moralizing, and his circumfiances make 
this reflexion very natural. The fame thought, fomething diver- 
fifled, as on a different cccafion, he ufes again in Meafure fm 
Mtafure, which will ferve to confirm thefe observations.: 

'The tempter or the tempted, ivhofns mofl ? 

Not Jhe ; nor dothjhe tempt ; but it is I, 
' That] lying by the violet in the fun, 

Do, as tve carrion does, not as thefo-wer 

Corrupt ivitb virtuous feafon ^ - 


Hamlet, Prince of "Denmark. 149 

Being a God, killing carrion 

Have you a daughter ? 

Pol. I have, my lord. 

Ham Let her not walk t tV Sun ; conception is 
a biefTmg, but not as your daughter may conceive. 
Friend, look to't. 

Pol. " How fay you by that ? flill harping on my 

daughter ! 

" Yet he knew me not at firfl ; he laid, I was a fiffi* 

" He is far gone ; and, truly, in my youth, [Afide. 
" 1 fufferM much extremity for love; 

" Very near this. HI fpeakto him again. 

What do you read, my lord ? 

Ham. Words, words, words. 

Pol. What is the matter, my lord ? 

Ham. Between whom ? 

Pol. I mean the matter that you read, my lord. 

Ham. 7 Slanders, Sir : for the fatyrical fhve fays 
here, that old men have grey beards ; that their faces 
are wrinkled ; their eyes purging thick amber, and 
plumtree gum ; and that they have a plentiful lack of 
wit; together with mod weak hams. All which, Sir, 
tho' I moll powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold 
it not honefty to have it thus fet down ; for your felf, 
Sir, (hall be as old as I am, if, like a crab, you could 
go backward. 

Pol. Though this be madnefs, yet there's method 
in't : 

And the fame kind of exprejjion in Cymbeline, 
Common -kifjing Titan. 
7 Slanders, Sir : for the fatyrical Jlave fays here, that old men, &c."J 
By the fatyrical Jlave he means Juvenal in his tenth fatire : 
Da fpatium vita, multos da Jupiter annos : 
Hoc reBo vultu, folum hoc & pallidus optas. 
Sed quJm C9ntinuis £f quantis longa fent&us 
Plena malis ! deformem, & tetrum ante omnia vultum, 
Difiimilemque fui, &c. 
Nothing could be finer imagined tot Hamlet, in his circumftances, 
than the bringing him in reading a description of the evils of lone 

H 3 Will 

1 50 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Will you walk out of the air, my lord ? 
Ham. Into my Grave. 

Pol. Indeed, that is out o'th' air 

'* How pregnant (fometimes) his replies are ? 

«* A happinefs that often madnefs hits on, 

*« Which fanity and reafon could not be 

" So profp'roufly deliver'd of. I'll leave him* 

And fuddenly contrive the means of meeting 

Between him and my daughter. 

My honourable lord, I will moft humbly 

Take my leave of you. 

Ham. You cannot, c>ir, take from me any thing that 
I will more willingly part withal, except my life. 

Pol. Fare you well, my lord. 

Ham. Thefe tedious old fools ! 

Pol. You go to feek lord Hamlet ; there he is_ 



Enter Rofincrantz, and Guildenftem. 

Mo/. God fave you, Sir.. 

Guil. Mine honoured lord ! 

*Rof My moil dear lord T 

Ham. My excellent good friends f How dofl thou* 
Guiidenfiern P 
Oh, Rofincrantx, good laas ! how do ye both ? 

Rof. As the indifferent children of the earth. 

Guil. Happy, in that we are not over-happy ; on» 
fortune's cap, we are not the very button. 

Ham. Nor the foals of her fhoe ? 

Rof. Neither, my lord. 

Ham. Then you live about her wafle, or in the 
middle of her favours ? 

Guil. Faith, in her privates we. 

Ham. In the fecret parts of fortune ? oh, moft true ; 
fhe is a (trumpet. What news ? 

Rof None, my lord, but that the world's grown 

Ham. Then is dooms-day near; but your news is 
not true. Let me queftion more in particular: what 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 151 

have you, my good friends, deferved at the hands. of 
fortune, that (he fends you to prifon hither ? 

Gut I. Prifon, my lord ! 

Ham. Denmark's a prifon. 

Rof. Then is the world one. 

Ham. A goodly one, in which there are many con- 
fines, wards, and dungeons ; Denmark being one o'th* 

Rof We think not fo, my lord. 

Ham. Why, then, 'tis none to you ; for there is 
nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it fo : 
to me, it is a prifon. 

Rof. Why, then your ambition makes it one : 'tis 
too narrow for your mind. 

Ham. Oh God, I could be bounded in a nut-fhell, 
and count my felf a King of infinite fpace ; were it 
not, that I have bad dreams. 

Gut/. Which dreams, indeed, are Ambition ; for 
the very fubftance of the ambitious is meerly the fha- 
dow of a dream. 

Ham. A dream itfelf is but a fhadow. 

Rof Truly, and I hold ambition of fo airy and light 
a quality, that it is but a fhadow' s (hadow. 

Ham. Then are our beggars, bodies j and our mo- 
narchs and out-ftretch'd heroes, the beggars' fhadows ; 
Shall we to th' Court ?- for, by my fay, I cannot 

Both. We'll wait upon you. 

Ham. No fuch matter. I will not fort you with 
the reft of my fervants : for, to fpeak to you like an 
honeft man, I am moil dreadfully attended : but in 
the beaten way of Friendfhip, what make you at 
El/inoor P 

Rof. To vifit you, my lord ; no other occafion. 

Ham. Beggar that I am, I am even poor in thanks 5 
but I thank you ; and fure, dear friends, my thanks 
are too dear of a half-penny. Were you not fent for ? 
is it your own inclining? is it a free vifitation ? come, 
deal juftly with me ; come, come ; nay, fpeak. 

Gut I. What mould we fay, my lord ? 

H 4 

152 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. Any thing, but to the purpofe. You were 
fent for ; and there is a kind of confeffion in your 
looks, hich your modefties have not craft enough to 
colour. I know, the good King and Queen have Tent 
for you. 

Rof To what end, my lord ? 

Ham. That you muft teach me ; but let me conjure 
you by the rights of our fellowfhip, by the confonancy 
of our youth, by the obligation of our ever- preferred 
love, and by what more dear, a better propofer could 
charge you withal ; be even and direel with me, whe- 
ther you were fent for or no ? 

f'cf, What fay you ? [To Guilden. 

Ham. Nay, then I have an eye of you : if you love 
me, hold not off. 

Guil. My lord, we were fent for. 

Ham. I will tell you why ; fo fhall my anticipation 
prevent your difcovery, and your fecrecy to the King 
and Queen moult no feather. " 3 I have of late, but 
" wherefore I know not, loft all my mirth, foregone 
" all cuftom of exercife ; and, indeed, it goes fo hea- 
" vily with my difpofition, that this goodly frame, 
«* the earth, feems to me a fteril promontory ; this 
" moft excellent canopy the air, look you, this brave 
" o'er-hanging firmament, this majeilical roof fretted 
'« with golden fire, why, it appears no other thing to 
*• me, than a foul and peftilent congregation of va- 
«' pours. What a piece of work is a man ! how noble 
'• in reafon ! how infinite in faculties, in form and 
*• moving how exprefs and admirable ! in adlion how 
«• like an angel ! in apprehenfion how like a God ! 
" the beauty of the world, the paragon of animals ! 
«' and yet to me, what is this quinteffence of duft ? 
** man delights not me, nor woman neither *, though, 
'* by your fmiling you feem to fay fo. 

Rof. My lord, there was no fuch ftufT in my thoughts. 

8 I have of late, &c] This is an admirable defcription of a 
rooted melancholy fprung from thicknefs of blcod ; and artfully 
imagined to hide the true caufe of his diforder from the penetra- 
tion of thefe two friends, who were fet over hhn as fpies. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 153 

Ham. Why did you laugh, when I faid, man de- 
lights not me ? 

Rof. To think, my lord, if you delight not in man, 
what lenten entertainment the Players (hall receive 
from you ; we accofted them on the way, and hither 
are they coming 90 offer you (ervice. 

Ham. " He that plays the King (hall be welcome; 
" his Majefty mall have tribute of me ; the adventu- 
" rous Knight (hall ufe his foyl and target ; the lover 
" (hall not figh gratis ; the humourous man 9 (hall 
" end his part in peace ; the clown (hall make thofe 
" laugh whofe lungs are tickled o' th' fere ; and the 
" lady (hall fay her mind freely, or the blank verfe 
" (hall halt for't. What Players are they ? 

Rof Even thofe you were wont to take delight in, 
the Tragedians of the city. 

Ham. How chances it, they travel ? their refidence 
both in reputation and profit was better, both ways. 

Rof. I think, their inhibition comes by the means of 
the late innovation. 

Ham. Do they hold the fame eftimation they did, 
when I was in the city ? are they fo follow'd ? 

RoJ. No, indeed, they are not. 

Ham. How comes it ? do they grow rutty ? 

Rof. Nay, their endeavour keeps in the wonted 
pace; but there is, Sir, 1 an Aiery of Children, little 
Eyafes, that cry out on the top c: queftion ; and are 
mod tyrannically clapt for't ; theio sre now the fa- 
fhion, and fo berattle the common fiages, (fo they call 
them) that many wearing rapiers are afraid of g-^ e- 
quills, and dare fcarce come thither. 

Ham. What, are they children ? who maintains 
'em? how are they efcoted ? will they puriue the 
Quality, no longer than they can fing ? will they not 
fay afterwards, if they (hould grow themfelves to com- 
mon players, (as it is- mod like, if their means are no 

9 Jhal! end his part in peace ;] After thefe words the Folio addsy 
the cloivn pall make thofe laugh whofe lungs are tickled o'th^ fer-e. 

1 an Aiery of Children,'] Relating to the play-hcuies then con- 
tending", the Bankfide, the Fortune, &c. play'd by the children of 
his Majefty's chapel,- Mr - Pc P e - 

H 5, better Ct 

154 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

better :) their writers do them wrong to make them 
exclaim againft their own fucceflion ? 

Rof Faith, there has been much to do on both 
fides ; and the nation holds it no fin, to tarre them on- 
to controverfy. There was, for a while, no money bid 
for argument, unlefs the poet and th$ player went to 
cuffs in the queftion. 

Ham. Is't poffible?- 
1 Guil. Oh, there has been much throwing about of 

Ham. Do the Boys carry it away ? 

Rof. Ay, that they do, my lord, z Hercules and his 
load too. 

Ham. It is not ftrange ; for mine uncle is King of 
Denmark ; and thofe, that would make mowes at him 
while my father lived, give twenty, forty, fifty, art- 
hundred ducats apiece, for his picture in little. There 
is fomething in this more than natural, if philofophy 
could find it out. [F lour ijb for the Players. 

Guil. There are the Players. 

Ham. Gentlemen, you are welcome to Elfnoor ; 
your hands : come then, the appurtenance of welcome/ 
is fafnion and ceremony. Let me comply with you in 
this garbe, left my extent to the players (which, I tell 
you, mud (hew fairly outward) mould more appear 
like entertainment than yours. You are welcome ; but 
my Uncle father and Aunt-mother are deceiv'd. 

Guil. In what, my dear lord ? 

Ham. " I am but mad north, north- weft : when the^ 
" wind is foutherly, * I know a hawk from a handfaw. . 

i Hercules and kis load too.'} i. e. They not only carry away 
the world, but the world-bearer too : Alluding to the flory of Her. 
cu/es's relievingi^ltlas. This is humuorous. 

3 I know a hawk from a handfaw.~\ This was a common prover-- 
fcsal fpeech. The Oxford Editor alters it to, / 'know a hawk from 
4i h:rnjhaw. As if the other had been a corruption of the players $ 
whereas the poet found the proverb thus corrupted in the mouths of 
the people. So that this critick's alteration only ferves to mew us 
the original of the expreffion, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 155 


Enter Polonius. 

Pol. Well be with you, gentlemen. 

Ham. Hark you, Guildenfiem, and you too, at each 
car a hearer ; that great Baby, you fee there, is not 
yet out of his fvvathling-clouts. 

Rof Haply, he's the fecond time come to them ; 
for they fay, an old man is twice a child. 

Ham. I will prophefy, he comes to tell me of the 

players. Mark it ; —you fay right, Sir ; for on- 

Monday morning 'twas fo, indeed. 

Pol. My lord, I have news to tell you. 

Ham. My lord, I have news to tell you. 
When Rofcius was an Aclorin Rome- 

Pol. The Aftors are come hither, my lord. 

Ham. Buzze, buzze. 

Pol. Upon mine honour - 

Ham. Then came each Ador on his afs 

Pol. " The belt Adors in the world, either for 
" tragedy, comedy, hiftory, paftoral, paftoral-comi- 
81 cal, hiftorical-paftoral, fcene undivideable, or Poem 
" unlimited : Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor P/autus 
" too light. For the law of wit, and the Liberty, 
" thefe are the only men. 

Ham. Ob, Jepbtba, judge of Ifrael, what a treafure 
had ft Thou ! 

Pol. What a treafure had he, my lord ? 

Ham. Why, one fair daughter, and no more, 
The which he lo-ved paffing well. 

Pol. Still on my daughter. 

Ham. Am I not i'th' right, old Jephtba ? 

Pol. If you call me Jephtba, my lord, I have a 
daughter that I love pafling well. 

Ham. Nay, that follows not. 

Pol. What follows then, my lord ? 

Ham. Why, as by lot, God wo/— and then you 
know, it came to pafs, as mojl like it was j 4 the firll 


4-tbefrJ} row of the rubrick] It is pons chanfons in the firft Foli» 


156 Kamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

row of the rubrick will' fhew you more. For, look, 
where my abridgements come. 

Enter four or fi<ve Play en. 
Y'are weJcome, mailers, welcome all. I am glad to fee 
thee well ; welcome, good friends. Oh \ old friend \ 
thy face is valanc'd, fince I faw thee laft : com'ft thou 
to beard me in Denmark ? What ! my young lady and 
mifirefs ? b'erlady, your ladyfhip is nearer heaven than 
when I faw you laft, by the altitude of $ a chioppine. 
Pray God, your voice, like a piece of uncurrent gold, 
be not crack'd within the ring. — Matters, you are all 
weicome; we'll e'en to't like. friendly faulconers, fly 
at any thing we fee ; we'll have a fpeech ftraight. 
Come, give us a tafte of your quality ; come, a paffio- 
aate fpeech. 

1 Play. What fpeech, my good lord ? 

Ham. I heard thee fpeak me a fpeech once j but k. 
was never acled : or if it was, not above once ; for the 
Play, I remember^pleas'd not the million, 'twas Caviar 
to the general ; but it was (as I received it, and others, 
whcfe judgment in fuch matters 6 cried in the top of 
mine) an excellent Play ; well digefted in the fcenes > 
7 fet down with as much modefty as cunning. I remem- 
ber, one faid, there was no fait in the lines, to make 
the matter favoury ; nor no matter in the phrafe, 8 that 
might indite the author of affe&ion ; but call'd it, 9 an 
honeil method. One fpeech in it I chiefly lov'd j 'twas 
jEneas^s tale to Dido ; and thereabout of it efpecially, 
where he fpeaks of Priam's daughter. If it live in your 
memory, begin at this line, let me fee, let me fee — 
The rugged Pyrrhus, like th' Hyrcanian heart, — It is 

edition. The old ballads Tung on bridges, and from thence called 
Pons chanfons. Hamlet is here repeating ends of old fongs. 

Mr. Pope. 
The rubrick is equivalent. The titles of old ballads being written 
in red letters. 

5 a chioppineJ] A tight-heel'd fhoe, er a flipper. Mr Pope. 

6 cried -in the top of mine\ i\ e. whole judgment I had the higheft 
©pinion of„ 

7 fet down imth as much modefty] Modefty, for Simplicity. 

8 that might indite the author"] Indite, for convict* 
3 an honeft method,} Honeji, for chafte* 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 157 

»ot fo y — it begins with Pyrrbu*. 

The rugged Pyrrbus, he, vvhofe fable arms, 

Black as his purpofe, did the Night refemble 

When he ray couched in the ominous horfe ; 

Hath now his dread and black complexion fmearM 

With heraldry more difmal ; head to foot, 

Now is he total gules ; horridly trickt 

With blood of fathers, mothers, daughters, fons 

Bak'd and imparted with the parching fires, 

That lend a tyrannous and damned light 

To murthers vile. Roafted in wrath and fire, 

And thus o'er-fized with coagulate gore, 

With eyes like carbuncles, the hellifh Pyrrbus 

Old grandfire Priam feeks. 

Pol. 'Fore God, my lord, well fpoken, with good 
accent, and good difcretion. 

1 Play. Anon he finds him, 
Striking, too fhort, at Greeks. His antique fword, 
Rebellious to his arm, lies where it falls, 
Repugnant to Command ; unequal match r d, 
Pyrrhus at Priam drives, in rage flrikes wide,- 
But with the whif and wind of his fell fword ' 
TV unnerved father falls. " Then fenfelefs Ilium 
" Seeming to feel this blow, with flaming top 
" Stoops to his Bafe ; and with a hideous crafh 
Takes prifoner Pyrrbus's ear. For lo, his fworcL 
Which was declin ; ng on the milky head 
Of rev'rend Priam, feenrd i'th' air to flick j 
So, as a painted tyrant, Pyrrbus (food ; 
And, like a neutral to his will and matter, 
Did nothing. 

" But as we often fee, againfl fome form, 
" A filence in the heiv'ns, the rack itand ftM 
" The bold winds fpeechlefs, and the orb below 
" As hum as death : anon the dreadful thunder 
Doth rend the region : So after Pyrrbus'' paufe 
A roufed vengeance fets him new a- work : * 
And never did the Cyclop? hammers fall 
On Mars his armour, forg'd for proof eterne 
With lefs remorfe than Pyrrbus' bleeding fword 
Now falls on Priam.*—. ° 


158 Ha m l e t , Prince of Den m ark . 

Out, out, thou (trumpet Fortune ! all you Gods, 
In general fynod take away her power : 
Break all the fpokes and fellies from her wheel, 
And bowl the round nave down the hill of iffeav'n, 
As low as to the fiends. 

Pol. This is too long. 

Ham. It (hall to th' barber's with your beard. Pr'y- 
thee, fay on ; he's for a jigg, or a tale of bawdry, or 
he fleeps. Say on, come to Hecuba. 

1 Play. But who, oh! who, had feen « the mobled: 
Queen ? — 

Ham. The mobled Queen ? 

Pol That's good ; mobled Queen, is good. 

1 Play. Run bare-fcot up and down, threatning the.: 
With biffon rheum ; a clout upon that head, 
Where late the Diadem flood ; and for a robe 
About her lank and all-o'er-teemed loyns, 
A blanket in th' alarm of fear caught up : 
Who this had feen, with tongue in venom fteep'd, 
'Gainft fortune's ftate would treafon have pronounc'd^ 
But if the Gods themfelves did fee her then, 
When (he faw Pyrrhus make malicious fport 
In mincing with his fword her hufband's limbs ; 
The inftant burit of clamour that (he made, 
(Unlefs things mortal move them not at all) 
Would have made milch the burning eyes of heav'n, 
And palTion in the Gods. 

Pol. Look, whe're he has not turn'd his colour,, 
and has tears in's eyes. Pr'y thee, no more. 

Ham. 'Tis well, I'll have thee fpeak out the reft of 
this foon. Good my lord, will you fee the Players 
well beftow'd ? Do ye hear, let them be well us'd ; • 
for they, are the abltraa, and brief chronicles of the 
time. After your death, you were better have a bad 
Epitaph, than their ill report while you liv'd. 

T __„— . the mobled §tueeti, — ] Mobled or wabled, ilgnifies 
-eiled So Sandys, fpeaking of the Turkijh women, fays their 
heads and faces otmabled in fine linen, that no more is to he feen 
*f them than their eyes; Travels, 

J PoL. 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 159 

Pol. My lord, I will ufe them according to their 

Ham. God's hodikins, man, much better. Ufe 
every man after his defert, and who (hall 'fcape whip- 
ping ? ufe them afcer your own honour and dignity. 
The lefs they deferve, the more merit is in your bounty." 
Take them in. 

Pol. Come, Sirs. [Exit Po T onius. 

Ham. Follow him, Friends: we'll hear a Play to 
morrow. Doft thou hear me, old friend, can you play, 
the murther of Gonzago ? 

Play. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. We'll ha't to morrow night. You could, 
for a need, ftudy a fpeech of fome dozen or fixteen 
lines, which I would fet down, and infert in'c ? could 
ye not ? 

play. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. Very well. Follow that lord, and, look, you 
mock him not. My good friends, I'll leave you 'till 
night, you are welcome to Elfinoor, 

Rof. Good my lord. [Exeunt;. 

SCEN e vim 

Manet Hamlet. 
Ham. Ay, fo, God b' w' ye : now I am alone.. 
Oh, what a rogue and peafant Have am I ! 
•' Is it not monftrous that this Player here,. 
" But in a fi&ion, in a dream of paffion, 
" Could force his foul fo to his own conceit, 
t! That, from her working, z all his vifage wan'd : 
•' Tears in his eyes, diltraclion in his afpeft, 
" A broken voice, and his whole function fuiting 
" With forms, to his conceit ? and all for nothing ? 
«' For Hecuba ? 

i all hi* vifage wakm'd:] This might do, did not th 2 

old 2%uartoJe&A us to a moreexafl and pertinent reading, which is 

- "—— ' - ■ vifage wan'd : 

i. e. turn'd pale, or nuan. For fo the vifage appears when the 
mind is thus afte&ioned, and not luanri'd or flufhed, 

" What's 

160 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

■ " What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, 
" That he mould weep for her ? what would he do, 
" Had he the motive and the cue for paflion, 
"^That I have? he would drown the ftage with 

'' And cleave the genVal ear with horrid fpeech ;. 
" Make mad the guilty, and appall the free ; 
•* Confound the ign'rant, 'and amaze, indeed,. 
" The very faculty of eyes and ears. — -Yet I, 
,A dull and muddy-mettled rafcal, peak, 
Like John a- dreams , 3 unpregnant of my caufe,. 

And can fay nothing, no, not for a Xing, » 

Upon whofe property and moil dear life 
*■ A damn'd defeat was made. Am I a coward f 
Who calls me villain, breaks my pate a-crofs, * 
Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face ? 
Tweaks me by th' nofe, gives me the lye i'th' throat, 
As deep as to the lungs ? who does me this ? 

Yet I mould take it .for it cannot be, 

But I am pidgeon-liver'd, and lack gall 
To make oppreffion bitter ; or, ere this, 
I mould have fatted all the region kites 
With this flave's offal. Bloody, bawdy villain ! 
Remorfelefs, treacherous, letcherous, kindlefs villain !:' 
W T hy, what an afs am I ? this is molt brave,. 
That I, the fon of a dear father murthered, 
Prompted to my revenge by heav'n and hell, 
Mull, like a whore, unpack my heart with words, 
And "fall acurfing like a very drab ■ - — — 
A fcullion,— fye upon't ! foh! — about my brain ! 
I've heard, that guilty creature at a Play, 
Have by the very cunning of the Scene 
Been ftruck fo to the foul, thatprefcntly 
They have proclaim'd their malefactions. 
For murther, though it have no tongue, will fpeak 
With moft miraculous organ. I'll have thefe Players- 
Play fomething like the murther of my father, 

mpregnant of my caufe,'] Unpregnant, for having no 

due fenfe of. 
4 A damn'd defeat was made*** mm -] Defeat, for deftru&Ion. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denm ark . 1 6 1 

Before mine uncle. I'll obferve his looks ; 

I'll tent him to the quick ; if he but blench, 

I know my courfe. The fpirit, that I have feen,. 

May be the Devil ; and the Devil hath power 

T' afiume a pleafing mape ; yea, and, perhaps, 

Oat of my weaknefs and my melancholy, 

(As he is very potent with fuch fpirits) 

Abufes me to damn me. Til* have grounds 

* More relative than this : The Play's the thing, 

Wherein I'll catch the Conscience of the King. [Exit. 



Enter King, Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, Rofincrantz, 
Guildenftern, and Lords. 

King. AND can you by no drift of conference 

XX Get from him why he puts on thisconfufion, 
Grating fo harfnly all his days of quiet, 
With turbulent and dang'rous lunacy ? 

Rof. He does confefs, he feels himfelf diftra&ed j 
But from what caufe he will by no means fpeak. 

Guil. Nor do we find him forward to be founded ;. 
But with a crafty madnefs keeps aloof, 
When we would bring him on to fome confeflion 
Of his true Mate. 

Queen. Did he receive you well ? 

Rof Moft like a gentleman. 

Guil. But with much forcing of his difpofition. 

Rof. x Moft free of queftion, but of our demands 
Niggard in his reply. 2>uten. 

5 More relative than this : ] Relative, for conviftive. 

I Niggard of quejiion, but of our demands 

Moft free in his reply.] This is given as the defcription of the 
converfation of a man whom the fytzker found not forward to be 
founded j and who kept aloof when they would bring him to confcf- 
Jion -. But fuch a defcription can never pafs but at crofs-purpofes. 
Sbakefpear certainly wrote it juft the other way, 


i6i Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Queen. Did you aflay him to any paftime ? 
Rof. Madam, it fo fell out, that certain Players 
* We o'er-rode on the way ; of thefe we told him ; 
And there did feem in him a kind of joy 
To hear of it : they are about the Court ; 
And (as I think) they have already order 
This night to play before him. 

Pol. 'Tis moft true : 
And he befeech'd me to intreat your Majefties 
To hear and fee the matter. 

King. With all my heart, and it doth much content 
To hear him fo inclin'd. 
Good gentlemen, give him a further edge, 
And drive his pappofe into thefe delights. 

Rof We mall my lord. [Exeunt. 

Ki?2g. Sweet Gertrude, leave us too ;- 
For we have clofely fent for Hamlet hither, 
That he, as 'twere by accident, may here 
Affront Ophelia. Her father, and my ielf, 
Will fo bellow ourfeJves, that, feeing, unfeen,. 
We may of their encounter frankly judge ;. 
And gather by him, as he is behaved, 
Wt be tiV aiHiclion of his love, or no, 
That thus he fuffers for. 

Queen. I fhall obey you : 
And for my part, Ophelia, I do wiffi, 
That your good beauties be the happy caufe 
Of Hamiefi wildhefs : So (hail I hop;, your virtues 
May bring him to his wonted way again 
To both your honours. 

Opb. Madam, I wifh it may. [Exit Queen. 

Pol. Ophelia, walk you here. Gracious, fo 

pieafe ye, ' 

Moft free of queftion, but of our demands 
Niggard in his reply. 
That this ia the true reading we need. but turn back to the preced- 
ing fcene, for Hamlet's conduct, to be fatisfied. 

2 We o'ertok on. the -way ;] The old quarto reads o'er-r aught 
corruptly, for o'er-rode. Which I think is the right reading j fo* 
o er-took has the idea of following with deGgn and accompanying. 
Q er-rode has neither : which was the cafe. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 163 

We will bellow ouf felves Read on this book ; 

That mew of fuch an exercife may colour 
Your lonelinefs. We're oft to blame in this, 
Tis too much prov'd, that with devotion's vifage, 
And pious a&ion, we do fugar o'er 
The devil himfelf. 

Kin?. Oh, 'tis too true. 
How fmart a laih that fpeech doth give my con- 

fcience ! 
The harlot's cheek, beautied with plaftrmg art, 
Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it, 
Than is my deed to my moll painted word. l^jtae. 
Oh heavy burthen ! 

Pol. I hear him coming; let's withdraw my lord. 

[Exeunt all but Osteite* 

SCENE ir. 

Enter Hamlet. 
Ham. " To be, or not to be ? that is the queftion.— 
« Whether 'tis nobler in the mind, to fuffer 
«* The flings and arrows of outragious fortune ; 
" ? Or to take arms againft affail of troubles, 

" And by oppofmg end them ?— to die,— to fleep - 

" No more ; and by a fleep, to fay, we end 

" The heart-ache, and the thoufand natural (hocks 

" That flefli is heir to ; 'tis a confummation 

«« Devoutly to be wifird. To die to fleep—- 

" To fleep ? perchance, to dream j ay, there s the 

" For in that fleep of Death what dreams may come, 
" When we have muffled off this * mortal coil, 
" Muft give us paufe. — * There's the refped, 
" That makes Calamity of fo long life. 

3 Or to take arms a sba of troubles,] Without queftion 
Shake/pear wrote, 

— againfi Ass a i l of troubles. . 

& e. affault. 

4 —mortal coil,] i, e. turmoil, buftle. 

5 —Tbtr? Siberia,] U^f? for confideration, WtJJ* 

164 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

M For who would bear 6 the whips and fcorns of th' time r 
" Th' oppreflbr's wrong, the proud man's con- 
" The pang of defpisM love, the law's delay, 
** The infolence of office, and the fpurns 
" That patient merit of th' unworthy takes ; 
" When he himielf might his Quietus make 
" With a bare bodkin ? who would fardles bear, 
•* To groan andfweat under a weary life ? 
M But that the dread of fomething after death, 
*' (That undifcoverd country, from whofe bourne 
4t No traveller returns) puzzles the will; 
" And makes us rather bear thofe ills we have, 
** Tiian fly to others that we know not of. 
" Thus conscience does make cowards of us all : 
** And thus the native hue of refolution 
" Is ficklied o'er with the pale call of thought ; 
'• And enterprizes of great pith, and moment, 
" With this regard their currents turn awry, 
** And lofe the name of attion— Soft you, now ! 

[Seeing Oph> 
The fair Ophelia ? Nymph ! in thy orifons 
Be all my fins remembred. 

Opb. Good my lord, 
How does your Honour for this many a day ? 

Ham. I humbly thank you, well ;— — — — . 

Opb. My lord, I have remembrances of yours, 
That I have longed long to re deliver. 
I pray you, now receive them. 

Ham. No, I never gave you aught. 

Opb. My honour'd lord, you know right well, you 


And with them words of fo fweet breath compos'd, 
As made the things more rich : that perfume loft, 

6 — the tvhips and fccrr.s of time,] The evils here com- 
plained of are not the product of time or duration fimply, but of a 
corrupted age or manners. We may be fure, then, that Shake- 
fpear wrote, 

the "whips and /corns of th' time. 

And the description of the evils of a corrupt age, which follows, 
confirms this emendation.. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 165 

Take thefe again ; for to the noble mind 

Rich gifts wax poor, when givers prove unkind. 

There, my lord. 

Ham. Ha, ha ! are you honeft ? 

Oph. My lord, • 

Ham Are you fair ? 

Oph. What means your lordfhip ? 

Ham. That if you be honeft and fair, you ihould ad- 
mit no difcourfe to your beauty. 

Oph. Could beauty, my lord, have better commerce 
than with honefty ? 

Ham. Ay, truly ; for the power of beauty will fooner 
transform honefty from what it is, to a bawd ; than the 
force of honefty can translate beauty into its likenefs. 
This was fometime a paradox, but now the time gives it 
proof. > I did love you once. 

Oph. Indeed, my lord, you made me believe fo. 

Ham. You mould not have believed me. For vir- 
tue cannot fo inoculate our old ftock, but we (hall re- 
lifh of it. I lov'd you not. 

Opb. I was the more deceiv'd. 

Ham. Get thee to a nunnery. Why would ft thou 
be a breeder of finners ? I am my felf indifferent ho- 
neft ; but yet I could accufe me of fuch Things, that it 
were better, my mother had not borne me. I am very 
proud, revengeful, ambitious, 7 with more offences at 
my beck, than I have thoughts to put them in name, 
imagination to give them fhape, or time to ad them 
in. What mould fuch fellows, as I, do crawling be- 
tween heav'n and earth ? we are arrant knaves, be- 
lieve none of us Go thy ways to a nunnery 

Where's your father ? 

Opb. 'It home, my lord. 

7 with more offences at my beck, than I ha-vc thoughts to put them 
in, imagination to give them Jhape, or time to ail them in.] What 
is the meaning of thoughts to j>ut them in ? A word is dropt out. 
We lhould read, 

■ thcugl-rs to put them in name. 

This was the progrefs The offences are finl conceived and named, 
then projected to be put in act, then executed. 


166 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. Let the doors be fhut upon him, that he 
may play the fool no where but m's own houfe. 

Oph. Oh help him, you fweet heav'ns ! 
Ham. If thou doll marry, I'll give thee this plague 
for thy dowry. Be thou as chafte as ice, as pure as 
fnow, thou (halt not efcape calumny. — Get thee to a 
nunnery, — farewel — Or, if thou wilt needs marry, 
marry a fool ; for wife men know well enough, what 

monfters you make of them To a nunnery, go— 

and quickly too : farewel. 

Oph. Heav'nly powers, reftore him ! 
Ham. I have heard of your painting too, well 
enough : God has given you one face, and you make 
your felves another. You jig, you amble, and you 
lifp, and nick-name God's creatures, and make your 
wantonnefs your ignorance. Go to, I'll no more on't, 
it hath made me mad. I fay, we will have no more 
marriages. Thofe that are married already, all but 
one, fhall live ; the reft fhall keep as they are. To a 
•nunnery, go. {Exit Hamlet. 

Oph. u Oh, what a noble mind is here o'erthrown ! 
" The courtier's, foldier's, fcholar's, eye, tongue, 

fword ! 
" Th' expectancy and rofe of the fair State, 
*' The glafs of fafhion, and the mould of form, 
" Th' obferv'd of all obfervers, quite, quite dowa ! 
I am of ladies moft dejedl and wretched, 
That fuck'd the honey of his mufick vows : 
" Now fee that noble and moft fovereign reafon, 
** Like fweet bells jangled out of tune, and harm ; 
•■ That unmatch'd form, and feature of blown youth, 
" Blafted with extafie. Oh, woe is me ! 
T' have feen what I have feen ; fee what I fee. 


Enter King and Polonius. 
King, Love ! his afFeclions do not that way tend, 
Nor what he fpake, tho' it lack'd form a little, 
Was not like madnefs. Somethins' s * ^ is ^ ou ^ 

- ' O'er 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. i6y 

•O'er which his melancholy fits on brood ; 
And, I do doubt, the hatch and the difclofe 
Will be fome danger, which, how to prevent, 
I have in quick determination 

Thus fet it down. He (hall with fpeed to England, 
For the demand of our neglected Tribute : 
Haply, the Seas and Countries different, 
With variable objects, {hall expel 
This fomething-fettled matter in his heart ; 
Whereon his brains ftill beating, puts him thus 
.From fafhion of himfelf. What think you on't ? 

Pol. It fhall do well. But yet do I believe,] 
The origin and commencement of this grief 
.Sprung from neglected love. How nni ", Ophelia? J 
You need not tell us what lord Hamlet faid, 

We heard. it all. .My lord, do as you pleafe j 

[Exit Ophelia. 
But if you hold it fit, after the Play 
Let his Queen-mother all alone entreat him 
To fhew his griefs ; let her be round with him : 
And I'll be piac'd, fo pleafe you, in the ear 
Of all their conf 'rence. If fhe find him not, 
To England fend him ; or confine him, where 
Your wifdom beft fhall think. 

King. It fhall be fo: 
.Madnefs in Great ones mud not unwatch'd go. 

Enter Hamlet, and two or three of the Flayers, 

Ham. " Speak the fpeech, I pray you ; as 1 pro- 
" nounc'd it to you, trippingly on the tongue. But 
" if you mouth it, as many of our Players do, I had as 
** lieve, the town-crier had fpoke my lines. And 
" do not faw the air too much with your hand thus, 
" but ufe all gently ; for in the very torrent, tempeft, 
" and, as I may fay, whirl-wind of your paffion, you 
"*' mull acquire and beget a temperance that may give 
" it fmoothnefs. Oh, it offends me to the foul, to 
" hear a robulteous periwig- pated fellow tear a paf- 
" fion to tatters, to very rags, to fplit the ears of the 
I* groundlings ; who (for the moft part) are capable 

" of 

168 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

" of nothing, but inexplicable dumb fhews, and noife : 
" I could have fuch a fellow whipt for o'er-doing 
" Termagant j it o\it-herods Herod. Pray you, avoid 
u it. 

Play. I warrant your Honour. 

Ham. " Be not too tame neither ; but let your own 
** difcretion be your tutor. Sute the action to the 
4< word, the word to the action, with this fpecial ob-. 
•« fervance, that you o'erftep not the modefty of 
" Nature ; for any thing fo overdone is from the pur- 
" pofe of playing; whofe end, both at the firft and 
u now, was and is, to hold as ''twere the mirror up 
c< to nature ; to mew virtue her own feature, fcorn 
** her own image, and the very age and body of the 
*' time, 8 his form and preffure. Now this overdone, 
" or come tardy of, tho' it make the un/kilful laugh, 
" cannot bur, make the judicious grieve: the cenfure 
" of which one mult in your allowance o'erweigh 
" a whole theatre of others. Oh, there be Players 
u that I have feen play, and heard others praife, 
«* and that highly (not to fpeak it prophanely) that 
" [9 neither having the accent of chriftian, nor 
" the gate of chriltian, pagan, nor man,] have fo 
" ftrutted and bellow'd, that I have thought fome of 
" nature's journey- men had made men, and not 
*' made them well ; they imitated humanity fo abo- 
«' minably." 

Play. I hope, we have reformed that indifferently 
with us. 

Ham. " Oh, reform it altogether. And let thofe, 
u that play your Clowns, fpeak no more than is fet 
" down for them : For there be of them that will them- 
" felves laugh, to fet on fome quantity of barren 
**■ fpeclators to laugh too ; though, in the mean time, 
" fome neceflary queftion of the Play be then to be 
" confideredj Thaf s villanous ; and ihews a moll 
" pitiful ambition in the fool that ufes it. Go make 
'* you ready." [Exeunt Players. 

8 hisforr. and prefiuie.] Prejfure, for imprefT;on. 

9 neither l;rv<Kg tic accent if chrlftian, nor the gate of chrifian, 
pagan, nor man, ~\ Thcfc words a fooliih 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 169 


Enter Polonius, Rofmcrantz, aWGuildenftern. 

How now, my lord ? will the King hear this piece of 
work ? 

Pol. And the Queen too, and that prefently. 

Ham. Bid the Players make hafte. [Exit Polonius. 
Will you two help to haften them I 

Both. We will, my lord. [Extuttt* 

Ham. What, ho, Horatio ! 

Enter Horatio to Hamlet. 

Hor. Here, fweet lord, at your fervice. 

Ham. Horatio, thou art e'en as juft a Man, 
As e'er my converfation coap'd withal. 

Hor. Oh my dear lord, — 

Ham. u Nay, do not think, I flatter: 
** For what advancement may I hope from thee, 
" That no revenue haft, but thy good fpirits, 
" To feed and cloath thee ? Should the poor be flat- 

ter'd ? 
" No, let the candied tongue lick abfurd Pomp, 
** And crook the pregnant hinges of the knee, 
" Where thrift may follow fawning. Doft thou hear ? 
" Since my dear foul was miftrefs of her choice, 
" And could of men diftinguifh, her election 
* Hath feaPd thee for herfelf. For thou haft been 
" As one, in fuffering all, that fuffers nothing : 
" A man, that fortune's buffets and rewards 
" Haft ta'en with equal thanks. And bleft are thofe, 
" Whofe blood and judgment are fo well comingled, 
** That they are not a pipe for fortune's finger, 
f* To found what flop fhe pleafe. Give me that man, 
'* That is not paflion's Have, and I will wear him 
" In my heart's core : ay, in my heart of heart, 
As I do thee — Something too much of this. ■ .■ 

There is a Play to night before the King, 
One Scene of it comes near the circumftance, 
Which I have told thee, of my father's death. 
I pr'ythee, when thou fee'ft that A& a-foot, 

Vol. VIII. I Ev'a 

j*]0 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ev'n with the very comment of thy foul 
Obferve mine uncle : if his occult guilt 
Do not itfelf-'unkennelin one fpeech, 
It is a damned Ghoft that we have feen : 
And my imaginations are as foul 
As Vulcan's Stithy. Give him heedful note j 
For I mine eyes will rivet to his face ; 
And, after, we will both our judgments join, 
In cenfure of his Seeming. 

Hor. Well, my lord. 
If he fteal aught, the whilft this Play is playing, 
And 'fcape detecting, I will pay the theft. 


Enter King, Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, Rofincrants, 
Guildenftern, and other lords attendant, woith a 
guard carrying torches. Danifli March. Sound a 

Ham. They're .coming to the Play ; I muft be idle. 
Get you a place. 

King. How fares our coufin Hamlet? 

Ham. Excellent, i'faith, of the camelion's dim : I 
«at the air, promife-cramm'd : you cannot feed ca- 
pons fo. 

King. I have nothing with this anfwer, Hamlet; 
thefe words are not mine. 

Ham. No, nor mine Now, my lord ; you 

plaid once i' th' univerfity, you fay ? [To Polonius. 

Pol. That I did, my lord, and was accounted a good 

Ham. And what did you enatt ? 

Pol. I did enaa Julius Cafar, I was kill'd i' th' Ca- 
pitol : Brutus kill'd me. 

Ham. It was a brute part of him, to kill fo capital a 
calf there. Be the players ready ? 

Rof. Ay, my lord, they ftay upon your patience. 

Queen. Come hither, my dear Hamlet, fit by me. 

Ham. No, good mother, here's mettle more at- 

Pol. Oh ho, do you mark that I 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 171 

Ham. Lady, {hall I lye in your lap ? 

[Lying down at Ophelia';//*?. 

X)pb. No, my lord. 

Ham. I mean, my Head upon your Lap ? 

Opb. Ay, my Lord. 

Ham. Do you think, I meant country matters f 

Opb. I think nothing, my lord. 

Ham. That's a fair thought, to lie between a maid's 

Opb. What is, my lord ? 

Ham. Nothing. 

Opb. You are merry, my lord. 

Ham. Who, I ? 

Opb. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. Oh God ! your only jig-maker ; what mould 
a man do, but be merry ? For, look you, how chear- 
fully my mother looks, and my father dy'd within theie 
two hours. 

Opb. Nay, 'tis twice two months, my lord. 

Ham. So long ? " nay, then let the Devil wear 
black, 'fore I'll have a fuit of fable. Oh heaV'ns ! 
dye two months ago, and not forgotten yet ! then 
there's hope, a great man's memory may out live 
his life half a year : but, by'r-lady, he muft build 

I nay, then let the Devil wear black, for Til have a fuit of 
fables, ] The conceit of thefe words is not taken. They are 
an ironical apology for his mother's chearful looks : Two months 
was long enough in confcience to make any dead hufband for- 
gotten. But the editors, in their nonfenfical blunder, have made 
Hamlet fay juft the contrary. That the Devil and he would both 
go into mourning, tho' his mother did not. The true reading is 
this, Nay, then let the Devil wear black, 'fore V 11 have a fuit 
ef fable. Tore i. e. before. As much as to fay, Let the Devil 
wear black for me, I'll have none. The Oxford Editor defpifes 
an emendation fo eafy, and reads it thus, Nay, then let the Devil 
•wear black, for 17/ have a fuit of ermine. And you could ex- 
pect no lefs, when fuch a critic had the drefling of him. But the 
blunder was a pleafant one. The fenfelefs editors had wrote fables, 
the fur fo called, for fable, black. And the critic only changed 
this fur for that j by a like figure, the common people fay, You 
rejoice the cockles of my heart, for the mufcles of my heart j an un- 
lucky miftake of one ftell-fim for another. 

I 2 churches 

172 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

churches then ; or elfe (hall he * fuffer not thinking 
on, with the hobby -horfe ; whofe epitaph is, For ok* 
for ob, the hobby-borfe is forgot. 

Hautboys play. The dumb /hew enters. 

Mnter a Duke and Dutchefs, with regal Coronets, very 
lovingly ; the Dutchefs embracing him, and he her. 
She kneels ; he takes her up, and declines his head 
upon her neck ; he lays him down upon a bank of 
flowers ; /he feeing him afcep, leaves him. Anon 
comes in a fellow, takes off his Crown, kiffes it, and 
fours poifon in the Duke^s ears, and Exit. The 
Dutchefs returns, finds the Duke dead, and makes 
fajjionate atlion. The poifoner, with feme two or 
three mutes, comes in again, feeming to lament with 
her. The dead body is carried away. The poifoner 
wooes the Dutchefs with gifts ; /he feems loth and 
unwilling a while, but in the end accepts his love. 

Oph. What means this, my lord ? 
Bam. J Marry, this is miching Malhecbor ; it meana 


2 fuffer not thinhir.g on, ivith the hobby-borfe] Amongft the coun- 
try may -games, there was an hobby-horfe, which, when the pu- 
ritanical "humour of thofe times cppoSed and discredited theSe 

games, was brought by the poets and balladmakers as an inftance 
of the ridiculous zeal b£ the Sectaries : from thefe ballads Huirdet 
quotes a line or two. 

3 Marry, this is miching malic ho : it means tnifebif.] The 
Oxford Editor, imagining that the Speaker had here erglifhed his 
own cant phrafe of miching malicbo, tel's us (by his gloflary) that 
5t fignifier, trifchief lying hid, and that Malicbo is the Spanifo MaL 
beco ; whereas it Signifies, Lying inivairfor ibjupaifonen. Which, 
the Speaker tells us, was the very parpofeof this representation. It 
fiiould therefore be read maihkhor Spani/b, the poifoner. So 
Mich Signified, originally, to keep hid and out of fight $ and, as 
fuch men generally did it for the purpoSes of lying in tuait, ir then 
fignhied to robb. And in this SenSe Sbs.kefpear uSes the ncun, a 
ivkher, when Speaking of Prince H-nry rmungft a gang of robbers, 
Shall the bUJf'ed Sun of Heaven prove ' a wicker, Shjlthe Son of 
England prove a thief? And in this Senfe it is ufed by Chaucer in 
his^tianflation of Le Roman de la rcfe, where he turni the word ' 
Ifjrrt, (which is larron, voka> f ) by misber. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 173 

Opb. Belike this Ihovv imports the Argument of 
the Play I 

Enter Prologue. 

Ham. We (hall know by this fellow : the Players 
eannot keep counfel ; they'll tell all. 

Opb. Will he tell us, what this fhow meant ? 

Ham. Ay, or any fhow that you'll fhew him. Be 
not you afhamed to mew, he'll not mame to tell you 
what it means. 

Opb. You are naught, you are naught, I'll mark 
the Play. 

Prol. For us> and for our tragedy , 

Here jlooping to your clemency, 
We beg your bearing patiently. 

Ham. Is this a prologue, or the pofie of a ring ? 
Opb. 'Tis brief, my lord. 
Ham. As woman's love. 

Enter Duke, and Dut chefs, Players. 

Duke. Full thirty times hath Phoebus' Car gone 
Neptune's fait warn, and Tel/us' orbed ground ; 
And thirty dozen moons with borrowed fheen 
About the world have time twelve thirties been, 
Since love our hearts, and Hymen did our hands, 
Unite commutual, in moft facred bands. 

Dutch. So many journeys may the Sun and Moon 
Make us again count o'er, ere love be done. 
But woe is me, you are fo fick of late, 
So far from cheer and from your former flate, 
That I diflruft you ; yet though I diftruft, 
Difcomfort you, my lord, it nothing muft : 
For women fear too much, ev'n as they love. 
And women's fear and love hold quantity ; 
'Tis either none, or in extremity. 
Now, what my love is, proof hath made you know 1 
And as my love is fiz'd, my fear is fo. 
Where love is great, the fmalleft doubts are fear ; 
Where little fears grow great, great love grows there, 1 
I J Duke, 

174 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Duke. Faith, I muft leave thee, Love, and fhcrtly 
too : 

My operant powers their functions leave to do,. 

And thou fhalt live in this fair world behind, 

Honoured, belov'd ; and, haply, one as kind 

For hufband (halt thou 

Dutch. Oh, confound the reft ! 

Such love muft needs be treafon in my breaft : 

In fecond hufband let me be accurft I 

None wed the fecond, but who kill the firft. 

Ham. Wormwood, wormwood ! 

Dutch. The inftances, that fecond marriage move, 

Are bale refpects of thrift, but none of love. 

A fecond time I kill my hufband dead, 

"When fecond hufband kiffes me in bed. 

Duke. I do believe, you think what now you fpeak 5 

But what we do determine, oft we break ; 

Purpofe is but the Have to memory, 

Of violent birth, but poor validity : 

Which now, like fruits unripe, flicks on the tree, 

But fall unfhaken, when they mellow be. 

Moft neceffary 'lis, that we forget 

To pay ourfelves what to ourfelves is debt :. 

What to ourfelves in paffion we propofe, 

The paffion ending, doth the purpofe lofe j 

The violence of either grief or joy, 

Their own enactors with themfel.ves deftroy. 

Where joy molt revel?, grief doth moft lament j. 

Grief joys, joy grieves, on ilender accident. 

This world is not for aye ; nor 'tis not ftrange, 
That ev'n our loves mould with our fortunes change;. 
For 'tis a queftion left us yet to prove, 
Whether love leads fortune, or elfe fortune love. 
The Great man down, you mark, his fav'rite flies i 
The poor advanc'd, makes friends of enemies. 
And hitherto doth love on fortune tend, 
For who not needs, fhall never lack a friend ; 
And who in want a hollow friend doth try, 
Directly feafons him his enemy. 
But orderly to end where I begun, 
Our wills and fates do fo contrary run. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 175 

That our devices ftill are overthrown ; 
Oar thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own. 
Think ftill, thou wilt no fecond hufband wed ; 
But die thy thoughts, when thy rlrft lord is dead. 

Dutch. Nor earth to me give food, nor heaven 
light ! 
Sport and repofe lock from me, day and night ! 
To defperation turn my truft and hope ! 
* An Anchor's cheer in prifon be my fcope I 
Each oppofite, that blanks the face of joy, 
Meet what I would have well, and it deftroy ! 
Both here, and hence, purfue me lafting ftrife l 
If, once a widow, ever I be wife. 

Ham. If fhe (hould break it now 

Duke. 'Tis deeply fworn; Sweet, leave me here a 
while ; 
My fpirits grow dull, and fain I would beguile 
The tedious day with fleep. [Sleeps. 

Dutch. Sleep rock thy brain, 
And never come mifchance between us twain ! [Exit . 

Ham. Madam, how like you this Play ? 

£)ueen. The lady protefts too much, methinks. 

Ham. Oh, but (he'll keep her word. 

King. Have you heard the argument, is there no of- 
fence in't ? 

Ham. No, no, they do butjeft, poifon in jell, no 
offence i' th' world. 

King. What do you call the Play ? 

Ham. The Mou/e-Trap ; Marry, haw? tro- 
pically. This Play is the image of a murther done in 
Vienna ; Gonzago is the Duke's name, his wife's Bap- 
tifla ; you (hall fee anon, 'tis a knavilh piece of Work ; 
but what o' that ? your Majefty, and we that have free 
fouls, it touches us not ; let the gall'd jade winch, our 
withers are unwrung. 

Enter Lueianus. 
This is one Lucianus, nephew to the Duke. 

Oph» You are as good as a chorus, my lord. 

4 An Anchor" 's cheer in prifon be my fcope /] /". e. May I be as 
elofely and iiraitly confined as the moft mortified reclufe. 

I 4- Ham* 

176 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. I could interpret between you and your love, 
if I could fee the puppets dallying. 

Opb. You are keen, my lord, you are keen. 

Ham. It would coft you a groaning to take off my 

Opb. Still better and worfe. 

Ham. So you raiftake your hufbands. 

Begin, murtherer. Leave thy damnable faces, and 

Come, the croaking raven doth bellow for revenge. 

Luc. Thoughts black, hands apt, drugs fit, and time 
agreeing : 
Confederate feafon, and no creature feeing : 
Thou mixture rank, of mid-night weeds colle&ed, 
With Hecate's ban thrice blafted, thrice infe&ed, 
Thy natural magick, and dire property, 
On vvholfome life ufurp immediately. 

[ Pour s the poifon into his earu 

Ham. He poifons him i' th' garden fcr's eflate ; his 
name's Gonzago; theflory is extant, and writ in choice 
Italian. You fhall fee anon how the murtherer gets the 
love of Gonzago's wife. 

Opb. The King rifes. 

Ham. What, frighted with falfefire ! 

Queen. How fares my lord ? 

Pol. Give o'er the Play. 

King. Give me fome light. Away f 

Jill. Lights, lights, lights ! {Exeunt. 


Manent Hamlet and Horatio. 
Ham. Why, let the ftrucken deer go weep, 
The hart ungalled play ; 
For fome mull watch, whilft fome mull fleep ; 

So runs the world away. 
Would not this, Sir, and a forefl of Feathers, (if the 
reft of my fortunes turn Turk with me) with two pro- 
vincial rofes on my rayed fhoes, get me a fellowfhip in 
* a cry of Players, Sir ? 
5 a ^l °f Players.] Allufion to a pack of hounds, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 177 

Hor. Half a fhare. 
Ham. A whole one, I. 
" For thou doft know, oh Damon dear, 

" This realm difmantled was 
«' Of Jove himfelf, and now reigns here 
" < A very, very, — Peacock. 
Hor. You might have rhim'd. 
Ham. Oh, good Horatio, I'll take the Ghofl's 
word for a thoufand pounds. Didft perceive ? 
Hor. Very well, my lord. 
Ham. Upon the talk of the poifoning ? 
Hor. I did very well note him. 

Enter Rofincrantz and Guildenftern. 
Ham. Oh, ha! come* fome mufick: Come, the 
For if the King like not the comedy ; 
Why, then, belike, he likes it not, perdy. 
Come, fome mufick. 

Guil. Good my lord, vouchfafe me a word with 

Ham. Sir, a whole hiflory. 
Guil. The King, Sir— 
Ham. Ay, Sir, what of him ? 
Guil. Is, in his retirement, marvellous diftem- 

per'd — 

Ham. With drink, Sir? 
Guil. No, my lord, with choler. 
Ham. Your wifdom fhould (hew itfelf more rich, 
to fignify this to his Dottor: for, for me to put him 
to his purgation, would, perhaps, plunge him into 
more choler. 

Guil. Good my lord, put your difcourfe into fome 
frame, and ftart not fo wildly from my affair. 
Ham. I am tame, Sir ;—— pronounce. 
Guil. The Queen your mother, in moll great af- 
fliction of fpirit, hath fent me to you. . 
Ham. You are welcome. 
Guil. Nay, good my lord, this Courtefy is not of 

6 A very, very Peacock.'] This alludes to a fable of the birdg' 
•hoofing a KJflg,, intfead of the eagle a peacock, Mr, Pofe, 

I 5 the- 

178 Hamlet, Prince tif Denmark. 

the right Breed. If it (hall pleafe you to make me a 
wholfome anfwer, I will do your mother's command- 
ment ; if not, your pardon, and my return fhall be 
the end of my bufinefs. 

Ham. Sir, I cannot. 

Guil, What, my lord ? 

Ham. Make you a wholibme anfwer : my wit's dif- 
eas'd. But, Sir, fuch anfwer as I can make, you fhall 
command ; or,, rather, as you fay, my mother — there- 
fore no more but to the matter — my mother, you 
fay — 

Rof. Then thus (he fays ; your behaviour hath flruck 
her into amazement, and admiration. 

Ham. O wonderful fon, that can fo aitonifh a mo- 
ther ! But is there no fequel at the heels of this mo- 
ther's admiration ? 

Rof. She defires to fpeak with you in her clofet, 
ere you go to bed. 

Ham. We iliall obey, were me ten times our mother. 
Have you any further trade with us ?• 

Rof. My lord, you once did love me. 

Ham. So 1 do ftill, by thefe pickers and ftealers. 

Rof. Good my lord, what is your caufe of diftem- 
per ? you do, furely, bar the door of your own liber- 
ty, if you deny your griefs to your friend,. 

Ham. Sir, I lack advancement. 

Rof How can that be, when you have the voice 
of the King himfelf, foe your fucceffion in Denmark? 

Ham Ay, but <while the grafs grows — the Proverb. 
is fomething mufty. 

Enter one, tvtth a Recorder. 
Oh, the Recorders ; let me fee one. To withdraw 

with you why do you go about to recover the- 

wind of me, as if you would drive me into a toil ? 

Guil. 7 Oh my lord, if my duty be too bold, my 
love is too unmannerly. 

7 Ob my lord, if my duty be too bold, my love is too unmannerly.] 
i. e. if my duty to the King makes me prefs you a little, my lov« 
to you makes me ftill more importunate If that makes me bo/d, 
this makes m* even unmannerly. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. i79 

Ham. I do not well underftand that. Will you 
play upon this pipe ? 

Gut I. My lord, I cannot. 

Ham. I pray you. 

Gut/. Believe me, I cannot. 

Ham. I do befeech you. 

Guil I know no touch of it, my lord. 

Ham. 'Tis as eafy as lying ; govern thefe ventiges 
with your fingers and thumb, give it breath with your 
mouth, and it will difcourfe moil eloquent mufick. 
Look you, thefe are the flops. 

Guil. But thefe cannot I command to any utterance 
of harmony ; I have no skill. 

Ham. " Why, look you now, how unworthy a 
" thing you make of me; you would play upon 
" me, you would feem to know my flops ,• you 
" would pluck out the heart of my myftery ; you 
" would found me from my loweft note, to the top 
" of my compafs ; and there is much mufick, ex- 
•* cellent voice, in this little organ, yet cannot you 
" make it fpeak. Why, do you think, that I am ea- 
" fier to be plaid on than a pipe ? call me what 
" inftrument you will, though you can fret me, you 

" cannot play upon me. God blefs you, Sir." 

Enter Polonius. 

Pol. My lord, the Queen would fpeak with you, 
and prefently. 

Ham. Do you fee yonder cloud, that's almoft in 
fhape of a Camel? 

Pol By the mafs, and it's like a Camel, indeed. 

Ham. Methinks, it is like an Ouzle. 

Pol. It is black like an Ouzle. 

Ham. Or, like a Whale ? 

Pol. Very like a Whale. 

Ham. Then will I come to my mother by and by — 
they fool me to the top of my bent. — I will come by 
and by. 

Pol. I will fay (o. 

Ham. By and by is eafily faid. Leave me, friends. 

[ Exeunt o 
" 'Tis now the very witching time of night, 


iSo Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

*' When Churchyards yawn, and hell itfelf breathes 

** Contagion to this world. Now could I drink hot 

** 8 And do fuch bufinefs as the better day 

** Would quake to look on. Soft, now to my mo- 
ther — 

M O heart, lofe not thy nature ; let not ever 

** The Soul of Nero enter this firm bofom^ 

" Let me be cruel, not unnatural ; 

I will fpeak daggers to her, but ufe none. 

My tongue and foul in this be hypocrites ; 

How in my words foever (he be (hent, 

9 To give them feals never my foul confent ! [Exit.. 

SCENE vnr. 

Enter King y Rofincrantz, and Guildenffern.. 

King. I like him not, nor Hands it fafe with us 
To let his madnefs range. Therefore, prepare you. ^ 
1 your Commiffion will forthwith difpatch^ 
And he to England mall along with you. 
The terms of our eftate may not endure 
Hazard fo near us, as doth hourly grow 
Out of his Lunacies. 

Guil. We will provide ourfelves ;. 

8 And do fuch bitter bujinefs as the day 
Would quake to look on. — J The expreffion is almoft burlefque*. 
The old quarto reads, 

And do fuch bujinefs as the BITTER day 
Would quake to look on. •— — « 
This is a little corrupt indeed, but much nearer Shakefpear's words,, 
who wrote, 

' ' better day,. 

which gives the fentiment great force and dignity. At this very 
time, (fays he) hell breathes out contagion to the world, whereby 
■night becomes polluted and execrable ; the horror therefore of thii 
feaion fits me for a deed, which the pure and facred day would, 
quake to look on. This is faid with great claffical propriety. 
According to ancient fuperftition, night was prophane and execra~ 
i}e j and day, pure and holy. 

<$■*£(, give them fiah~~-r\i, e. put them in execution, 


Hamlet, Prince ^Denmark. iSjr; 

Moft holy and religious fear it is,. 

To keep thofe many,, many, Bodies fafe, 

That live and feed upon your Majefty. 

Rof. The fingle and peculiar life is bound, 
With all the ftrength and armour of the mind, 
To keep itfelf from noyance ; but much more. 
That fpirit, on whofe weal depends and refts 
The lives of many. The ceafe of Majefty 
Dies not alone,, bur, like a gulf, doth draw 
What's near it with it. It's a mafTy wheeL 
Fixt on the fummit of the higheft mount, 
To whofe huge fpokes ten thoufand letter things 
Are mortiz'd and adjoin'd ; which, when it falls,, 
Each fmall annexment, petty confequence, 
Attends the boift'rous ruin. Ne'er alone 
Did the King figh ; but with a general groan. 

King. £rm you, I pray you, to this fpeedy voyage ; 
For we will fetters put upon this fear, 
Which now goes too free footed. 

Both. We will hafte us. v {Exeunt Gentlemen. 
Enter Polonius. 

Vol. My lord, he's going to his mother's clofet y 
Behind the arras I'll convey my felf 
To hear the procefs. I'll warrant, fhe'll tax him home.. 
And, as you faid, and wifely was it faid, 
'Tis meet, that fome more audience than a mother 
(Since nature makes them partial,) fhould oe'r-hear 
The fpeech, of vantage. Fare you well, my liege ;. 
I'll call upon you ere you go to bed, 
And tell you what I know. [Exit* 

King. Thanks, dear my lord. 

* Oh ! my offence is rank, it fmells to heav'n,. 
' It hath the primal, eldeft, curfe upon't ; 

• A brother's murther. — Pray I cannot, 

' ■ Though inclination be as fharp as th' ill ; 

I Though inclination be as Jharp as wuij] This is rank nOH"*- 
fenfe. We fhould read, 

Thai' inclination be as Jbarp as th' III j 
7*. e. tho' my inclination makes me as reftlefs and uneafy as my 
crime does. The line immediately following mews this to be the. 
true reading, 

Myjironger guilt defeats my firong intent ; 

! My 

t&2 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

* My ftronger guilt defeats my ftrong intent : 
6 And, like a. man to double bufinefs bound, 

* I Hand in paufe where I (hall firft begin, 

« And both negleft. What if this curfed hand 

* Were thicker than itfelf with brother's blood ? 

* Is there not rain enough in the fweet heav'ns 

« To wafh it white as fnow ? whereto ferves Mercy, 
< But to confront the vifage of offence ? 

* And what's in prayer, but this two-fold force, 

* To be fore flailed ere we come to fall, 

■ Or pardon'd being down ? then I'll look up ; 

* My fault is pad.— But oh, what form of prayer 

* Can ferve my turn ? Forgive me my foul mur- 

ther ! 
' That cannot be, fince I am ftill porTeil 
' Of thofe effecls for which I did the murther, 

* My Crown, mine own Ambition, and my Queen. 

■ 2 May one be pardon'd, and retain th' effects? 

* In the corrupted currents of this world, 

* Offence's gilded hand may fhove by juftice y 

* And oft 'tis feen, the wicked prize icfelf 

* Buys out the law ; but tis not fo above : 

' There, is no muffling ; there, rhe aclion lies 
•In his true nature, and we ourfelves compell'd, 
' Ev'n to the teeth and forehead of our faults, 
' To give in evidence. What then ? what refts f- 
Try, what repentance can : What can it not ? 
3 Yet what. can it, when one can but repent? 


2 May one be pardon'd and retain th* offence?] This is a 
ftrange queftion ; and much the fame as to aik whether his offence 
could be remitted while it was retain d. Shakefpeur here repeated 
a word with propriety and elegance which he employed two lines 

May one be pardon d and retain tb % effects ? 
/. e. of. his murther, and this was a reasonable queftion. He ufes 
the word offence, properly, in the next line but one, and from thence, 
I fuppofe, came the blunder. 

3 Yet ivhat, ivhen one cannot repent f\ This nonfenfc 
even exceeds the laft. Shake f pear wrote, 

Yet ivhat can it, when one can but repent? 
r'«.A what can .rspentaace do without reftitution ? a natural and 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark » 183 

Oh wretched flate ! oh bofom, black as death ! 

Oh limed foul, that, ftruggling to be free, 

Art more engaged ! help, angels ! make affay ! 

Bow, ftubborn knees -> and, heart, with firings of 

Be foft as ilnews of the new-born babe \ 
All may be well. [The King retires and kneeh. 


Enter Hamlet. 

Ham. " Now might I do it pat, now he is prayings 
" And now I'll do't— and fo he goes to heav'n. — • 

reafonable thought j and which the transcribers might have feeiv 
was the refultof his preceding reflexions. 

- - — — Forgive me my foul murther ! 

That car.noi be, Jince I amjiill pojfeji 

Of thofe effe&s, for which I did the murther, 

My CrorjoXy mine oi-j/i Ambition, and my t^u t en. 

May one be pardon d and retain th'' cffeilsf 
Befides, the poet could never have made his fpeaker fay, he could 
not repent, when this whole fpeech is one thorough aft of the dif- 
cipline of contrition. And what was wanting- was the matter of 
reftitution : this., the fpeaker could not refolve upon j which makes 
him break out, 

Oh limed foul ', that, fir uggling to get free. 

Art more engaged! 

For it is natural, while the reftitution of what one highly values is 
projected, that the fondnefs for it ftiould ftrike the imagination with 
double force. Eecaufe the man, in that fituation, figures to him- 
felf his condition when deprived of thofe advantages, which hav- 
ing an unpleaiing view, he holds what he is poflefTed of more 
clofely than ever. Hence, the laft quoted exclamation receives all 
ks force and beauty, which on any other interpretation is mean 
and fenfelefs. But the Oxford Editor, without troubling himfelf 
with any thing of this, reads, 

Try Tvoat repentance can. What can it not ? 

Yet ivhat can aught, iv hen one cannot repent. 
Which comes to the fame nonfenfe of the common reading, only a 
little more round about. For when I am bid to trv one thing, and 
I am told that nothing will do ; is not that one thing included in 
the negative ? But, if (o, it comes at laft to this, that, cvenrepen* 
ttnee ivil/ not do uvhen one cannot r.epent,. 

" And 

i34 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

" And fo am I reveng'd ? that would be fcann'd ; 

" A villain kills my father, and for that 

" 4 I, his fall'n fon, do this fame villain fend 

" To heav'n O, this is hire and falary, not 

" He took my father grofly, full of bread, 
" With all his crimes broad blown, and flufti as May ; 
" s And how his audit Hands, who knows, fave 

heaven ? 
" But in our circumftance and courfe of thought, 
«' 'Tis heavy with him. Am I then reveng'd, 
" To take him in the purging of his foul, 
" When he is fit and feafon'd for his paflage ? 
•* Up, fword, and know thou a more horrid bent ; 
** When he is drunk,, afleep, or in his rage, 
'« Or in th' inceftuous pleal'ure of his bed ; 
u At gaming, fwearing, or about fome aft 
*« That hath no relifh of falvation in't ; 
" Then trip him, that his heels- may kick at" heav'n 5: 
'* And that his foul may be as damn'd and black 
" As hell, whereto it goes. My mother flays ; 
This phyfick but prolongs thy fickly days. [Exit. 

The King rifes, and comes forward. 
King, My words fly up, my thoughts remain below : 
Words, without thoughts, never to heaven go. [Exit, 

4 7, his fole fon, do this fame villain fend] The folio reads 
foule fon. This will lead us to the true reading. Which is, faWn 
fdn, i. e. difinherited, This was an aggravation of the injury j; 

that he had not only murder'd the father, but ruin'd the fon. 

5 And hotu his audit fiands, ivho kfioivs, fave heaven ? 
But in our ci'cumjlance and courfe of thought y 

,c Tis heavy tvith him. ] From thefe lines, and fome other?, . 

it appears that Shakefpear had drawn the firft fketch of this play 
•without his Ghoft ; and, when he had added that machinery, he 
forgot to ftrike out thefe lines : For the Ghoft had told him, very 
circumftantially, how his audit flood : and he was now fatisfied : 
with the reality of the vifion, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 185 


Changes to the Queen s apartment. 
Enter Queen and Polonius. 
Pol. TJ E will come flraight ; look, you lay home 
JiX. to him ; 

Tell him, his pranks have been too broad to bear 

with v 
And that your Grace^ hath fcreen'd, and flood be- 
Much heat and him. (a) I'll 'fconce me even here \ 
Pray you, be round with him. 

Hum. ['within.'] Mother, Mother, Mother. 

Queen. I'll warrant you, fear me not. 
Withdraw, I hear him coming. 

[Polonius hides him/elf behind the Arraz* 
Enter Hamlet. 
Ham. Now, mother, what's the matter ? 
Queen. Hamlet, thou halt thy father much of- 

Ham. Mother, yon have my father much offended. 
Queen. Come, come, you anfwer with an idle- 
Ham. Go, go, you queftion with a wicked tongue, 
Queen. Why, how now, Hamlet? 
Ham. What's the matter now ? 
Queen. Have you forgot me ? 
Ham. No, by the rood, not fo v 
You are the Q^een, your husband's brother's wife-, 

But, 'would you were not fo ! You are my mother, 

Queen. Nay, then I'll fet thofe to you that can 

Ham. Come, come, and fit you down ; you fnall 
not budge : 
You go not, 'till I fet you up a glafs 
Where you may fee the inmoft part of you. 

Queen. What wilt thou do ?. thou wilt not mur- 
ther me ? 

[(a) Til 'fcortce me even here* Oxford Editor.—— Vulg. 77/ 
ffience me e'en bcrej,. 


1 86 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Help, ho. 

Pol. What ho, help. \Behind the Arr*s> 

Ham. How now,. a rat ? dead for a ducate, dead. 

[Hamlet kills Polonius. 

Pol Oh, I am flain. 

Queen. Oh me, what haft thou done ? 

Ham. Nay, I know not : is it the King? 

Queen. Oh, what a rafh and bloody deed is this f 

Ham. A bloody deed ; almoft as bad, good mother,. 
As kill a King, and marry with his brother. 

Queen. As kill a King ? 

Ham. Ay, lady, 'twas my word. 
Thou wretched, rafh, intruding fool, farewel, 

[To Polonius. 
I took thee for thy Betters ; take thy fortune ; 
Thou find'ft, to be too bufy, is fome danger. 
Leave wringing of your hands ; peace, fit you down 3 . 
And let me wring your heart, for fo I lhall, 
If it be made of penetrable fluff: 
If damned cuftom have not braz'd it fo, 
That it is proof and bulwark againft fenfe. 

Queen. What have I done, that thou dar'ft wag thy 
In noife fo rude againft me ? 

Ham. Such an act, 
That blurs the grace and blufh of modefty ; 
Calls virtue hypocrite ; 6 takes off the rofe 
From the fair forehead of an innocent love, 
And fets a blitter there; makes marriage vows-- 
As falfe as dicers' oaths. Oh, fcch a deed, 
As 7 from the body of Contradlion plucks 
The very foul, and fweet Religion makes 
A rhapfody of words. 8 HeavVs face doth glow 

. O'er 

6' — takes off the rofe] Alluding to the cuftom of wearing 

rofes on the fide of the face. See a note on a pafiage in K-'ng 

7 from the body of Contraction - — ] Contra5Hon y fos 


g „^_ Heavnt face dith glow j 

Yea, thisfolidity and compound ' maf , 

V/iih friflful -vifzge, as againfl the doom 

h thought .fick At the aci.\ If any fenic caa be found here, it 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 187 

O'er this folidity and compound mafs 

With triftful vifagc ; and, as 'gainft the doom, 

Is thought-fick at the aft. 

* Queen. Ay me ! what act ? 

Ham. That roars fo loud, it thunder* to the In- 
dies . " 
Look here upon this pitlure, and on this, 
The counterfeit prefentment of two brothers : 
M See, what a grace was feated on this brow ; 
" Hyperion 's curies ; ■ the front of Jove himfelf j 
" An eye, like Mars, to threaten or command 5. 
ft A ftation, like the herald Mercury 
a New-lighted on a heaven-kifling hill ; 
u A combination, and a form indeed, 
" Where every God did feem to fet his feal, 
" To give the world aflurance of a man. 

is this. The Sun glows ["and does it not always] and the very folid 
mafs of earth has a triftful vifage, and is thought-fick. All this 
is fad fluff*. The old quarto reads much nearer to the poet's fenfe,, 
Heav'ns face does gloiv ; 
O" e r this folidity and compound mafs 
With heated vifage, as again]} the doom 
Is thought-fick at the ail. 
From whence it appears, that Shakefpear wrote, 
Rcav n s face doth glow 
O'er this folidity and compound mafs 
With, triftful.joif age y and, as ^ gain ft the doom t 
Is thought-fick at the ail. 
This makes a fine fenfe, and to this effect:, The fun looks uporr 
our globe, the fcene of this murder, with an angry and mournful 
countenance, half hid in echpfe, as at the day of doom. 
g Queen. Ay me ! ivbat ail, 

That roars fo loud, and thunders in the index ? 
This is a ftrange amwer. But the old quarto brings us nearer to the 
poet's fenfe by dividing the lines thus : 
Queen. Ah mc, ivhat ail ? 

Ham. That roars fo loud, and thunders in the Index, 
Here we find the Queen's anfwer very natural. He had faid the 
Sun was thought-fick at the acl. She lays, 

Ah me l ivhat ail f 
He replies, (as we mould read it) 

That roars fo loud, it thunders to the ind-'es. 
He had before faid Heav'n was fhocked at it j he now tells her, 
it refounded all the world over. This gives us a very good fenfe 
where all fcn(e was wanting. 

1 the front of Jove himfelf;] Alluding to the defcription 

©f Pbidias^s Jupiter from Homer*. 


1 88 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

" This was your husband.— Look you now, what 

follows ; 
" Here is your husband, like a mildew'd ear, 
'* Blading his \vh6lefome brother. Have you eyes ? : 
Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed, 
And batten on this moore ? ha ! have you eyes ? 
You cannot call it Love ; for, at your age, 
The hey-day in the blood is tame, it's humble, 
And waits upon the judgment; and what judgment 
Would ftep from this to this? * Senfe, fure, yow 

Elfe could you not have notion : but, fure, that fenfc- 
Is apoplex'd : for madnefs would not err ; 
Nor fenfe to ecftafy was ne'er fo thralPd, 
But it referv'd fome quantity of choice 

To ferve in fuch a difference. What devil was't,. 

That thus hath cozen'd you at hoodman blind ?. 
Eyes without feeling, feeling without fight, 
Ears without hands or eyes, imsMing fans all,, 
Or but a fickly part of one true fenfe 

Could not fo mope. 

O ihame ! where is thy blufh ? * rebellious hell, 


ft ' ■ Senfe, fire y you have, 

Elfe could you not have motion: ■ ■ ■ — ] But from what - 
philolbphy our editors learnt this, I cannot tell. Since motion de- 
pends io little upon fenfe y that the greateft part of motion in the 
tmiverfe, is amongft bodies devoid of fenfe. We fhould read, 

Elfe could you not have notion, i. e- intellect, reafon, &c t 
This alludes to the famous peripatetic principle of Nil Jit in in- 
tellect^ quod non fuerit in sensu, And how fond our au- 
thor was of applying, and alluding to, the principles of this philo- 
fophy, we have given feveral i.iftances. This principle in particu- 
lar has been fince taken for the foundation of one of the nobleft 
works that thefe latter ages have produced. It is true the Ro- 
mans ufed motio for notio, becaufe in thinking the Platonifis fup- 
pofed the mind moved and agitated. Hence To voe?9,cogitare, & 
v6r)<n<; } cogitatio, i. e, coagitare, coagitatio, But mEngliJh this will 
not do. 

- , — .. . . .... „ — , rebellious hell, 

If thou canfi mutiny in a matron ' s bones &c] Alluding to 
what he had told her before that her enormous conduct fhewed 
a kind of pofleflion, 

- . What Devil w«7, 

?h at thus hath Sec 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 18$ 

2f thou canft mutiny in a matron's bones ; 

To flaming youth let virtue be as wax, 

And melt in her own fire. Proclaim no fhame, 

When the compulfive ardour gives the charge 5 

Since froftitfelf as actively doth burn, 

And Reafon panders Will. 

Queen. O Hamlet, fpeak no more. 
Thou turn'ft mine eyes into my very foul, 
And there I fee fuch black and grained fpots, 
As will not leave their tincl. 

Ham. Nay, but to live 
In the rank fweat of an inceftuous bed, 
Stew'd in corruption, honying and making love 
•Over the nafty fty ; \ 

Queen. Oh, fpeak no more ; 
Thefe words like daggers enter in mine ears, 
No more, fweet Hamlet. 

Ham. A murtherer, and a villain ? 
A flave, that is not twentieth part the tythe 
Of your precedent lord. A Vice of Kings ;■ 
A cutpurfe of the Empire and the Rule, 
4 That from a fhelf the precious Diadem ftole 
And put it in his pocket. 

Queen. No more. 

Enter Ghoji. 

Ham. A King of fhreds and patches- 

- s « Save me ! and hover o'er me with your wings, 

[Starting up. 
" You 

And again afterwards, 

For ufe can almoji change the f amp of Nature, 

And majier cv'n the Devil, or throw him out 

JVilh wondrous potency— ■ 
But the Oxford Editor , not apprehending the meaning, alters itt© 

— ..., — . „ , „ rebellious heat, 

If thou canft Sec. 
And fo makes nonfenfe of it. For muft not rebellious luft mutiny 
where-ever it is quartered ? That it mould get thei e nvght frem 
ftrange, but that it mould do its kind when it was tb;-re feems 
to be natural enough. 

4 That from a Jhelf&c] This is faid not unrr.eani >r)y y but 
to mew, that the uiurper came not to the crown \ y ar,v glori- 
ous Villany that carried danger with it, b^t by the lo^ cowardly 
theft of a common pilferer, 

190 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

" You heav'nly guards! — What would your gra- 
cious figure ? 

Queen. Alas, he's mad — 

Ham. ** Do you not come your tardy (on to chide, 
*' Thatlaps'd in time and paflion, lets go by 
" Th' important acting of your dread command ? 
+* Ofay!" 

Gboft. Do not forget : this vifitation 
Is but to whet thy almoft blunted purpofe. 
But, look ! amazement on thy mother fits i 
O ftep between her and her fighting foul : 
Conceit in weakeft bodies ftrongeft works. 
Speak to her, Hamkt. 

Ham. How is it with you, lady ? 

Queen. Alas, how is't with you ? 
That thus you bend your eye on vacancy, 
And with th* incorporal air do hold difcourfe? 
Forth at your eyes your fpirits wildly peep, 
And, as the fleeping foldiers in th' alarm, 
Your bedded hairs, * like life in excrements, 
Start up, and Hand on end. O gentle fon, 
Upon the heat and flame of thy diftemper 
Sprinkle cool patience. Whereon do you look ? 

Ham. '* On him ! on him! look you, how 

pale he glares ! 
4t His form and caufe conjoin'd, preaching to ftones, 
** Would make them capable. Do not lock on me, 
" Left with this piteous aclion you convert 
" My ftern effects ; then what I have to do, 
Will want true colour ; tears, perchance, for blood, 

Queen. To whom do you fpeak this r* 

Ham. Do you fee nothing there ? 

[ Pointing to the Ghofi. 

Queen. Nothing at all ? yet all, that is, I fee. 

Ham. Nor did you nothing hear ? 

Queen. No, nothing but ourfelves. 

Ham. Why, look you there ! look, how it fteals 
away ! 

S ' ' like life in excrements,] The hairs are excrementitious, 
that Is, without life or fcnfatien ; yet thofc very hairs, as if they 
had life, ftar; up, (&(* Mr. Pope, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 191 

TAy father in his habit as he lived ! 

Look where he goes ev'n now, out at the portal. 

[Exit Ghofi. 

Queen. This is the very coinage of your brain, 
This bodilefs creation Ecftafy 
Is very cunning in. 

Ham. What Ecftafy ? 
" My pulfe, as yours, doth temp'rately keep time, 
u And makes as healthful mufick. 'Tis not madnefs 
u That I have utter'd ; bring me to the tell, 
" And I the matter will re-word ; which madnefs 
" Would gambol from. Mother, for love of grace, 
Lay. not that flattering unction to your foul, 
That not your trefpafs, but my madnefs fpeaks : 
It will but fkin and film the ulcerous place j 
Whilft rank corruption, mining all within, 
Infects unfeen. Confefs yourfelf to heav'n^ 
Repent what's paft, avoid what is to come ; 
And do not fpread the compoft on the weeds 
To make them ranker. Forgive me this my virtue ; 
Jor, in the fatnefs of thefe purfy times, 
Virtue itfelf of vice muft pardon beg, 
Yea, curb, and wooe, for leave to do it good. 

Queen. Oh Hamlet ! thou haft cleft my heart in 

Ham. O, throw away the worfer part of it, 
And live the purer with the other half. 
Good night ; but go not to mine uncle's bed : 
Affume a virtue, if you have it not. 
That monfter cuftom, who all fenfe doth eat 
Of (a) habits evil, is angel yet in this ; 
That to the ufe of actions fair and good 
He likewife gives a frock, or livery, 
That aptly is put on : Refrain to night ; 
And That fhall lend a kind of eafinefs 
To the next abftinence ; the next, more eafy ; 
For ufe can almoft change the ftarnp of Nature, 
And matter ev'n the Devil, or throw him out 
With wondrous potency. Once more, good ni<*ht I 
And when you are defirous to be bleft, 


JO?— bablti evil. Dr. Tbirli j , ■ Vilg. habits Devi!.] 

igi Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

I'll Bleffing beg of you.— For this fame lord, 

{Pointing to Polonius. 
I do repent : but heav'n hath pleas'd it fo, 
'To punifh me with this, and this with me, 
That I mull be their fcourge and minifter. 
I will beftow him, and will anfwer well 
The death I gave him ; fo, again, good night ! 
I muft be cruel, only to be kind ; 
Thus bad begins, and worfe remains behind. 

Queen. What mall I do ? 

Ham. Not this by no means, that I bid you do. 
€ Let the bloat King tempt you again to bed ; 
Pinch wanton on your cheek ; call you his moufe i 
And let him, for a pair of reechy kiffes, 
Or padling in your neck with his damn'd fingers, 
Make you to ravel all this matter out, 
That I elTentially am not in madnefs, 
But mad in craft. 'Twere good you let him know. 
For who that's but a Queen, fair, fober, wife, 
Would from a paddock, from a bat, a gibbe, 
Such dear concernings hide ? who would do fo ? 
No, in defpight of Tenfe and fecrecy, 
Unpeg the basket on the houfe's top, 
Let the birds fly, and like the famous ape, 
To try conclufions, in the basket creep ; 
And break your own neck down. 

Queen. Be thou affur'd, if words be made of breath, 
And breath of Life, I have no life to breathe 
What thou haft faid to me. 

Ham. I muft to England, you know that ? 

Queen. Alack, I had forgot ; 'tis fo concluded on. 

Ham. 7 There's letters feal'd, and my two fchool- 
(Whom I will truft, as I will adders fang'd ;) 
They bear the mandate ; they muft fweep my way, 
And marlhal me to knavery : let it work. 

6 Let the fond King ]The old quarto reads, 

Let the bloat King • - i. e. bloated, 
Which is better, as mere expreffive of the fpeaker's contempt. 

j "There's letters JeaVd, &c.] The ten following verfes are ad- 
did out of the old edition. Mr. Pope. 

" For 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 193 

" For 'tis the fport, to have the engineer 

" Hoift with his own petar : and 't (hall go hard, 

But I will delve one yard below their mines, 

And blow them at the moon. O, 'tis moft fweet, 

When in one line two crafts direclly meet ! 

This man ihall fet me packing ;■ 

I'll lug the guts into the neighbour room ; 

Mother, good night.- Indeed, this Counfellor 

Is now moft ftill, moft fecret, and moft grave, 
Who was in life a foolifti prating knave. 
Come, Sir, to draw toward an end with you. 
Good night, mother. 

[Exit Hamlet, tugging in Polonius,' 



Enter King and Queen, with Rofincrantz, and 


King/ | * HERE'S matter in thefe fighs ; thefe pro- 

A found heaves 
You muft tranflate ; 'tis fit, we underftand them. 
Where is your fon ? 

Queen. Beftow this place on us a little while. 

[To Rofincrantz and Guildenftern, who go out. 
Ah, my good lord, what have I feen to night ? 
King. What, Gertrude? How does Hamlet ? 
Queen. Mad as the leas, and wind, when botk 
Which is the mightier ; in his lawlefs fit, 
Behind the arras hearing fomething ftir, 
He whips his rapier out, and cries, a rat ! 
And, in this brainifh apprehenfion, kills 
The unfeen good old man. 

King, O heavy deed ! 
It had been fo with us, had we been there : 
His liberty is full of threats to all, 
To you your felf, to us, to every one. 

Vol. VIII. K Ahi ! 

194 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 
Alas ! how fhall this bloody deed be anfwer'd ? 
It will be laid to us, whofe providence 
Should have kept fnort, reftrain'd, and out of haunt, 
This mad young man. But fo much was our love, 
We would not underftand what was moft fit : 
But, like the owner of a foul difeafe, 
To keep it from divulging, let it feed 
Ev'n on the pith of life. Where is he gone ? 

Queen. To draw apart the body he hath kill'd, 
O'er whom his very madnefs, like fome ore 
Among a mineral of metals bafe, 
Shews itfelf pure. He weeps for what is done. 

King. O Gertrude, come away : 
The fun no fooner fhall the mountains touch, 
But we will fhip him hence j and this vile deed 
We muft, with all our Majefty and Skill, 
Both countenance and excufe. Ho ! Guildenftern! 

Enter Rofincrantz and Guildenftern. 
Friends both, go join you with fome further aid : 
Hamlet in madnefs hath Polonius flain, 
And from his mother's clofet hath he drag'd him. 
Go feek him out, fpeak fair, and bring the body 
Into the chappel. Pray you, hafte in this. 

[Ex. Rofincrantz W Guildenftern. 
Come, Gertrude, we'll call up our wifeft friends, 
And let them know both what we meant to do, 
And what's untimely done. [ ' For, haply, Slander] 
(Whofe whifper o'er the world's diameter, 
As level as the cannon to his blank, 
Jranfports its poyfon'd (hot ;) may mifs our Name, 

And hit the woundlefs air. O, come away ; 

My foul is full of difcord and difmay. [Exeunt. 


Enter Hamlet. 

Ham. Safely flowed. - — 

Gentlemen within, Hamlet ! lord Hamlet ! 
Ham. What noife ? who calls on Hamlet ? 
Oh, here they come. 

I —For, baply, Slander] Conjectural words of Mr. Theobald. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 195 

Enter Rofincrantz, ««^Guildenftern. 

Rof. What have you done, my lord, with the dead 
body ? 

Ham. Compounded it with duft, whereto 'tis km. 

Rof Tell us where 'tis, that we may take it thence, 
And bear it to the chappel. 

Ham. Do not believe it. 

Rof. Believe what ? 

Ham. That I can keep your counfel, and not mine 
own. Befides, to be demanded of a fpunge, what re- 
plication ihould be made by the fon of a King ? 

Rof Take you me for a fpunge, my lord ? 

Ham. Ay, Sir, that fokes up the King's counte- 
nance, his rewards, his authorities ; but fuch officers 
do the King bertfervice in the end ; he keeps them, 
like an apple, in the corner of his jaw ; firft mouth'd, 
to be laft fwallow'd : when he needs what you have 
glean 'd, it is but fqueezlng you, and, fpunge, you 
mail be dry again. 

Rof I underftand you not, my lord. 

Ham. I am glad of it ; a knavilli fpeech fleeps in 
a foolim ear. 

Rof. My lord, you mufl tell us where the body is, 
and go with us to the King. 

Ham. The body is with the King, but the King is 
not with the body. The King's a thing 

Guild. A thing, my lord ? 

Ham. Of nothing: bring me to him; a hide fox, 
and all after. [Exeunt. 


E titer King. 
King. I've fent to feek him, and to find the body ; 
How dang'rous is it, that this man goes loofe ! 
Yet muft not we put the ifrong law on him 5 
He's lov'd of the diffracted multitude, 
Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes : 

a bide fox, and all after.] A diverfion amongft children. 

K 2 


196 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

And where 'tis (o, th' offender's fcourgeis weigh'd, 
But never the offence. To bear all fmooth, 
This fudden fending him away mult feem 
Deliberate paufe : diieafes, defp' rate grown, 
By defperate appliance are relieved, 
Or not at all. 

Enter Rofincrantz. 
How now ? what hath befall'n ? 

Rof Where the dead body is beftow'd, my lord, 
We cannot get from him. 

King. But where is he ? 

Rof Without, my lord, guarded to know your 

King. Bring him before us. 

Rof. Bio, Guildenfern ! bring in my lord. 
Enter Hamlet, */?</Guildenftern. 

King. Now, Hamlet, where's Polonius ? 

Ham. At fupper. 

King. At fupper ? where ? 

Ham. Not where he eats, but where he is eaten ; a 
ceitain convocation of politique worms are e'en at 
him. Your worm is your only Emperor for diet. 
We fat all creatures elfe to fat us, and we fat our 
felves for maggots. Your fat King and your lean 
beggar is but variable fervice, two dimes but to one 
table; that's the end: 

King. Alas, alas! 

Ham. 5 A man may filh with the worm that hath 
eat of a King, eat of the fifh that hath fed of that 

King. What doft thou mean by this ? 

Ham- Nothing, but to mew you how a King may 
go a progrefs through the guts of a beggar. 

King. Where is Polonius ? 

Ham, In heav'n, fend thither to fee. If your mef- 
fenger find him not there, feek him \ th' other place 
your felf. But, indeed, if you find him not within 

3 A man may fjb with the iver/ri &c] Added from the old 

edition. Mr - Po Pf' 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 197 

this month, you (hall nofe him as you go up the flairs 
into the lobbey. 

King. Go feek him there. 

Ham. He will flay 'till ye come. 

King. Hamlet, this deed, for thine efpecial fafety, 
(Which we do tender, as we dearly grieve 
For That which thou haft done) mult fend thee hence 
With fiery quicknefs ; therefore prepare thy felf j 
The bark is ready, and the wind at help, 
Th' affociates tend, and every thing is bent 
For England. 

Ham. For England? 

King. Ay, Hamlet. 

Ham. Good. 

King. So is it, if thou knew' ft our purpofes. 

Ham. I fee a Cherub, that fees them ; but come, 
for England! farewel, dear mother. 

King. Thy loving father, Hamlet. 

Ham. My mother : father and mother is man and 
wife j man and wife is one flefh, and, fo, my mother. 
Come, for England. [Exit, 

King. Follow him at foot ; tempt him with fpeed 
aboard ; 
Delay it not, I'll have him hence to night. 
Away, for everything is feal'd and done 
That elfe leans on th 1 affair ; pray you make hafte. 

[Exeunt Rofincrantz *WGuildenftern. 
And, England ! if my love thou hold'ft at aught, 
As my great power thereof may give thee fenfe, 
Since yet thy cicatrice looks raw and red 
After the Danijh fword, and thy free awe 
Pays homage to us ; thou may'ft not coldly fet 
Our fovereign procefs, which imports at full, 
By letters congruing to that effect, 
The prefent death of Hamlet. Do it, England: 
For like the he&ick in my blood he rages, 
And thou mult cure me; 'till I know 'tis done, 
How-e'er my haps, my joys will ne'er begin. [Exit* 

K 3 SCENg, 

j-S Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 


A Camp on the Frontiers of Denmark. 

Enter FortinBras with an Army. 
O, Captain, from me, greet the Danijfr 

Tell him, that, by his licenfe, Fortinhras 
Claims the conveyance of a promis'd March 
iQver his Realm. You know the rendezvous. 
If that his Majefty would aught with us, 
We (hall exprefs our duty in his eye, 
And let him know fo. 

Capt. I will do't, my lord. 

For. Go foftly on. [Exit Fortinbras, with the Army- 
Enter Hamlet, Rofincrantz, Guildenftern, ciff. 

Bam. Good Sir, whofe Powers are thefe ? 

Capt. They are of Norway, Sir. 

Ham. How purposed, Sir, I pray you ? 

Capt. Againft fome part of Poland. 

Bam. Who commands them, Sir ? 

Capt. The nephew of old Norway, Fortinhras. 

Bam. Goes it againft the main of Poland, Sir, 
Or for fome frontier. 

Capt. Truly to fpeak it, and with no addition, 
We go to gain a little patch of ground, 
That hath in it no profit but the name. 

To pay five ducats five, I would not farm it ; 

Nor will it yield to Norway, or the Pole, 
A ranker rate, mould it be fold in fee. 

Bam. Why, then the Polacke never will defend it. 

Capt. Yes, 'tis already garrifon'd. 

Bam. Two thoufand fouls, and twenty thoufand 
Will not debate the queflion of this draw ; 
This is th* impofthume of much wealth and peace, 
That inward breaks, and (hews no caufe without 
Why the man dies. I humbly thank you, Sir. 

Capt. God V v/ ye, Sir. 

Rof. Will'c pleafe you go, my lord ? 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 199 

Ham. I'll be with you ftraight, go a little before. 

Manet Hamlet. 
" How all occafions do inform againft me, 
" And fpur my dull-revenge ? what is a man, 
" If his chief good and market of his time 
" Be but to fleep and feed ? a beaft, no more. 
" Sure he that made us with fuch * large difcourfe, 
* Looking before and after, gave us not 
" That capability and god-like reafon 
" To ruft in us unus'd. Now whether it be 
" Beftial oblivion, or fome craven fcruple 
«« Of thinking too precifely on t\C event, 
" (A thought, which, quarter'd, hath but one part 

" And ever three parts coward:) I do not know 
tf Why yet I live to lay this thing's to do; 
" Sith I have caufe, and will, and ftrength, and 

" To do't. Examples, grofs as earth, exhort me 1 
** Witnefs this army of fuch mafs and charge, 
" Led by a delicate and tender Prince, 
" Whofe fpirit, with divine ambition puft, 
" Makes mouths at the invifible event ; 
" Expofing what is mortal and unfure 
" To all that fortune, death, and danger dare, 
•' Ev'n for an egg-fhell. 'Tis not to be great, 
Never to ftir without great argument ; 
But greatly to find quarrel in a ftraw, 
When Honour's at the (take. How ftand I then, 
That have a father kill'd, a mother ftain'd, 
(Excitements of my reafon and my blood) 
And let all fleep ? while, to my fhame, I fee 
The imminent death of twenty thoufand men ; 
That for a fantafie and trick of fame 
Go to their Graves like beds ; fight for a Plot, 
Whereon the numbers cannot try the caufe, 

4— — /tfrgvdifcourfe] i. e. the compreheniWe faculty of colte&iug 
•ne thing from another by abft rations. 

£ 4. Whicii 

200 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Which is not tomb enough and continent 

To hide the (lain ? O, then, from this time forth, 

My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth. 



Changes to a Palace. 

Enter Queen, Horatio, and a Gentleman, 

Queen. T Will not fpeak with her. 

i Gent. She is importunate, 

Indeed, diflratl ; her mood will needs be pitied. 
Queen. What would (he have ? 
Gent. She fpeaks much of her father; fays, (he 
There's tricks i' th' world j and hems, and beats hef 

heart ; 
Spurns envioufly at ftraws ; fpeaks things in doubt, 
That carry but half fenfe : her fpeech is nothing, 
Yet the unfhaped ufe of it doth move 
The hearers to collection ; they aim at it, 
And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts ; 
Which as her winks, and nods, and geftures yield 

Indeed would make one think, there might bethought * 
s Tho' nothing fure, yet much unhappily. 

Hor. 'Twere good fhe were fpoken with, forlhe 
may ftrow 
Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds. 

Let her come in. ■ 

Queen. To my fick foul, as fin's true nature is, 
Each Toy feems prologue to fome great Amifs ; 
ho full of artlefs jealoufy is guilt, 
It fpills itfelf, in fearing to be fpilt. 

Enter Ophelia, diftracled. 
Oph. Where is the beauteous Majelty of Denmark ? 

5 Tho'' nothing Jure, yet much unhappily.] i. e. tho' her meaning 
cannot be certainly collected, yet there is enough to put a mif- 
ckrevous interpretation to it. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 201 

Queen. How now, Ophelia ? 

Oph. Hovjjhould I your true Love know from another 
6 By his cockle hat and fiaff, and his fandalfooon. 


Queen. Alas, Tweet lady ; what imports this Song I 
Oph. Say you ? nay, pray you, mark. 

He's dead and gone, /ady, he' 's dead and gone J 

At his head a grafs- green tu>f> at his heels a /tone. 

Enter King. 

Queen. Nay, but Ophelia ■ — • 

Oph. Pray you, mark. 

White his /hroud as the mountain firm. 

Queen. Alas, look here, my lord. 

Oph. Larded all with fiveet flowers : 

Which bexvept to the grave did go 
With true love Jhowers. 

King. How do ye, pretty lady r 

Oph. Well, God dil'd you ! They fay, 7 the owl 
was a baker's daughter. Lord, we know what we 
are, but know not what we may be. God be at your 
table f 

King. Conceit upon her father. 

Oph. Pray, let us have no words of this ; but when 
afk you what it means, fay you this : 

To morrow is St. Valentine'* day, all in the morn betime, 
And 1 a maid at your window,, to be your Valentine. 

6 By bis cockle bat andfiaff, and bisfandaljboon.] This is the 
&fcriptien of a pilgrim. While this kind of devotion was in fa- 
fhicn, love intrigues were carried on under that malk. Hence the 
old ballads and novels made pilgrimages the fubjects of their plots. 
The cockle-fhell hat was one of the efler.tial badges of this vocation : 
for the chief places of devotion being beyond fea, or on the ccafb, 
*he pilgrims were accuftomed to put cockie-fhells upon their hats to 
denote the intention or performance of their devotion. 

7 the oivl tues a bakers daughter,'] This was a metamorphofis 
of the common people, arifing from the mealy appearance of the 
owl's feathers, and her guarding the bread from mice, 

K 5 Then. 

202 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Then up he rofe, and don d his c /oaths, 8 and do'pt the 

chamber door ; 
Let in the maid, that out a maid never departed more. 
King. Pretty Ophelia ! 

Oph. Indeed, without an oath, I'll make an end on't. 
By Gis, and by S. Charity, 
Alack, andfieforjkame t 
Young men will do't, if they come to'?, 
By cock, they are to blame. 

Quoth /he, before you tumbled me, 

You promised me to mued : 
So would I ha" 1 done, by yonder fun, 

And thou hadji not come to my bed. 

King. How long has (he been thus ? 

Oph. I hope, all will be well. We muft be patient ; 
but I cannot chufe but weep, to think, they fhould lay 
him i'th' cold ground ; my brother mall know of it, and 
fo I thank you for your good counfel. Come, my coach ; 
good night, ladies j good night, fvveet ladies ; good 
night, good night. [Exit. 

King. Follow her clofe, give her good watch, I 
pray you ; [Exit Horatio. 

This is the poifon of deep grief; it fprings 
All from her father's death. O Gertrude, Gertrude! 
When forrows come, they come not fingle fpies, 
But in battalions. Firft, her father ilain ; 
Next your Son gone, and he moll: violent author 
Of his own juft Remove ; the people muddied, 
Thick and umvholefome in their thoughts and whifpers, 
For good Po/onius'' death ; (We've done but greenly, 
In private to interr him ;) poor Ophelia, 
Divided from her felf, and her fair judgment ; 
(Without the which we're pictures, or mere beads :) . 
Laft, and as much containing as all thefe, 
Her brother is in fecret come from France : 
Feeds on this wonder, keeps himfelf in clouds, 

8 and dupt the chamber door ;J We Zhou Id read do'pt, r". e. do 
•pen } as dandy immediately before, is do en. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 203 

And wants not buzzers to infe&hisear 
With peftilent fpeeches of his father's death ; 
Wherein neceflity, of matter beggar'd, 
Will nothing (lick our perfons to arraign _ 
In ear and ear. O my dear Gertrude, this, 
9 Like to a murthering piece, in many places 
Gives me fuperfluous death ! [ A noife within. 

Queen. Alack ! what Noife is this ? 


Enter a Meffenger. 
King. Where are my Snvitzers ? let them guard the 
What is the matter r 

Mef. Save your felf, my lord. 
The ocean, over-peering of his lift, 
Eats not the fiats with more impetuous hafte, 
Than young Laertes, in a riotous head, 
O'er-bears your officers ; the rabble call him lord % 
And as the world were now but to begin, 
Antiquity forgot, cuftom not known, 
1 The ratifiers and props of every ward ; 
They cry, " Chufe we Laertes for our King." 
Caps, hands, and tongues, applaud it to the Clouds ; 
" Laertes (hall be King, Laertes King P' 

Queen. How chearfally on the falfe trail they cry ! 
Oh, this is counter, you falfe Dani/h dogs. 

[Noife within, 

Q Like to a murthering piece.] Such a piece as aflaflins ufe, 
with many barrels. It is neceffary to apprehend this, to fee the 
jultnefs of the fimilitude. 

1 The ratifiers and preps of every word :] The whole tenour of 
the context is fufficient to fhew that this is a miftaken reading. 
What can antiquity and cuftom, being the props of words, have 
to do with the bufinefs in hand ? Or what idea is convey'd by it > 
Certainly the poet wrote ; 

The ratifiers and props of erfry ward ; 
The meffenger is complaining that the riotous head had overborne 
the King's officers, and then fubjoins, that antiquity and cuftom 
were forgot, which were the ratifiers and props of every ward, i.e. 
of every one of thofe fecurities that nature and law place about the 
perfon of a King, AH this is rational and confequential. 


204 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Enter Laertes, nvitb a Party at the Door. 

King. The doors are broke. 

Laer. Where is this King ? Sirs ! Itand you all 

Ml. No, let's come in. 
Laer. I pray you, give me leave. 
All. We will, we will. [Exeunt. 

Laer. I thank you, keep the door. 

thou vile King, give me my father. 
Queen. Calmly, good Laertes. 

Laer. That drop of blood that's calm, proclaims me 
baftard ; 
Cries cuckold to my father ; brands the harlot 
Even here, between the chafle and unfmirch'd brow 
Of my true. mother. 

King. What is the caufe, Laertes, 
That thy Rebellion looks fo giant-like ? 
Let him go, Gertrude, do not fear our perfon : 
There's fuch divinity doth hedge a King, 
That treafon can but peep to what it would, 
Ac"b little of its will. Tell me, Laertes, 
Why are you thusincens'd ? Let him go, Gertrude. 
Speak, man. 

Laer. Where is my father ? 

King. Dead. 

Qjteett. But not by him. 

King. Let him demand his fill. 

Laer. How came he dead ? I'll not be juggled 
with : 
To hell, allegiance ! vows, to the blacked: devil ! 
Confcienceand grace, to the profoundeft pit ! 

1 dare damnation ; to this point I itand, 
That both the worlds I give to negligence, 
Let come, what comes ; only I'li be reveng'd 
Mod throughly for my father. 

King. Who fhall ftay you ? 
Laer. My will, not all the world ; 
And for my means, I'll hufband them fo well, 

They fliall go far with little. 


Hamlet, Prince cf Denmark. 205 

King. Good Laertes, 
If you defire to know the certainty 
Of your dear father, is't writ in your revenge, 
(That fweep ftake) you will draw both friend and foe, 
Winner and lofer ? 

Laer. None but his enemies. 

King. Will you know them then ? 

Laer. To his good friends thus wide I'll ope my 
And like the kind life-rendring pelican, 
Repaft them v/ith my blood. 

King. Why, now you fpeak 
Like a good child, and a true gentleman. 
That I am guildefs of your father's death, 
And am moil fenfible in grief for it, 
Jt (hall as level to your judgment pierce, 
As day does to your eye. [A wife within. " Let her 
come in ] 

Laer. How now, what noife is that ? 


Enter Ophelia, fan t ajl ically drefi'd with Jlra<ws and 

O heat, dry up my brains ! tears, feven times fait, 
Burn out the fenfe and virtue of mine eye ! 
By heav'n, thy madnefs (hall be paid with weight, 
'Till ourfcale turn the beam. O rofe of May ! 
Dear maid, kind filler, fweet Ophelia ! 

heav'ns, is't poffible a young maid's wits 
Should be as mortal as an old man's life ? 

1 Nature is fall'n in love j and where 'tis fall'n, 


a Nature is eine in love ; and 'where ''tis fine, 
It finds fime precious injiance of itfelf 

After the thing it loves.] This is unqueftionably corrupt. I 
fuppofe Shake/pear wrote, 

Nature is fall'n in love, and where ''tis fall'n. 
The caufe of Ophelia's madnefs was grief, occafioned by the vio- 
lence of her natural affection for her murder'd father 3 her brother, 
therefore, with great force of exprefiion, fays, 

' Nttnre 

206 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

It fends Tome precious inftance of itfelf 
After the thing it loves. 

Oph. They bore him bare-fafd on the bier, 
And on his Grave rains many a tear ; 
Fare you iue/1, my do<ve ! 

taer. Had'ft thou thy wits, and didft perfwade 
It could not move thus. 

Oph, You mult fing, down a-down, and you call 
him a-down-a. ' O how the weal becomes it ! it is the 
falfe fteward that Hole his matter's daughter. 

Laer. This nothing's more than matter. 

Oph. There's rosemary, that's for remembrance ; 
pray, love, remember ; and there's pancies, that's for 

Laer. A document in madnefs, thoughts and remem- 
brance fitted. 

Nature is fall" 1 n in love, — • 

To diftinguifh the paffion of natural affetlion from the paffion of 
love between the two fexes, i. e. Nature, or natural affetlion hfalPn' 
in love. And as a perfon in love is accuftomed to fend the moft 
precious of his jewels to the perfon beloved (for the love-token*. 
which young wenches in love fend to their fweethearts, is here al- 
luded to) fo when Nature (fays Laertes) falls in love, fhe likewife 
fends her love-token to the object beloved. But her moft precious 
jewel is Reafon j fhe therefore fends that : And this he gives as the 
caufe of Ophelia's madnefs, which he is here endeavouring to ac- 
count for. This quaint fentiment of Nature's falling in love, is 
exactly in Shakefpear's manner, and is a thought he appears fond of, 
So in Romeo and Juliet, Affliction is reprefented as in love j 

Affliction is enamour'd of thy parts, 
And thou art wedded to calamity. 

Nay Death, a very unlikely fubjeft one would think, is put into a 
love fit j 

I ivill kelii 

That unfubjlantial death is amorous, See. 

3 hoiu the wheel becomes it /] We mould read wf ai . She 
is now rambling on the ballad of the fteward and his lord's daughter. 
And in thefe words fpeaks of the ftate he affumed. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 207 

Oph. There's fennel for you, and columbines ; 
4- there's rue for you, and here's fome for me. We 
may call it herb of grace o' Sundays : you may wear 
your rue with a difference. There's a daifie ; I would 
give you fome violets, but they withered all when my' 
father dy'd : they fay, he made a good end ; 

For bonny fweet Robin is all my joy. 

taer. Thought, and affliction, paffion, hell itfelf, 
She turns to favour, and to prettinefs. 

Oph. And will he not come again ? 
And will he not come again ? 
No, no, he is dead, go to thy death bed, 
He ne<ver will come again. 
Bis beard was as white as fnow, 
All flaxen was his pole : 

He is gone, he is gone, and we cajl away mone, 
Gramercy on his foul / 
And of all chriitian fouls ! God b' w' ye. 

[Exit Ophelia. 
Laer. Do you fee this, you Gods ! 
King. Laertes, I muft commune with your grief, 
Or you deny me right : go but a-part, 

4 there's rue for you, and here'' s feme for me. We may call it herb 
of grace o' Sundays :] Herb of grace is the name the country peo- 
ple give to Rue. And the reafon is, becaufe that herb was a prin- 
cipal ingredient in the potion which the Rbmi/b priefts ufed to 
force the poffeffed to fwallow down when they exorcifed them. 
Now thefe exorcifms being performed generally 'on a Sunday, in 
the church before the whole congregation, is the reafon why 'me 
fays, we call it herb of grace o 1 Sundays. Sandys tells us that at 
Grand -Cairo there is a fpecies of rue much in re'queft, with which 
the inhabitants perfume themfelves, not only as a preservative 
againft infection, but as very powerful againft evil fphits. And 
the cabaliftic Gaffarel pretends to have discovered the reafon of 
its virtue, La femence de Rue eft f aide comme une Croix, fef e'eftpa- 
ranjenture la caufe au' elle a tant dc vertu conire Us pojjedez,^ que 
f Eglife j' enfert en les exorcifant. It was on the fame principle 
that the Greeks called fulphur, Quov, becaufe of its ufe in their 
fuperftitious purgations by fire. Which too the Rom'.Jh priefts em- 
ploy to fumigate in their exorcifms j and on that account haliow or 
confecrate it, 


2o8 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Make choice of whom your wifeft friends you will, 

And they (hall hear and judge 'twixt you and me ; 

If by direct or by collateral hand 

They find us touch'd, we will our Kingdom give, 

Our Crown, our Life, and all that we call ours, 

To you in fatisfaclion. But if not, 

Be you content to lend your patience to us, 

And we (hall jointly labour with your foul, 

To give it due content. 

Laer. Let this be fo. 
His means of death, his obfcure funeral, 
No trophy, fword, nor hatchment o'er his bones, 
No noble rite, nor formal oftentation, 
Cry to be heard, as 'twere from heav'n to earth, 
That I muft call't in queltion. 

King, So you fhall : 
* And where th' offence is, let the great tax fall. 
I pray you, go with me. [Exeunt. 


Enter Horatio, with an attendant. 
Hor. What are they, that would fpeak with me ? 
Ser. Sailors, Sir ; they fay, they have letters for you. 
Hor. Let them come in. 
I do not know from what part of the world 
I mould be greeted, if not from lord Hamlet, 
Enter Sailors. 
Sail. God blefs you, Sir. 
Hor. Let him blefs thee too. 

Sail. He mall, Sir, an't pleafe him. There's a 

letter for you, Sir : It comes from th' ambaffador that 
was bound for England, if your name be Horatio, as I 
am let to know it is. 

Horatio reads the letter. 

HORATIO, when thou (bait have overlooked 
this, give theje fellows fame means to the King : 
they have letters for him. Ere we were two days old 

5 And where th" offence is, let the great a xfal/.] We fiiould read, 

let the great tax fall, 

i. e, penalty, punifliment, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 209 

at fea, a pirate of very warlike appointment gave us 
chace. Finding our f elves too fow of fail, we put on 
a compelled valour, and in the grapple Hoarded them: 
en the infant they got clear of our Jhip, fo 1 alone he- 
came their prifoner. They have dealt with me, like 
thieves of mercy ; but they knew what they did : I am 
to do a good turn for them. Let the King have the 
letters I have fent y and repair thou to me with as much 
hafe as thou wouldeft fly death. I have words to fpeak 
in thy ear, will make thee dumb ; yet are they much 
too light for the matter. Thefe good fellovjs nvi/l bring 
thee where I am. Rofincrantz and Guildenftern hold 
their courfe for England. Of them 1 have much to tell 
thee, fareweL 

He that thou knonvef thine, Hamlet. 

Come, I will make you way for thefe your letters j 

And do't the fpeedier, that you may direct me 

To him from whom you brought them. [Exeunt. 


Enter King and Laertes. 

King. Now mull your confeience my acquittance 
And you muft put me in your heart for friend ; 
Sith you have heard, and with a knowing ear, 
That he, which hath your noble father flain, 
Purfued my life. 

Laer. It well appears. But tell me, 
Why you proceeded not againil thefe feats, 
So crimefui and fo capital in nature, 
As by your fafety, wifdom, all things elfe, 
You mainly were ilirr'd up ? 

King. Two fpecial reafons, 
Which may to you, perhaps, feem much unfinew'd, 
And yet to me are ftrong. The Queen, his mother, 
Lives almoft by his looks ; and for my felf, 
(My virtue or my plague, be't either which,) 
She's fo conjunctive to my life and foul, 
That, as the flar moves not but in his fphere, 

I could 

2 1 o Ha m l e t , Prince of Den m ark, 

I could not but by her. The other motive, 
Why to a publick count I might not go, 
Is the great love the general gender bear him ; 
Who, dipping all his faults in their affedlion, 
Would, like thefpring thatturneth wood to flone, 
Convert his gyves to graces. So that my arrows, 
Too flightly timbred for fo loud a wind,. 
Would have reverted to my bow again, 
And not where Ihad aim'd them. 

Laer. And fo have I a noble father loft, 
A fitter driven into defperate terms, 
Whofe worth, if praifes may go back again, 
Stood challenger on mount of all the age 
For her perfections But my revenge will come. 

King. Break not your fleeps for that i you muft 
not think, 
That we arc made of fluff fo flat and dull, 
That we can let our beard be fhook with danger, 
And think it paftime.' You fhall foon hear more. 
I lov'd your father, and we love our felf, 
And that, I hope, will teach you to imagine — ■ 
How now ? what news ? 

Enter Mejfenger. 

Me/ Letters, my lord, from Hamlet. 
Thefe to your Majefty : this to the Queen. 

King. From Hamlet P who brought them? 

Me/. Sailors, my lord, they fay ; I faw them not : 
They were given me by Claudio, he receiv'd them. 

King. Laertes, you fhall hear them : leave us, all — 

[Exit Me/. 

HIGH and Mighty, you /hall know, I am /et 
naked on your Kingdom. To morrow /hall I beg 
leave to /ee your kingly eyes. When I /hall, (fir ft a/k- 
ing your pardon thereunto,) recount tit? occafion of my 
j'udden return. 


What fhould this mean ? are all the reft come back ? 
Or is it fome abufe and no fuch thing ? 

Laer. Know you the hand ? 

King. 'Tis Hamlet's character j 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 21 r 

Naked, and (in a poftfcript here, he fays) 
Alone : can you advife me ? 

Laer. I'm loft in it, my lord : but let him come ; 
It warms the very ficknefs in my heart, 
That I (hall live and tell him to his teeth, 
Thus diddeft thou. 

King. If it be fo, Laertes, 
As how mould it be fo ?— how, otherwife ? — 
Will you be rul'd by me ? 

Laer. I, fo you'll not o'er-rule me to a peace. 

King. To thine own peace : if he be now returned, 
As liking not his voyage, and that he means 
No more to undertake it j I will work him 
To an exploit now ripe in my device, 
Under the which he (hall not chufe but fall : 
And for his death no wind of Blame (hall breathe ; 
But ev'n his mother (hall uncharge the practice, 
And call it accident. 

Laer. I will be rul'd, 
The rather, if you could devife it (o, 
That I might be the organ ^ 

King. It falls right : 
You have been talkt of fmce your travel much, 
And that in Ham/et's Hearing, for a quality 
Wherein, they fay, you (hine ; your fum of parts 
Did not together pluck fuch envy from him, 
As did that one, and that in my regard 
Of the unworthiefl fiege. 

Laer. What part is that, my lord ? 

King. A very feather in the cap of youth, 
Yet needful too ; for youth no lefs becomes 
The light and carelefs livery that it wears, 
Than fettled age his fables, and his weeds 
6 Importing wealth and gravenefs.— — Two months 

Here was a gentleman of Normandy ; 

6 Importing health and gravenefs. ] But a vrarm furr'd 

gown rather implies ficknefs than health. Shakefpear wrote, 

Importing wealth and gravenefs. • 

i.. e. that the wearers are rich burghers and magiftrates. 


212 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

I've feen my {elf, and ferv'd againft the French, 
And they can well on horfe-back ; but this Gallant 
Had witchcraft in't, he grew unto his feat ; 
And to fuch wondrous doing brought his horfe, 
As he had been incorps'd and demy-natur'd 
With the brave beaft ; fo far he top'd my thought, 
That I in forgery of fhapesand tricks 
Come fhort of what he did. 

Laer. A Norman, was't ? 

King. A Norman. 

Laer. Upon my life, Lamond. 

King. The fame. 

Laer. I know him well ; he is the brooch, indeed, 
And gem of all the nation. 

King. He made confeflion of you, 
And gave you fuch a mafterly report, 
For art and exercife in your defence ; 
And for your rapier moft efpecial, 
That he cry'd out, 'twould be a Sight indeed, 
If one could match you. The Scrimers of their 

He fwore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, 
\i you oppos'd 'em- Sir, this Report of his 

Did Hamlet fo envenom with his envy, 
That he could nothing do, but with and beg 
Your fudden coming o*er to play with him. 
Now out of this 

Laer. What out of this, my lord ? 

King. Laertes, was your father dear to you ? 
Or are you like the painting of a forrow, 
A face without a heart ? 

Laer. Why afk you this ? 

King. Not that I think, you did not love your 
But that I know, love is begun by time ; 
And that I fee in paflages of proof, 
Time qualifies the fpark and fire of it : 
" There lives^within the very flame of love 
" A kind of wick, or fnufF, that will abate it, 
And nothing is at a like goodnefs Hill; 

7 For 

Hamlet, Prince 0/ Denmark. 213 

7 For goodnefs growing to a pleurifie, 

Dies in his own too much j what we would do, 

We mould do when we would ; for this ivou/d 

And hath abatements and delays as many 
As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents ; 

8 And then x\\\ffhoiild is like a fpend-thrift's fign 
That hurts by eafing ; but to th' quick o'th' ulcer— 
Hamlet comes back ; what would you undertake 

To (hew your felf your father's Son indeed 
More than in words ? 

Laer. To cut his throat i' th' church. 

King. No place, indeed, mould murther fancluarife ; 
Revenge mould have no bounds ; but, good Laertes, 
Will you do this ? keep clofe within your chamber ; 
Hamlet, returned, mall know you are come home : 
We'll put on thofe mall praife your excellence, 
And let a double varnifh on the fame 
The Frenchman gave you ; bring you in fine together, 
And wager on your heads. He being remifs, 
Molt generous, and free from all contriving, 
Will not perufe the foils ; fo that with eafe, 
Or with a little muffling, you may chufe 

9 A fword unbated, and in a pafs of pradice 
Requite him for your father. 

Laer. I will do't ; 
And for the purpofe I'll anoint my fword : 

7 For goodnefs, growing to a pleurifie,] I would believe, for the 
honour of Shakefpear y that he wrote plethory. But I obferve the 
dramatic writers of that time frequently call a fulnefs of blood a 
pleurifie, as if it came, not from TrKsvfcc, but from plus, pluris, 

8 And then this fhould is like a fpend-thrift's sigh 

That buns by eafing; — -This nonfenfe fhould be read thus, 
And then this ihould is like a fpend-thrift's sign 

That hurts by eafr.g. =.- 

i. e. the' a fpendthrift's entering into bonds cr mortgages gives 
him a prtfent relief from his ftraits, yet it ends in much greater 
diftrefles. The application is, If you negle£l a fair opportunity 
now, when it may be done with eafe andVafety, time may throw 
fo many difficulties in your way, that, in order to furmount them, 
you mull put your whole fortune into hazard. 

9 A fword unbated,— J i. e. not blunted as foils are. Or as 

one editioa has it imbn-.ttdox envenomed, Mr. Pope. 

I bought 

2H Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

I bought an unttion of a Mountebank, 
So mortal, that but dip a knife in it, 
Where it draws blood, no Cataplafm fo rare, 
Colle&ed from all Simples that have virtue 
Under the Moon, can fave the thing from death, 
That is but fcratch'd withal ; I'll touch my point 
With this contagion, that if I gall him /lightly, 
It maybe death. 

King. Let's farther think of this ; 
Weigh, what convenience both of time and means 
May fit us to our fhape. If this mould fail, 
And that our drift look through our bad performance, 
'Twere better not affay'd ; therefore this project 
Should have a back, or fecond, that might hold, 

If this mould blaii in proof. Soft let me fee— ■— • 

We'll make a folemn wager on your cunnings ; 
I ha't — ~ when in your motion you are hot, 
(As make your bouts more violent to that end) 
And that he calls for Drink, I'll have prepar'd him 
A Chalice for the nonce ; whereon but fipping, 
If he by chance efcape your venom'd tuck, 
Our purpofe may hold there. 


Enter Queen* 
How now, fweet Queen ? 

Queen. One woe doth tread upon another's heel. 
So faft they follow : your filter's drown'd, Laertes. 

Laer. Drown'd ! oh where ? 

Queen. " There is a willow grows aflant a Brook, 
" That (hews his hoar leaves in the glaflie ilream : 
" There with fantaftick garlands did me come, 
u Of crow-flowers, nettles, daifies, and long purples, 
" (That liberal (hepherds give a grofTer name to j 
•' But our cold maids do dead men's fingers call 

them ;) 
(t There on the pendant boughs, her coronet weeds 
" Clambring to hang, an envious fliver broke ; 
" When down her weedy trophies and herfelf 
" Fell in the weeping brook ; her cloaths fpread wide, 

" And 

H amlet, Prince of Denmark. 215 

*' And mermaid-like, a while they bore her up ; 
" " Which time fhe chaunted fnatches of old tunes, 
" As one incapable of her own diftrefs ; 
" >Or like a creature native, and indued 
** Unto that element : but long it could not be, 
'Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, 
Pull'd the poor wretch from her melodious lay 
To muddy death. 

Laer. Alas then, fhe is drown'd ! 

Queen. Drown'd, drown'd. 

Laer. Too much of water haft thou, poor Ophelia, 
And therefore I forbid my tears : but yet 
It is our trick ; Nature her cuftom holds, 
Let Shame fay what it will ; when thefe are gone, 
The woman will be out : adieu, my lord ! 
I have afpeech of fire, that fain would blaze, 
But that this folly drowns it. [Exit, 

King. Follow, Gertrude : 
How much had I to do to calm his rage ! 
Now fear I, this will give it ftart again ; 
Therefore, let's follow. [Exeunt, 

A C T V. S C E N E I. 

Enter two Clowns, withfpades and mattocks. 

1 C/ozvn.YS fhe to be buried in chriftian burial, tha* 
X wilfully feeks her own falvation r 

2 Clown. I tell thee, fhe is, therefore make her 
Grave ftraight ; the crowner hath fate on her, and 
finds it chriftian burial. 

1 Clown. How can that be, unlefs fhe drowned her 
felf in her own defence ? 

I Which time Jhe chaunted fnatches of old tunes,] Fletcher, in 
his Scornful Lady, very invidioufly ridicule* this incident, 
/ ivill run mad frfi, and if that get not pity f 
Til drown tnyfelf to a moji difmal ditty, 

2 Clown. 

2 1 6 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

2 Clown. Why, 'tis found fo. 

i Clown. "It mult be fe offendendo, it cannot be 
" elfe. For here lyes the point ; if I drown my felf 
" wittingly, it argues an aci ; and l an a£l hath three 
** branches ; It is to act, to do, and to perform ; ar~ 
4t gal, (he drown'd her felf wittingly. 

2 Clown. Nay, but hear you, goodman Deliver. 

i Clown. " Give me leave ; here lies the water, 
'« good : here Hands the man, good : if the man go 
" to this water, and drown himfelf, it is, will he, 
" nillhe, he goes; mark you that : but if the water 
*• come to him, and drown him, he drowns not him- 
" felf. Argal, he, that is not guilty of his own death, 
" ihortens not his own life." 

2 Clown. But is this law ? 

i Clown. Ay, marry is't, crowner's queft-law. 

2 Clown. Will you ha' the truth on't ? If this had 
not been a gentlewoman, Ihe Ihould have been buried 
out of chriftian burial. 

i Clown. Why, there thou fay'ft. And the more 
pity, that great folk fhould have countenance in this 
world to drown or hang themfelves, more than z their 
even chriftian. Come, my fpade ; there is no ancient 
gentlemen but gardeners, ditchers, and grave-makers ; 
they hold up Adam's profefiion. 

2 Clown. Was he a gentleman ? 

i Clown. He was the firft, that ever bore arms. 

2 Clown, Why, he had none. 

i Clown. What, art a heathen ? how doll thou un- 
derftand the Scripture ? the Scripture fays, Adam 
digg'd ; could he dig without arms ? I'll put another 
queftion to thee ; if thou anlwereil me not to the purpofe, 
confefs thyfelf 

2 Clown. Go to. 

i Clown. What is he that builds ftronger than either 
the mafon, the fhipwright, or the carpenter ? 

I an aa hath three branches ; it is to aff, to do, and to perform ;] 
Ridicule on fcholaftic divifions without diuinftion ; and of distinc- 
tions without difference. 

2, their even chriftian.] So all the old books, and rightly. An 
old Englijh expreflion for fellow -chr iftUns. D r - £ , ^ 

2 Ciown* 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 217 

2 Clown. The gallows-maker ; for that frame oat- 
lives a thoufand tenants. 

1 Clown. I like thy wit well, in good faith ; the 
gallows does well ; but how does it well ? it does 
well to thofe that do ill : now thou doft ill, to fay 
the gallows is built Wronger than the church ; arga/ 9 
the gallows may do well to thee. To't again, come. 

2 Clown. Who builds ftronger than a maibn, a fhip- 
wright, or a carpenter ? 

1 Clown. J Ay, tell me that, and unyoke. 

2 Clown. Marry, now I can tell. 

1 Clown. To't. 

2 Clown. Mais, I cannot tell. 

Enter Hamlet and Horatio, at a di fiance. 
1 Clown. Cudgel thy brains no more about it j for 
your dull afs will not mend his pace with beating ; 
and, when you are afk'd this queftion next, fay a 
grave-maker. The houfes, he makes, laft 'till dooms- 
Say : go, get thee to Tougban, and fetch me a ftoup 
■01 liquor. [Exit z Clown. 

He digs, and fmgs. 
In youth when 1 did love, did io-ve, 
Me thought, it was very fweei ; 
To contrail t . oh, the time for, a, my behove, 
Oh, met bought, there was nothing fo meet. 
Hum. Has this fellow no feeling of his bufinefs, 
that he fings at Grave-making ? 

Hor. Cuilom hath made it to him a property of 

Ham. 'Tis e'en fo ; the hand of little employment 
hath the daintier fenfe. 

Clown fings. 
But age, with his Jl eating fteps, 

Hath claw 'd me in his clutch : 
And katb flipped me into his land, 

As if I had never been fuch. 

3 Ay, tell me that, and unyoke.] /. e. when you have done 
that, I'll trouble you no more with thefe riddles. The phrafe 
taken from hufoandry. 

Vol. VIII. L Hem . 

ii8 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. That fcull had a tongue in it, and could fing 
once ; how the knave jowles it to the ground, as if it 
were Cains jaw-bone, that did the firft murther ! this 
might be the pate of * a politician, * which this afs 
o'er-offices; one that would circumvent God, might 
it not ? 

Hor. It might, my lord. 

Ham. Or of a Courtier, which could fay, " good- 
u morrow, fweet lords how doft thou, good lord ? " 
this might be my lord fuch a one, that prais'd my 
lord fuch a one's horfe, when he meant to beg it ; 
might it not ? 

Hor. Ay, my lord. 

Ham. Why, e'en fo : and now my lady Worm's 
chaplefs, and knockt about the mazzard with a fex- 
ton's fpade. Here's a fine revolution, if we had the 
trick to fee't. Did thefe bones coft no more the 
breeding, but to play at loggats with 'em ? mine ake 
to think on't. 

Clown fings. 
J pick-ax and a fpade, a fpade 

For, -and a fhrouding fheet ! 

O, a pit of clay for to be made 
For fuch aguefi is meet. 

A A politician, — — one that would circumvent God,] This cha- 
racter is finely touched. Our great hiftorian has well explained it 
in an example, where fpeaking of the death of Cardinal Maxartne, 
at the time of the Reiteration, he fays, The Cardinal was pro- 
bably (truck -with the -wonder, if not tbe agony of that undream' d of 
profperitv of our King's affairs ; as if be bad taken it ill, and laid 
it to heart that God Almighty -would bring fuch a work to pafs 
in Europe -without his concurrence, and even againjl all bis ma- 
chinations. Hijt. cf the Rebellion, Book 16. •_ 

e which this afs o'er-offices j] The meaning is this. People in 
office at that time, were fo overbearing, that Shake/pear <j«»king 
of infolence at the height, calls it infolenct in office. And Donnt 

Who is he 

IVbo offices' rage and fuitors' mifery 

tan write injeft - Sat ; 

Alluding to this character of miniftersand politicians, the rpeaker 
obferves,that this infoient officer is now o'er-offieer'd by the Sexton, 
who, knocking his fcull about with his fpade, appears to be as in- 
cident in his office as they were in theirs'. This is W w;th 

much humour. T - 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 219 

Ham. There's another : why may not that be the 
fcull of a lawyer ? where be his quiddits now ? his 
quillets ? his cafes ? his tenures, and his tricks ? why 
does he fufFer this rude knave now to knock him 
about the fconce with a dirty fhovel, and will not tell 
him of his adion of battery ? hum I this fellow might 
be in's time a great buyer of land, with his ftatutes, 
his recognizances, his fines, his double vouchers, his 
recoveries. Is this the fine of his fines, and the reco- 
very of his recoveries, to have his fine pate full of fine 
dirt ? will his vouchers vouch him no more of his 
purchafes, and double ones too, than the length and 
breadth of a pair of indentures ? the very conveyances 
of his lands will hardly lye in this box ; and mull the 
inheritor himfelf have no more ? ha ? 

Hor. Not a jot more, my lord. 

Ham. Is not parchment made of (heep-skins ? 

Hor. Ay, my lord, and of calve-skins too. 

Ham. They are flieep and calves that feek out af- 
furance in that. I will fpeak to this fellow : Whofe 
Grave's this, Sirrah ? 

Clown. Mine, Sir 

O, a pit of clay for to be made 
For fuch a Gueft is meet. 

Ham. I think, it be thine, indeed, for thou Iieft 

Clown. You lie out on't, Sir, and therefore it is not 
yours j for my part, I do not lie in't, yet it is mine. 

Ham. Thou doit lie in't, to be in't, and fay, 'tis 
thine : 'tis for the dead, and not for the quick, there- 
fore thou ly'ft. 

Clown. 'Tis a quick lie, Sir, 'twill away again 
from me to you. 

Ham. What man doft thou dig it for ? 

Clown. For no man, Sir. 

Ham. What woman then ? 

Clown. For none neither. 

Ham. Who is to be buried in't ? 

Clown. One, that was a woman, Sir ; but, reft her 
foul, (he's dead. 

^ 2 Ham. 

2io Hamlet, Prin ce of D c n m a rk . 

Ham. How abfolute the knave is ? we muft fpeak by 
the card, or equivocation will undo us. By the lord, 
Horatio, thefe three years I have taken note of it, the 
age is grown fo picked, that the toe of the peafant 
comes fo near -the heel of our ccurtier, he galls his 
kibe. How long haft thou been a grave-maker ? 

Clown. Of all the days i' th' year, I came to't that 
day that our lafi King Hamlet o'ercame Forlinbras. 
Ham. How long is that fince ? 
Clown. Cannot you tell that ? every fool can tell 
that : it was that very day that young Hamlet was 
born, he that was mad, and fent into England. 

Ham. Ay, marry, why was he fent into England? 
Clows. Why, becaufe he was mad j he (hall reco- • 
ver his wits there j or, if he do not, it's no great mat- 
ter there. 

Ham. Why ? 

Clown. 'Twill not be feen in him ; there the men 
are as mad as he. 

Ham. How came he mad ? 
Clown. Very itrangely, they fay. 
Ham. How fbangely ? 
Clown. Faith, e'en vviih lofing his wits. 
Ham. Upon what ground ? 

Clown. Why, here, in Denmark. I have been 
fexton here, man and boy, thirty years. 

Ham. How long will a man lie i' th' earth ere he 
rot ? 

Clown V faith, if he be not rotten before he die, (as 
we have many pocky coarfes now-a-days, that will 
fcarce hold the laying in) he will laft you fome eight 
year, or nine year ; a tanner will laft >ou nine) ears. 
Ham. Why he, more than another? 
Clown. Why, Sir, bis hide is fo tann'd with his 
trade, that he will keep out water a great while. And 
ypi r water is a iort decayer of your whorion dead 
body. Here'; .call now has lain in the earth three 
and twenty years. 
Ham. Whofe was it ? 

Cl<mn. A whorfon mad fellow's it was ; Whofe 
do ) ou think it was ? 


Hamlet,. Prin ce of D e to m ark . 221 

Ham Nay, I know not. 

Clown. A peftilence on him for a mad rogue! he 
pour'd a flaggon of Rhenifn on my head once. This 
fame fculi, Sir, was YbricVs fcull, the King's jeder. 
Ham This ? 
Clown. E'en that. 

Ham. Alas, poor Torick! I knew him, Horatio, a 
fellow of infinite jeftj of m oft excellent fancy : he hath 
borne me on his back a thoufand times : and now 
how abhorred in my imagination it is ! my gorge rifes 
at it Here hungthofe lipsj that I have fcifs'd I know 
not how oft. Where be your gibes now ? your gam- 
bols? yoarfongs? your flaihes of met riment, that were 
wont to fet the table in a roar ? not one now, to mock 
your own grinning ? quite chap fallen r now get you 
to my lady's chamber, and tell her, ier her paint an 
inch thick, to this favour (lie muft come ; make her 

laugh at that Pr'ythee, Horatio, tell me one 


Hor What's that, my Lord ? 

Ham. Doft thou think, Alexander Iook'd o' this 
fafhion i'th' earth ? 
Hor. E'en fo. 
• Ham. And fmelt fo, puh ? [Smelling to the Scull. 
Hor. E'en fo, my lord. 

Ham. To what bafe ufes we may return, Horatio ! 
why may not imagination trace the noble dull of 
Alexander, 'till he find it Hopping a bung- hole ? 

Hor. 'Twere to confider too curioufly, to confi - 
der fo. 

Ham. No, faith, not a jot : But to follow him thi- 
ther with modeily enough, and likelihood to lead it; 
as thus : Alexander died, Alexander was buried, 
Alexander returneth to dull ; the duft is earth ; of 
earth we make lome ; and why of that lome, whereto 
he was converted, might they not Hop a beer- barrel? 
Imperial Ctefar, dead and turn'd to clay, 
Might ftop a hole to keep the wind away : 
Oh, that that earth, which kept the world in awe, 
Should patch a wall t'expel the winter's flaw ! 
But foft ! but foft a while- here comes the King, 

L .3., S C E N E 

222 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 


Enter King, £>ueen, Laertes, and a cofiin, <with Lord*, 
and Priejls, attendant. 

The Queen, the Courtiers. What is that they follow, 
Ant^with fuch maimed rites ? this doth betoken, 
The coarfe, they follow, did with defperate hand 
Foredo its own life ; 'twas of fome eftate. 
Couch we a while, and mark. 

Laer. What ceremony elfe ? 

Ham. That is Laertes, a rnoft noble youth : mark— j 

Laer. What ceremony elfe ? 

Pricft. Her obfcquies have been fo far enlarg'd 
As we have warranty ; her death was doubtful j 
And but that great Command o'er-fways the order, 
She mould in ground unfandlified have lodg'd 
* Fill the laft Trump. For charitable prayers, 
Shards, flints, and pebbles, mould be thrown on her }. 
Yet here me is 6 allow'd her virgin chants, 
Her maiden-flrewments, and the bringing home 
7 Of bell and burial. 

Laer. Mult no more be done ? 

Priefi. No more be done ! 
We (hould profane the fervice of the dead, 
To fing a Requiem, and fuch Reft to her 
As to peace parted fouls. 

Laer. Lay her i'th' earth ; 
" And from her fair and unpolluted fiem 
" May violets fpring ! I tell thee, churlifli piieir, 
ts A rniniitring angel fhall my filter be, 
!•' When ihou lieil howling. 

Ham. What, the fair Ophelia! 

Queen. Sweets to the fvveet, farewel ! 
I hop'd, thou flioulu'il have been my Hamlet's wife* 

6 ■ alkiv'd her -virgin rites,] The old Quarto reads. 
i irgin cr ants, evidently corrupted from chants, winch is 
the true word. AJjca'Jic rather than a gc/nric term being here 
required, to anfwer to maiden ftteivmc tits. 

7 Of bell and burial, j Burial, here, fignirles interment in con- 
secrated ground. 

I thought 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 223 

I thought thy bride- bed to have deck'd, fweet maid,. 
And not have ftrew'd thy Grave. 

Laer. O treble woe 
Fall ten times treble on that curfed head, 
Whofe wicked deed thy mod ingenious fenfe 
Depriv'd thee of! Hold off the earth a while, 
'Till I have caught her once more in my arms ; 

[Laertes leaps into the Grave* 
Now pile your duft upon the quick and dead, 
'Till of this flat a mountain you have made, 
TVer-top old Pelion, or the skyilh head 
Of blue Olympus. 

Ham. [di [covering him/elf] What is he, whofe griefs- 
Bear fuch an emphafis ? whofe phrafe of forrow 
Conjures the wandring ftars* and makes them (land 
Like wonder-wounded hearers ? this is I, 

[Hamlet leaps into the Grave. 
Hamlet the Dane. 

Laer.The Devil take thy foul ! [Grappling 'with him* 

Ham. Thou pray 'ft not well. 

I pr'y thee, take thy fingers from my throat ■ 

For though I am not fplenitive and rafh ; 

Yet have I in me fomething dangerous, 

Which let thy wifdom fear. Hold oft thy hand, 

King. Pluck them afunder— — 

Queen. Hamlet, Hamlet 

Hor. Good my lord, be quiet. 

[The attendants part thentl 

Ham. Why, I will fight with him upon this theme^ 
Until my eye-lids will no longer wag. 

Queen. Oh my fon ! what theme ? 

Ham. I lov'd Ophelia ; forty thoufand brothers 
Could not with all their quantity of love 
Make up my fum. What wilt thou do for her ? 

King. O, he is mad, Laertes. 

Queen. For love of God, forbear him. 

Ham, Come, (hew me what thou'lt do.. £fel£f 

' Woo't weep? woo't fight? woo't fad? woo't tear thy 
Woo't drink up 8 eifel, eat a crocodile ? 
I'lldo't— Do'lt thou come hither but to whine ? 

% Eifel,] Vinegar; Spelt right by Mr. Theobald, 

L 4 T© 

224 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

To out-face me with leaping in her Grave ? 
Be buried quick with her ; and fo will I ; 
And if thou prate of mountains, let them throw 
Millions of acres on us, 'till our ground, 
Singeing his pate 9 againit. the burning Sun, 
Make OJfa like a wart ! nay, an thou'lt mouth, 
I'll rant as well as thou. 

Queen. This is meer madnefs ; 
And thus a while the Fit will work on him : 
■' Anon, as patient as the female dove, 
*' * E'er that her golden couplets are difclos'd, 
" His filence will fit drooping. 

Ham Hear you, Sir— - 
"What is the reason that you ufe me thus r* 
I lov'd you ever; but it is no matter 

Let Hercules himfelf do what he may, 
The cat will mew, the dog will have his day. [Exit* 
King. I pray you, good Horatio, wait upon him. 

[ Exit Hor. 
Strengthen your patience in ourlaft night's fpeech. 

[To Laertes. 
We'll put the matter to the prefent pufh. 
Good Gertrude, fet fome watch over your fon : 
This Grave (hall have a living Monument. 
An hour of quiet fhortly fhall we fee ; 
"Till then, in patience our proceeding be. [Exeunt, 


Changes to a Hall, in the Palace. 

Enter Hamlet and Horatio. 

//^;.QO much for this, now fhall you fee the other. 

O You do remember all the circumftance ? 

t)-.. . - ....■ againft the laming Zone,] This reading is abkird in 
all fenfes. We ihould read, Sux. 

i When that her golden couplets *- — ] We fhould read^ 

E"er that tor it is the patience of birds, during the tirre of in- 
cubation, that is here fpoken cf. The Pigeon generally fits upon 
two eggs 5 and her young, when fidt difcloied, are covered with 
a yellow down, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 225 

Hot-. Remember it. my lord ? 

Ham. Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting, 
That would not let me ileep ; methought, I lay 
Worfe than the mutines in the Bilboes ; a Ramnefs 
(And prais'd be ralhnefs for it) lets us know ; 
Or indifcretion fometimes ferves us well, 
When our deep plots do fail ; " and that mould teach us, . 
" There's a Divinity that fhapes our ends, 
" Rough-hew them how we will. 

Hor. That is moft certain. 

Ham. Up from my cabin, 
My fea-gnwn fcarft about me, in the dark 
Grop'd I to find out them ; had my defire, 
Finger'd their packet, and in fine withdrew 
To mine own room again ; making fo bold 
(My fears forgetting manners) to unfeal 
Their grand Commifiion, where I found, Horatio f ^ 
A royal knavery; an exaft Command, 
Latded with many feveral forts of reafons, 
Importing Denmark's health, and England's too, 
With, ho ! fuch buggs and goblins in my life ; 
That on the fuperviz^, ? no leifure bated, 
No, not to flay the grinding of the ax, 
My head mould be itruck off. 

Hor. Is't poffible ? 

Ham. Here's the commifiion, read it at more leifure % • 
But wilt thou hear now how I did proceed r 

Hor. I befeech you. 

z ... Rajhnefs 

(And prated be rajhnefs for it) lets us know ; 

Our indifcretion fometimes ferves us wel', 

When &c.] TheYenfe in this reading is, Our rafbnefs lets in • 
know that our indifcretion fer-ves us well, when Sec. But this could : 
never be Shakefpcars fenfe. We fhould read and point thus, 


(And praised be rafir.ef for it) lets us know ; 

Or indifcretion fometimes ferves us well, 

When &c] i. e. Rafhnefs acquaints us with what we cannot - : 
penetrate to by plots, 

3 no hi Cure bated,] Bated, for allowed. To abate fignifies 

to deduct ; this deduction, when applied to the parfon in whofe 
favour it is made, is called an allowance. Hence he takes the li- 
berty of ufing bated for allowed. 

L 5 Ham,'- 

ii6 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. ♦ Being thus benetted round with Villains, 
(Ere I could mark the prologue to my Bane, 
They had begun the Play :) I late me down, 
Devis'd a new commiffion, wrote it fair : 
(I once did hold it, as our Statitts do, 
A bafenefs to write fair ; and labour'd much 
How to forget that Learning ; but, Sir, now 
It did me yeoman's fervice ;) wilt thou know 
TV effecl of what I wrote ? 

Hor. Ay, good my lord. 

Ham. Anearneft conjuration from the King, 
As England was his faithful tributary, 
As love between them, like the palm, might flourifh, 
5 As Peace mould ftill her wheaten garland wear, 


4 Being thus benetted round ivith Villains, 
(Ere I could m a k e a prologue to my Br a I ns, 

They had begun the Play :) — ] The fecond line is nonfenfe. 
The whole mould be read thus, 

Being thus benetted round ivith villains, 

(Ere I could mark the Prologue to my Bane, 

They bad begun the Play.) 
i.e. They begun to atl, to my deftruclien, before I knew there 
was a Play towards. Ere I could mark the Prologue. For it ap- 
pears by what he fays of his foreboding, that it was that only, and 
not any apparent mark of villany, which fet him upon fingering 
their -packet. Ere I could make the Prologue, is abfurd : Both, as 
he had no thoughts of playing them a trick till they had played 
him one ; and becaufe his counterplot could not be called ^prologue 
to their Plot. 

5 As peace Jhould fl ill her ivheaten garland ivear. 

And Hand a Co mm a ]&vecn their amities j] Peace is here 
properly and finely psrfonalized as the Goddefs of good league and 
friendship ; and very claflically dreiVd out. Ovid fays, 
PaxCereretn nutrit, Pads alumna Ceres. 
, And Tibuilus, 

At nobis, Pax alma ! veni, fpicamque teneto. 
But the placing her as a Comma, or flop, between the amities of 
two Kingdoms, makes her rather iiand like a cypher. The poet 
without doubt wrote, 

And f and a Commere 'tween our amities. 
The term is taken from a trafficker in love, who brings people to- 
gether, a procurefs. And this Idea is well appropriated to the 
fatirical turn which the fpeaker gly^s to this wicked adjuration of 
the King, who would lay the foundation of the peace of the two 
kingdoms in the blood of the heir of one' of them. Periers in his 
Novels, ufes the word Commere to fignify a (he-friend. A tous 
fet gens, chacun tine Commere. And Beit Jobnfon $ in his Devil's 
an ^Afs } engJifhcs the word by a wddHng Gojip, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmzrli. 217 

Asrdftand a Commere 'tween their amities; 
And many fuch like At* of great charge ; 
That on the view and knowing thefe contents, 
Without debatement further, more or lefs, 
He fhould the bearers put to fudden death, 
Not fhriving time allow'd. 

Hor. How was this feal'd P 

Ham. Why, ev'h in that was heaven ordinant ; 
I had my father's Signet in my purfe, 
Which was that model of the Danijb feal : 
T folded the Writ up in form of th 7 other, 
Subfcrib'd it, gave th' impreffion, plac'd it fafely^. 
The changeling never known ; now, the next day 
Was our fea -fight, and what to this was fequent 
Thou know'ft already. 

Hor. So, Guildenjiernz^Rofimrant%%0^t. 

Ham. Why, man, they did make love to this em. 


They are not near my confcience ; their defeat 
6 Doth by their own infinuation grow : 
" 'Tis dangerous when the bafer nature comes 
" Between thepafs, and fell incenfed points, 
f* Of mighty oppofites. 

Hot. Why', what a King is this ?' 

Ham. Does it not, thinks thou, (land me now upon?' 
He that hath kill'd my King, and whor'd my mother,, 
Popt in between th' eledion and my hopes, 
Thrown out his angle for my proper life, 
And with fuch cozenage ; is't not perfect confcience,^ 
To quit him with this arm ? and is't not to be damn'd, 
To let this canker of our nature come 
In further evil ? 

Hor. It muft be fliortly known to him from England.,. 
What is the iflueof the "bufinefs there. 

Ham. It will be fhort. 
The Interim's mine ; and a man's life's no more 
Than to fay, one. 

Or ivhat do you fay to a middling Go/lip 
To bring you together. 
6 D th by their oivn infinuation grow :] Infinuation, for cor- 
luptly obtruding themfelves iato his jcrvice, 

228 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

But I am very forry, good Horatio, 

That to Laertes I forgot my felf ; 

For by the image of my cr.ufe I fee 

The portraiture of his ; I'll court his favour ; 

But, fure, the bravery of his grief did put me 

Into a tow'ring paffion. 

Hor. Peace, who comes here ? 


Enter Ofrick. 

Ofr. Your lordfhip is right welcome back to Den- 

Ham. I humbly thank you, Sir. Doft know this 
water -fly ? 

Hor. No, my good lord. 

Ham. Thy (late is the more gracious ; for 'tis a vice 
to know him : he hath much land, and fertile ; let a 
beaft be lord of beafts, and his crib (hall ftand at the 
King's mefle ; 'tis a chough ; but, as I fay, fpacious 
in the pofiefiion of dirt. 

Ofr. Sweet lord, if your lordfhip were at leifure, I 
fhould impart a thing to you from his Majefty. 

Ham. I will receive it with all diligence of fpirit : 
your bonnet to his right ufe,- 'tis for the head. 

Ofr. I thank your lordfhip, 'tis very hot. 

Ham, No, believe me, 'tis very cold ; the wind is 

Ofr. It is indifferent cold, my lord, indeed. 

Ham. But yet, methinks, it is very fultry, and hot, 
7 or my complexion 

Ofr. "Exceedingly, my lord, it is very fultry, as 

'twere, I cannot tell how: My lord, his Majefty 

bid me fignify to ycu, that he has laid a great wager 
on your head: Sir, this is the matter-- 

Ham. I befeech you, remember-'— — 

Of-. Nay, in good faith, for mine eafe, in good 
faith : — Sir, here is newly come to Court Laertes ; 

7 for my complexion.] This is not E nglifh. The old Quarto 

reads, or my complexion ~ And this is right. He was going to 

fay, Or my complexion deceives me } but the over complaifance of 
the other interrupted him. 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 229 

believe me, an abfolute Gentleman, full of moft ex- 
cellent Differences, of very foft fociety, and great (hew : 
indeed, to fpeak feelingly of him, he is the card or Ca- 
lendar of gentry ; for you mall find in him the con- 
tinent of what part a gentleman would fee. 

Ham. s Sir, his definement fuffers no perdition in 
you, tho' I know, to divide him inventorially would 
dizzy the arithmetick of memory ; 9 and yet but flow 
neither in refpeft of his quick fail : But, in the verity 
of extolment, I take him to be a Soul of great article ; 
and his infufion of fuch dearth and rarenefs, as, to 
make true diclion of him, his Semblance is his mir- 
rour ; and, who elfe would trace him, his umbrage, 
nothing more. 

Ofr. YourLordfhip fpeaks moft infallibly of him. 

Ham. The Concernancy, Sir ?, -Why do we wrap 

the Gentleman in our more rawer breath ? 

[To Horatio. 

Ofr. Sir, 

Hor. Is't not poflible to understand in another tongue ? 
you will do't, Sir, rarely. 

Ham. "What imports the nomination of this gentle- 
man ? 

Ofr. Of Laertes? 

Hor. Hispurfeis empty already : all's golden words 
are fpent. 

Ham. Of him, Sir. 

Ofr. I know, you are not ignorant, 

Ham. I would, you did, Sir ; yet, in faith, if you 
did, it would not much approve me. — Well, Sir. 

Ofr. You are not ignorant of what excellence La- 
ertes is. 

8 Sir, his definement &c] This is defigned as a fpecimen, and 
ridicule of the court jargon, amongft the precieux of that time. 
The fenfe in Enghjh is, Sir, he fuffers nothing in your account of hi rr, 
though to enumerate his good qualities particularly would be endlefs : 
yet when we had done our bejl it would JIM corns fh or t of him. How- 
ever, inftriclnefs of truth, he is a great genius, and of a characler fo 
rarely to be met with, that to find any tbirg like him look into 
his mirrour, and his imitators will appear no more than hisjbadows. 

9 and yet but raw neither'] We ihould read slow, 


230 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. I dare not confefs that, left I fhould compare 
with him in excellence : but to know a man well, were 
to know himfelf. 

Ofr. I mean, Sir, for his weapon : but in the Im- 
putation laid on him by them in his Meed, he's un» 

Ham. What's his weapon ? 

Ofr. Rapier and dagger. 

Ham. That's two of his weapons ; but well. 

Ofr. The King, Sir, has wag'd with him fix Bar- 
hary horfes, againft the which he has impon'd, as I 
take it, fix French rapiers and poniards, with their 
affigns, as girdle, hangers, and fo : three of the car- 
riages, in faith, are very dear to fancy, very refpon- 
five to the hilts, moil delicate carriages, and of very 
liberal conceit. 

Ham. What call you the carriages ? 

Har. x I knew, you muft be edified by the Margent, 
e'er you had done. \_Ajide. 

Ofr. The carriages, Sir, are the hangers. 

Ham. The phrafe would be more germane to the 
matter, if we could carry cannon by our fides ; I 
would, it might be hangers 'till then. But, on ; fix 
Barbary horfes againft fix Ft etich fwords, their affigns, 
and three liberal conceited carriages ; that's the French 
bet againft the Danlfh ; why is this impon'd, as you 
call it ? 

Ofr. The King, Sir, hath laid, that in a Dozen 
Paffcs between you and him, he (hull not exceed you 
three hits ; he hath laid on twelve for nine, and it 
would come to immediate tryal, if your lordfhip would 
vouchfafe the anfwer. 

Ham. How if I anfwer, no ? 

I I knew, you muji be edified by the Margent, e' 'er you had done.] 
Horatius feem'd to wonder that Hamlet fhould be fo well verfed in- 
this Court-jargon : But he now finds him at a lofs about the mean- 
ing of the word carriages, and fays, pieafantly, I kneiv , you muji be 
edified by the Margent, e\ryou had done. \. e. I knew you would 
have need of a comment, at laft, to understand the text. In the old 
books the glofs or comment was ufually printed in the margent of 
the leaf. 


Hamlet, Prime of "Denmark. 231 

Ofr. I mean, my lord, the opposition of your perfoa 
in tryal. 

Ham. Sir, I will walk herein the Hall ; If it pleafe 
his Majefty, 'tis the breathing time of day with me ; 
let the foils be brought, the gentleman willing, and 
the King hold his purpofe, I will win for him if I 
can ; if not, I'll gain nothing but my fhame, and the 
odd hits. 

Ofr. Shall I deliver you fo ?- 

Ham. To this effect, Sir, after what flourifli your 
nature will. 

Ofr. I commend my duty to your lordfhip. [Exit. 

Ham. Yours, yours ; he does well to commend it 
himfelf, there are no tongues elfe for's turn. 

Hor. This lapwing runs away with the fnell on his 

Ham. z He did compliment with his dug before he 
ftick'd it : thus has he (and many more of the fame- 
breed, that, I know, the droffy age dotes on) only got 
the tune of the time, and outward habit of encounter* 
* a kind of yefty colle&ion, which carries them through 
and through the moll fann'd and winnowed opinions ;. 

2 ifrdidfo, Sir, ivithbis dug &c] What, runaway with it ? 
The Folio reads, He did comply with bis dug. So that the 
true reading appears to be, He did compliment ivitb bis dug, 
i. e. ftand upon ceremony with it, to fhew he was bom a courtier. 
This is extremely humourous. 

3 a kind of yefty collection, ivbicb carries them through and 
through the mofi FONn and ivinr.oived opinions ; and do but biotv 
them to their fyals, the bubbles are out.'] The metaphor is ftrangely 
mangled by the intrufion of the word fond, which undoubtedly 
mould be read fann'd ; the allufion being to corn feparated bjr 
the Fan from chaff and duft. But the Editors feeing, from the 
character of this yejiy collection, that the opinions, through which 
they were fo currently carried, were falfe opinions; and fann'd 
and winnow d opinions, in the moft obvious knfe fignifying tried 
and purified opinions, they thought fanned muft needs be wrong, 
and therefore made it fond, which word fignified in our author's 
time, foolim, weak or childifh. They did not confider that fanned 
and nvinnoived opinions had alfo a different ngnification : For it 
may mean the opinions of greajt men and courtiers, men feparated 
by their quality from the vulgar, as corn is feparated from the 
chaff. This yefty colleclion, fays Hamlet, infinuates itfelf into 
people of the higheft Quality, as yeft into the fineft flower. The 
courtiers admire him, but when he comes to the trial Sec. 


232 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

and do but blow them to their tryals, the bubbles are 

Enter a Lord. 
Lord. My lord, his Majefty commended him to you 
by young Ofrick, who brings back to him, that you 
attend him in the Hall ; he fends to know if your plea- 
sure hold to play with Laertes, or that you will take 
longer time ? 

Ham, I am conftant to my purpcfes, they follow the 
King's pleafure j if his fitnefs fpeaks, mine is ready, 
now, or whenfoever, provided I be fo able as now. 

Lord. The King and Queen, and all are coming 

Ham. In happy time. 

Lord. The Queen defires you to ufe fome gentle en- 
tertainment to Laertes, before you fall to play. 

Ham. She well inilruclsme. [Exit Lord. 

Hor. You will lofe this wager, my lord. 

Ham. I do not think fo ; fince he went into France, I 

have been in continual pra&ice; I (hall win at the odds. 

But thou wouldft not think how ill all's here about my 

heart but it is no matter. 

Hor. Nay, good my lord. 

Ham. It is but foolery ; but it is fuch a kind of gain- 
giving as would, perhaps, trouble a woman. 

Hor. If your mind diflike any thing, obey it. I will 
foreftal their repair hither, and fay you are not fit. 

Ham. Not a whit, we defy augury ; there is a fpe- 
cial providence in the fall of afparrow. If it be now, 
'tis not to come ; if it be not to come, it will be now : 
if it be not now, yet it will come ; the readinefs is all. 
* Since no man, of ought he leaves, knows, what is" t 
to leave betimes ? Let be. 

S C E N E 

a Sir.ce t:o man has ought of what he leaves, ivbat is't 
to leave betimes f\ This the Editors called reafoning. I fhouid 
have thought the premiies concluded juft otherwife : For fince 
death ftrips. a man of every thing, it is but fit he ihould fhun and 
avoid the defpoiler. The old Quarto reads, Since no man, of ought 
he leaves, knows, ivbat is? 't to leave betimes. Let be. This is 
the true reading. Here the premifes conclude right, and the ar- 
gument drawn out at length is to this efteCt, It " true, that, by 

death. . 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 2^3 


Enter King, Queen, Laertes and lords, Ofrick, with 

other attendants with foils, and gantlets. A table, 

and fiaggons of wine on it. 

King. Come, Hamlet, come, and take this hand from 

Ham. Give me your pardon, Sir; I've done you 
wrong ; 
Bat pardon't, as you are a gentleman. , 
This prefence knows, and yoa mud needs have hearer, 
How I am puniQYd with a lore diiha&ion. 
What I have done, 

That might your Nature, Honour, and Exception 
Roughly awake, I here proclaim was madnefs : 
Was't Ham fet wrong' d Laertes? never, Hamlet. 
If Hamlet from himfelf be ta'en away, 
And, when he's not himfelf, does wrong Laertes, 
Then Hamlet does it not ; Hamlet denies it : 
Who does it then ? his madnefs. If t be fo,. 
Hamlet is of the fa&ion that is wrong'd ; 
His madnefs is poor Hamlets enemy. 
Let my difclaiming from a purpos'd Evil, 
Free me fo far in your moft generous thoughts, 
That I have fnot mine arrow o'er the houfe, 
And hurt my brother. 

Laer. I am fatisfied in nature, 
Whofe motive, in this cafe, mould ftir me moft 
To my revenge : but in my terms of honour 
f fiand aloof, and will no reconcilement ; 
'Till by fome elder mailers of known honour 
I have a voice, and president of peace, 
To keep my name ungor'd. But 'till that time, 
I do receive your offer'd love like love, 
And will not wrong it. 

death, ive lofe all the goods of life ; yet feeing this lofs is r.c other = 
tvife an evil than as ive are fenfible of it j andjince death removes 
all fenfe of it, ivhat matters it hoivfoon ive lofe them : 'Therefore 
come what ivill I am prepared. But the ill pointing in the old 
hook hindered the Editors from feeing S ha kej ~pear , s fenfe, and en- 
. Couraged them to venture at one of their own. though, as ufual, 
'-i.ey are come very lamely off, 


234 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

Ham. I embrace it freely, 
And will this brother's wager frankly play. 
Give us the foils. 

Laer. Come, one for me. 

Ham. I'll be your foil, Laertes ; in mine Ignorance 
Your Ikill (hall like a ftar i'th' darkeit night 
Stick fiery off, indeed. 

Laer. You mock me, Sir. 

Ham. No, by this hand. 

King. Give them the foils, young Ofrick. 
Hamlet, you know the wager. 

Ham. Well, my lord ; 
Your Grace hath laid the odds o'th' weaker fide. 

King. I do not fear it, I have feen you both : 
But fince he's better'd, we have therefore odds. 

Laer. This is too heavy, let me fee another. 

Ham. This likes me well j thefe foils have all a 
length. {Prepares to play. 

Ofr. Ay, my good lord. 

King. Set me the ftoops of wine upon that table : 
If Hamlet gives the firfb, or fecond, Hit, 
Or quit in anfvver of the third exchange, 
Let all the battlements their ordnance lire j 
The King mall drink to Hamlet's better breath : 
And in the cup an Union fhall he throw, 
Richer than that which four fucceflive Kings 
In Denmark's Crown have worn. Give me the cups : 
And let the kettle to the trumpets fpeak, 
The trumpets to the cannoneer without, 
The cannons to the heav'ns, the heav'ns to earth v. 
Now the King drinks to Hamlet. — Come, begin, 
And you the Judges bear a wary eye. 

Ham. Come on, Sir, 

Laer. Come, my lord.. [They play, 

Ham. One • 

Leer. No — - — 

Ham. Judgment, 

Ofr. A hit, a vtry palpable hit. 

Laer. Weil again 

King. Stay, give me Drink. Hamlet, this Pearl is 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 235 

Here's to thy health. Give him the cup. 

[ Trumpets found. Shot goes off". 

Ham. I'll play this bout firft, fet it by a while. 

[They play* 
Come another hit what fay you ? 

Laer. A touch, a touch, I doconfefs. 

King. Our fon lhall win. 

Queen. He's fat, and fcant of breath. 
Here, Hamlet, take my napkin, rub thy brows ; 
The Queen carouies to thy fortune, Hamlet, 

Ham. Good Madam, 

King. Gertrude, do not drink. 

Queen. I will, my lord ; I pray you, pardon me. 

King. It is the poifon'd cup, it is too late, [dfide. 

Ham. I dare not drink yet, Madam, by and by, 

Queen. Come, let me wipe thy face. 

Laer. I'll hit him now. 

King. I do not think't. 

Laer. And yet it is almofl againft my confcience. 

Ham. Come, for the third, Laertes, you but dally ; 
I pray you, pafs with your bell violence ; 
I am afraid you make a Wanton of me. 

Laer. Say you fo ? come on. [Play, 

Ofr. Nothing neither way.. 

Laer. Have at you now. 

[Laertes wounds Hamlet ; then, in fcuffling, they 
change rapiers, and Hamlet wmmds Laertes. 

King. Part them, they are incens'd. 

Ham. Nay, come again 

Ofr. Look to the Queen there, ho ! 

Hor. They bleed on both fides. How is't, my lord ? 

Ofr. How is't, Laertes? 

Laer. Why, as a woodcock to my own fpringe, 

Ofrick ', 

I'm juftly kill'd with mine own treachery. 

Ham. How does the Queen ? 

King. She fwoons to fee them bleed. 

Queen. No, no, the drink, the drink 
Oh my dear Hamlet, the drink, the drink, ■ ■■ 

I am poifon'd » [Queen dies. 


1^6 Hamlet, Prince of Den m ark . 

Horn. Oh villany ! ho ! let the door be lock'd : 

Treachery ! feek it out — 

Laer. It is here, Hamlet, thou art flain, 
No medicine in the world can do thee good.. 
In thee there is not half an hour of life ; 
The treach'rous instrument is in thy hand, 
Unbated and envenom'd : the foul practice 
Hath turn'd itfelf on me. Lo, here I lye, 
Never to rife again ; thy mother's poifon'd ; 

I can no more the King, the King's to blame. 

Ham. The point envenom'd too r 
Then venom to thy work. [Stabs the King. 

All. Treafon, treafon. 

King. O yet defend me, friends, I am but hurt. 
Ham. Here, thou inceftuous, murth'rous, damned 
Drink oft this potion : is the Union here ? 
Follow my mother. [King dies. 

Laer. He is juftly ferved. 
It is a poifon temper'd by himfelf. 
Exchange forgivenefs with me, noble Hamlet ; 
Mine and my father's death come not on thee, 
Nor thine on me ! [Dies. 

Ham. Heav'n make thee free of it! I follow thee. 
I'm dead, Horatio ; wretched Queen, adieu .' 
You that look pale, and tremble at this chance, 
That are but mutes or audience to this aft, 
Had I but time, (as this fell Serjeant death 
Is Uriel in his arreft) oh, I could tell you - 
But let it be— Horatio, I am, dead ; 
Thou iiv'ft, report me and my cauie aright 
To the unfatisfied. 

Hor. Never believe it. 
I'm more an antique Roman than a Dane j 
Here's yet fome liquor left. 

Ham. As th'art a man, 
Give me the cup ; let go ; by heav'n, I'll have't. 
Oh good Horatio, what a wounded name, 
Things Handing thus unknown, mall live behind me ? 
If thou didft ever hold me in thy heart, 
Abfent thee from felicity a while, 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 237 

AncUn this harfh world draw thy breath in pain, 
To tell my tale. [March afar off, arJJhout uuithin. 
What warlike noife is this ? 



Ofr. Young Fortinbras, with Conqueft come from 
To the Ambaffadors of England 'gives 
This warlike volley. 

Ham. O, I die, Horatio : 
The potent poifon quite o^er-grows my fpirit ; 
I cannot live to hear the news from England. 
But I do prophefie, th'eleclion lights 
On Fortinbras ; he has my dying voice ; 
So tell him, with the occurrents more or lefs, 

5 Which have ibllicited. — The reft is filence. [Dies. 
Hor. Now cracks a noble heart ; good night, ivveet 

Prince ; 

6 And flights of angels wing thee to thy Reft 1 
Why does the Drum come hither ? 

2iW>* Fortinbras, andEnghCn Ambaffadors, with drum, 
colours, and attendants. 

Fort. Where is this fight ? 

Hor. What is it you would fee ? 
If aught of woe or wonder, ceafe your fearch. 

Fort. This quarry cries — —on havock. Oh proud 
death ! 
What feaft is tow'rd in thy infernal cell, 
That thou fo many Princes at a fhot 
So bloodily haft ftruck ? 

A?nb. The fight is difmal, 
And our affairs from England come too late : 

5 JFhich have follicited. - — ] Soflicited, for brought on thfi 

6 And fights of angels sing thee to thy Reft /] What language 
is this of flight- tinging. We fTiould certainly read, 

And flights ofangeh wing tbee to thy Reft, 
U e. carry thes to Heaven, 


2 3$ Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

The ears are fenfelefs, that mould give us hearing ; 
To tell him, his commandment is fulfilTd, 
That Rofincrantz and Guildenjlern are dead : 
Where mould we have our thanks ? 

Hor. 7 Not from his mouth, 
Had it th' ability of life to thank you : 
He never gave commandment for their death. 
But fince fo jump upon this bloody queftion, 
You from the Polack Wars, and you from England^ 
Are here arriv'd ; give Order, that thefe bodies 
High on a Stage be placed to the view, 
And let me fpeak to th'yet unknowing world, 
How thefe things came about. So fhall you hear 
Of cruel, bloody, and unnatural ac~ls ; 
Of accidental judgments, carnal {laughters ; 
Of deaths put on by cunning, and forc'd caufe ; 
And, in this uplhot, purpofes miftook, 
Fall'n on th' inventors' heads. All this can I 
Truly deliver. 

Fort. Let us hade to hear it, 
And call the Noblefs to the audience. 
For me, with forrow I embrace my fortune ; 
I have fame rights of memory in this Kingdom, 
Which, now to claim my vantage doth invite me. 

Hor. Of that I (hall have alfo caufe to fpeak, 
And from his mouth whofe voice will draw on more : 
But let this fame be prefently performed, 
Even while men's minds are wild, left more mifchance 
On plots and errors happen. 

Fort. Let four captains 
Bear Hamlet, like a ioldier, to the Stage ; 
For he was likely, had he been put on, 
To have prov'd moil: royally. And for his pafiage, 
The Soldiers' muilck, and the rites of war 

Speak loudly for him 

Take up the body : men a fight as this 
Becomes the field, but here fhews much amifs. 
Go, bid the foldiersfhoot. 

\Exeunt, marching : after ivbich a peal of 
Ordnance ii /hot off. 

7 Not from his mouth,'] That is, the King's, 

A L i 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 239^ 
ACT II. SCENE VII. Page 157. 

The rugged Pyrrhus, he, &c] The twogreateft Poets 
of this and the laft age, Mr. Dryden, in the preface to 
Troilus and CreJJida, and Mr. Pope, in his note on this 
place, have concurred in thinking that Shake/pear pro- 
duced this long paffage with defign to ridicule and expofe 
the bombaft of the Play, from whence it was taken ; 
and that Hamlet's commendation of it is purely ironical. 
This is become the general opinion. I think juft other- 
wife ; and that it was given with commendation to up- 
braid the falfe tafte of the audience of that time, which 
would not fufFer them to do juftice to the fimplicity and 
fublime of this production. And I reafon, Firft, From 
the Character Hamlet gives of the Play, from whence the 
paffage is taken. Secondly, From the paffage itfelf. 
And Thirdly, From the effect it had on the audience. 

Let us confider the character Hamlet gives of it, The 
Play, I remember, pleas' d not the million, 'twas Caviar to 
the general; but it was {as I received it, and others, whofe 
judgment in fuch matters cried in the top of mine) an ex- 
cellent Play well digejted in the fcenes,jet down with as 
much mode fly as cunning. I remember, one f aid, there was no 
fait in the lines to make the matter fa-voury ; nor no matter 
in the phrafe that might indite the author ofaffeclion; but 
called it an honefl method. They who fuppofe the paf- 
fage given to be ridiculed, mull needs fuppofe this cha- 
racter to be purely ironical. But if fo, it is the ftrangeft 
irony that ever was written. It pleafed not the multitude* 
This we muft conclude to be true, however ironical the 
reft be. Now the reafon given of thedefigned ridiculeis 
the fuppofed bombaft. But thofe were the very Plays, 
which at that time we know took with the multitude.' 
An ■ Fletcher wrote a kind of Rehearfal puruofeiy to ex- 
pofe them. But fay it is bombaft, and that, therefore, it 
took not with the multitude. Ham'et prefently tells us 
what it was that difpleiifed them. There was no fait in 
the lines to make the matte*- favoury ; n r no matter in the 
phrafe ■ that might indite the author of affeSion ; but 
called it an honefi method. Now whether a perfon {peaks' 


240 Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

ironically or no, when he quotes others, yet common 
fenfe requires he fhould quote what they fay. Now it 
could not be, if this Play difpleafed becaufe of the bom- 
baft, that thofe whom it difpleafed mould give this reafon 
for their dillike. The fame inconfiitencies and abfurdities 
abound in every other ip?.n of Hamlet's fpeech fuppofing 
it to be ironical : but take him as fpeaking his fentiments, 
the whole is of a piece, and to this purpofe ; The Play, I 
remember, pleafed not the multitude, and the reafon was 
its being wrote on the rules of the ancient Drama ; to 
which they were entire ftrangers. But, in my opinion, 
and in the opinion of thofe for whofe judgment I have 
the higheft efteem, it was an excellent Play, well digejl- 
edintbefcenesy i. e. where the three unities were well 
preferved ; Set down with as much modejly as cunning t ue. 
where not only the art of compofition, but thefimplicity 
of nature, was carefully attended to. The characters 
were a faithful picture of life and maimers, in which no- 
thing was overcharged into Farce. But thefe qualities, 
which gained my elteem, loft the public's. For I re- 
member one /aid, '[here was no fait in the lines to make 
the matter fazoury, i. e. there was not, according to the 
mode of that time, a fool or clown to joke, quibble, and 
talk freely . Nor no matter in the phrafe that might indite 
the author of ajfettion, i. e. nor none of thofe paHionate, 
pathetic love fcenes, fo effential to modern Tragedy, 
But he called it an boneft Method, i. e. he owned, how- 
ever taftelefs this method of writing, on the ancient 
plan, was to our times, yet it. was chafte and pure; 
the diftinguiming character of the Greek Drama. 1 need 
only make one obfervation on all this ; that, thus inter- 
preted, it is the jufteft picture of a good tragedy, wrote 
on the ancient rules. And that 1 have rightly interpreted 
it appears farther from what v/e find added in the old 
Quarto, An hone ft method* as whoufome as fweet, and by 
very much more handsome than fi n e, i.e. it had a 
natural beauty, but none of the fucus of falfe art. 

2. A fecond proof that this fpeech was given to be 
admired, is from the intrinfic merit of the fpeech itfelf : 
which contains the defcription of acircumftance very hap- 

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 241 

•happily imagined, namely Ilium and Priam's falling to- 
gether with the effect it had on the deftroyer. 

Tbelillijh Pyrrhus £ste. 

To, Repugnant to command. 
If} 1 unnerved father falls &C. 

To, So after Pyrrhus' paufe. 

Now thiscircumftance, illuftrated with the fine fimili- 
tude of the ftorm, is fo highly worked up as to have well 
deferved a place inVirgil's fecond Book of the u?Eneid 9 
even tho' the work had been carried on to that per- 
fection which the Roman poet had conceived. 

3. The third proof is, from the effects which followed 
on the recital. Hamlet, his belt character, approves it ; 
the Player is deeply affected in repeating it ; and only the 
foolifh Polonius tired with it. We have faid enough be- 
fore of Hamlet 's fentiments. As for the player, he changes 
colour, and the tears ftart from his eyes. But our au- 
thor was too good a judge of nature ttf'make bombaft 
and unnatural fentiments produce fuch an effect. Nature 
and Horace both inftructed him, 

Si vis me fere, dokndum eft 

Pritnum ipfi tibi, tunc tua me infortunia Indent, 

< Tekphe>'velPeleu. Male si man data loqueris, 

Aut dormitabo aut ridebo. 
And it may be worth obfervjng, that Horace gives this 
precept particularly to fhew, that bombaft and unnatural 
fentiments are incapable of moving the tender paffions, 
which he is directing the poet how to raife. For, in 
the lines juft before, he gives this rule, 

Ttlefbus & Peleus, cum pauper & exul uterque, 
Projicit Ampulla*) & fsfquipedalia verba. 
Not that I would deny, that very bad lines in very bad 
tragedies have had this effect. But then it always pro- 
ceeds from one or other of thefe caufes. 

1 . Either when the fubject is domeftic, and the fcene 
lies at home : The fpe&ators, in this cafe, become inte- 
refted in the fortunes of thediftreffed; and their thoughts 
are fo much taken up with the fubject, that they are not 
at liberty to attend to the poet ; who, otherwife, by his 
faulty fentiments and di&ion, would have ftifled the 

Vol. VIII. M emotion 

t/^% Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 

emotions fpringing up from a fenfe of thediftrefs. But 
this is nothing to the cafe in hand, For, as Hamlet fays, 
What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba ? 
7. When bad lines raife this affection, they are bad in 
the other extreme ; low, abject, and groveling, inflead 
of being highly figurative and fwelling j yet when at- 
tended with a natural fimplicity, they have force enough 
to ftrike illiterate and fimple minds. The Tragedies 
of Banks will juftify both thefe obfervations. 

But if any one will fay, that Shake/pear intended to 
reprefent a player unnaturally and fantaftically affected, 
we muft appeal to Hamlet, that is to Shake/pear him- 
felf, in this matter j who in the reflection he makes 
upon the Player's emotion, in order to excite his own 
revenge, gives not the leaft hint that the Player wai 
unnaturally or injudicioufly moved. On the contrary, 
his fine defcription of the Actor's emotion fhews, he 
thought juft otfjerwife. 

this Player here 
But in aficlion, in a dream of fafjion, 
Could force his foul fo to his own conceit, 
'That from her working all his vifage wand: 
Tears in his eyes, dtjlradion in his afpecl t 
A broken voice &C 
And indeed had Hamlet efteemed this emotion any thing 
unnatural, it had been a very improper circumftance 
to fpur him to his purpofe. 

As Shakefpear has here (hewn the effects which a fine 
defcription of Nature, heightened with all the ornaments 
of art, had upon an intelligent Player, whofe bufinefs 
habituates him to enter intimately and deeply into the 
characters of men and manners, and to give nature its 
free working on all occafions ; fo he has artfully fhewn 
what effe&s the very fame fcene would have upon a quite 
different man, Polonius; by nature, very weak and 
very artificial [two qualities, though commonly e- 
nough joined in life, yet generally fo much difguif- 
«d aa not to be feen by common eyes to be toge- 
ther ; and which an ordinary Poet durft not have 
brought fo near one another] by difcipline, pra&ifed 


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. 243 
in a fpecies of wit and eloquence which was ftiff 
forced and pedantic : and by lra J ez Politician, and the £ 
fore of confequence, without any of theaffeQmg notice, 
of humamty Such i s the man whom Sbaief^ll P u 
dictouflychofentoreprefent the falfe tafle of hat u 
dience had condemned the Play here red in* 
When the actor comes to the fineft and moft pa ne l 

-which Ham/et, m contempt of his ill Judgment r?ni;«- 

by this judgment, , t appeared that all his wifdom lav m 

And yet this man of modern &£&££&£ 
perfeflly unmoved with the forcible imagery of he r T 
tor.nofooner hears, amongft many good ,hin™; 
quaint and fantaftical word, put in I VunnrTfr 1 S ' A 
for thisend than he VroM^l^'oTZttl 
pnety and dignity ofit. That-, Lid. M,l?j <i P 
t W On the whole then, I think/it piai„^ a ^ 
the long quotation is not riven to he riX i j f 
laughed at, but to be admired 8 Thecharaaer i "1 
the Play, by *„,,„, cannot be ^ / ?£ TpS t 
felf is extremely beautiful. It has the effe^Tf,^ n S 
thetic relations, naturally written ^, ftould h^v ^'j ft 
condemned, or regarded with indifference by'o„ eo f ' 
wrong unnatural tafte. From hence (to obkZTbvtsl 
JvayJtheAftors in their reprefentation of hhJL^Z 
learn how this fpeech ought to be fnoken ,1/ I' Y 

much, al owing the chares *h;. u ,' T% h w 
duclio'n of theif conclutf ' ""' *"" make for < he <"-, 
Pyrrhus «/ Priam </ r »W n ran *«, . . 

a* «//* a. ** f md ^;;; tffr&X*'. 

Ti' mntriitdFathtrfall,. J CT V'«.MW 

M * An. 

244. Hamlet., Prince of Denmark. 

And again, 
Out, out, thou frumpet Fortune f All you Gods, 
In general Synod, take away her power : 
Break all the /pokes and fellies from her wheel, 
And bowl the round nave, down the hill of Heaven, 
Jb low as to the Fiends. 
Tvf ow whether thefe be bombaft or not, is not the que- 
ftion ; but whether Shake/pear efteemed them fo. Th at 
he did not fo efteem them appears from his having ufed the* 
very fame thoughts in the fame expreflion, in his beft 
Plays, and given them to his principal charaders, where 
he aims at the fublime. As in the following paffages. 

Twtus, in Troths and Crefida, far outftrains the exe- 
cution of Pyrrhus's fword, in the charader he gives of 

When many times the caitiff Grecians fall 
Ev'n in the fan and wind of your fair fword, 
You hid them rife and live. 
Cleopatra, in Antony and Cleopatra, rails at Portune 
in the fame manner. 

No, let me /peak, and let me rail fo high, 
That the falfe hufwife Fortune break her wheel, 
ProvoKd at my offence. 
But another ufe may be made of thefe quotations ; a 
difcovery of the Author of this recited Play : which, 
letting us into a circumftance of our Author's life (as a 
^writer) hitherto unknown, was the reafon I have been 
fo larae upon this Qaeltion. t think then it appears., from 
whaAias been faid, that the Play in difpute was Shake- 
hear% own : and that this was the occafion of writing 
it. He was defirous, as foon as he had found hisftrength, 
of reftoring the chaftnefs and regularity of the ancient 
Stage ; and therefore compofed this Tragedy on the 
model of the Greek Drama, as may be feen by throw- 
ing fo much aclion into relation. But his attempt 
proved fruitlefs ; and the raw unnatural tafle, then pre- 
valent, forced him back again into his old Gothic man- 
ner. Por which he took this revenge upon his Audience. 



T H E 


Dramatis Perfonx. 

DUKE of Venice. 

Brabantio, a noble Venetian. 

Gratiano, Brother to Brabantio. 

Lodovico, Kin/man to Brabantio and Gratiano. 

Othello, the Moor, General for the Venetians in Cyprus. 

Caffio, bis Lieutenant* General. 

lago, Standard-bearer to Othello. 

Rodcrigo, a foolijh Gentleman, in love with Defdemona. 

Montano, the Moors Predeceffor in the Government of 

Clown, Servant to the Moor*. 

Defdemona, Daughter to Brabantio, and Wife to Othello. 

JEmilia, Wife to lago. 

Bianca, Curtezan, Miftrcfs to Caffio. 

Officers, Gentlemen, Mejfengers, Mufuians, Sailor s y 
and Attendants. 

SCENE, for the Firjl Atl, in Venice ; during th* 
veft of the Play, in Cyprus. 


C H7 3 

■0 THE L L 0, 

The Moor of Venice. 

A Street in VENICE. 

Enter Rodorigo and Iago. 

Rodo R i g o. 

TUSH, never tell me, I take it much unkindly, 
That thou, Iago, who haft had my purfe, 
As if the ftrings were thine, fhouldft know of 


Iago. But you'll not hear me. 
If ever I did dream of fuch a matter, abhor me. 
Rod. Thou told'ft me, thou didft hold him in thy 

Iago. Defpife me, 
If I do not. Three Great ones of the city, 
In perfonal fuit to make me his lieutenant, 
OfF-cap'd to him : and, by the faith of man, 
I know my price, I'm worth no worfe a^laceJ 

i Othello, the Moor of Venice.] The ftory is taken from Cyn . 
tkitft Novels. Mr. Pope, 

M 4 But 

248 Othello, the 

But he, as loving his own pride and purpofe,. 

Evades them with a bombaft circumftance, 

Horribly ftuft with epithets of war, 

And, in conclufion, 

Non-fuits my mediators. Certes, fays he, 

I have already chofe my officer. 

And what was he ? 

Forfooth, a great arithmetician, 

One Michael CaJJio'y ( 2 a Florentine** 

A fellow almoft damn'd in a fair wife ; — ) 

That never fet a fquadron in the field, 

Nor the divifion of a battle knows 

More than a fpinfter ; but the bookifh theorick, 

3 Wherein the (a) toged confuls can propofe 

As mafterly as he ; meer prattle, without pra&ice, 

Is all his foldierfhip he had th' eleftion ; 

And I, of whom his eyes had feen the proof 
At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other grounds 
Chriftianand heathen, 4-muft be let and calm'd 
By Debitor and Creditor, this Counter- cajien 
He, in good time, muft his lieutenant be, 
And I (God blefs the mark !) his Moor-fhip's- 

a Florentine, 

A fellow almoft damn'd in a fair wife ;] But it was lage, 
and not Cajfio, who was the Florentine, as appears from Ail 3. 
*>Ltr,t 1. The parage therefore ihould be read thus, 

[a Florentine's 

A fellow almoft damn" d in a fair wife ;— ) 
Thefearethe words of Othello, (which fago in this relation repeats,) 
and fignify, that a Florentine was an unfit perfon for command, as 
being~ahvays a flave to a fair wife j which was the cale of logo. 
Th» Oxford Editor fuppcnng this was faid by Tsgo of taftio, will 
have Cajfio to be the Florentine $ which, he iay>, u flam from 
many paffages in the Play, rightly utuhrftood. But becauio Cajfio 
was no married man, (t'ho' f wonder it did not appear he was, 
from ivmcpafl'agft rightly underftood) he alters the line thus, 

A fellow almoft damtid in a fair Phyz, 
A White friers' phrale. 

g Wherein the toged zonfak-- ] Confuls, for counl'lors. 

4 mu ft fc lID and calm* J.] So the old Quarto. The nrft 

JFolio reads belee'd: but that fpoils the meafure. I read let, hindered. 

[(a J toged, The old Quarto. ■■ ■ — Vulg. tongtted.j 


Moor of V e • n i c - r, 24^ 

1W. By Heav'n, I rather would have been his hang- 

lago. But there's no remedy, 'tis the curfe of fer- 
vice ; 
Preferment goes by letter and affection, 
s Not (as of old) gradation, where each fecond 
Stood heir to th' firft. Now, Sir, be judge your felfV 
If I in any juft term am affign'd 
To love the Moor. 

Rod. I would not follow him then. 

lago. O Sir, content you ; 
I follow him to ferve my turn upon him. 
We cannot all be matters, nor all mailers 
Ganno^le truly follow'd. " You ihall mark 
" Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave, 
" That, doting on his own obfequious bondage, 
" Wears out his time, much like his matter's afs, 
" For nought but provender ; and, when he's old,, 

ca(hier'd ; 
" Whip me fuch honeft knaves— Others there are, 
M Who, trimm'd in forms and vifages of duty, 
u Keep yet their hearts attending on themfelves ; 
" And, throwing but (hows of fervice on their lords, 
"■ Well thrive by them; and when they've lin'd their 

" Do themfelves homage. Thefe folks have fom»-' 

And fuch a one do I profefs my kM. 
It is as fure as you are Rodorigo 9 
Were I the Moor, I would not be lago ; 
In following him, I follow but my feif, 
Heav'n is my judge, not I, for love and duty : 
But, feemingfo, for my peculiar end : 
For when my outward action doth demonftrate 

5 And net by old gradation ,] What is old gradation? H>. 

immediately explains gradation very properly. But the idea of Q&- 
does not come into it, 

.. — . ..«»— inhere each fecond 

Stood heir to tP firft. 

I read therefore, 

Not (as of old) gradation. 
'. t, it does not go by gradation, as it did of old, . 

M 5 Th*r 

Ico O ■ t h e llo, the 

The native a& and figure of my heart 
6 In compliment extern, 'tis not long after 
But I will wear my heart upon my fieeve, 
For daws to peck at ; I'm not what I feem. 

Rod. What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe,. 
I£ he can carry her thus $ 

la^o. Call up her father, 
Roufe him, make after him, poifon his delight ; 
Proclaim him in the ftreets, incenfe her kinfmen ; 
And tho' he in a fertile climate dwell, 
Plague him with flies ; tho' that his joy be joy, 
Yet throw fuch changes of vexation on't, 
As it may. lole fome colour. ^ 

Rod. Here is her father's houfe. Ill call aloud. 

lago. Do, with like timorous accent, and dire yelh,. 
" 7 As when, by night and negligence, the fire 
" Is fpred in populous cities." 

Rod. What, ho! Brabantio ! Signior Brabantio ! 'ho., 

lago. Awake ! what, ho! Brabantio.! ho! thieves? 
thieves ! 
Look to your-houfe, your daughter and your bags i. 
Thieves ! thieves r 


Brabantio appears above \ at a window. 
Bra. What is the reafon of this terrible fummons I 
What is the matter there ? 

6 In compliment extern,— ] Compliment, i. e. fulnefs. 

7 As ivhen, by night ar.d, the 

Is spied in populous cities.~\ This is not fenfe, take it which 
way you will. If night and negligence relate to fpied, it is abfurd 
to fay the fire <was fpicd by negligence. If night and negligence re- 
fer only to the time and oceafion-, it mould then be by night, and 
thro'' negligence. Otherwife the particle by would be made to dignity 
time applied to one word, and caufe applied to the other. We mould 
read therefore, Is spred, by which all theie faults are avoided. But 
what is of move, weight, the fimilitude, thus emended, agrees be# 
with the fact it is applied to-. Had this notice been given to Bra.- 
bjntiobsfcre his daughter ran away and married, it might then in- 
deed have been well enough compared to the alarm given of a fire 
]utt fpied, as foon as it was begun. But being given after the par- 
ties were bedded, it was more fitly compared to a fixe fpred by 
night and negligence fe as not to be extinguifhed» 


Moor ^/Venice. 251 

Rod. Signior, is all your family within ? 
lago. Are all doors lock'd ? 

Bra. Why ? wherefore afk you this ? 

lago. Zounds ! Sir, you're robb'd : for fhame, put 
on your Gown ; 
Your heart is burft, you have loft half your foul ; 
Ev'n now, ev'n very now, an old black ram 
Is tupping your white ewe. Arife, arife, 
Awake the fnorting citizens with the bell, 
Gr elfe the Devil will make a grandfire of you. 
Arife, I fay. 

Bra. What, have you loft your wits ? 

Rod. Moft reverend fignior, do you know my 
voice ? 

Bra. Not I ; what are you. ? 

Rod. My name is Rodorigo. 

Bra. The worfe welcome ; 
I've charg'd thee not to haunt about my doors: 
In honeft plainnefs thou haft heard me fay, 
My daughter's not for thee. And now in mad.nefs, 
Being full of fupper and diftemp'ring draughts, 
Upon malicious bravery doll thou come 
To dart my quiet. 

Rod. St, Sir, Sir 

Bra. But thou muft needs be fure, 
My fpirit and my place have in their power 
To make this bitter to thee. 

Rod. Patience, good Sir. 

Bra. What teli'it thou me of robbing ? this it 
My houfe i3 not a grange. 

Rod. Moft grave Brabantio~> 
In fimple and pure-foul, I come to you. 

lago. Zounds ! Sir, you are one of thofe that wilt 
not ferva God, if the Devil bid you. Becaufe we 
come to do you fervice, you think we are ruffians; 
you'll have your daughter cover'd with a Barbary 
horfe, you'll have your nephews neigh to you ^.you'll 
have courfers for coufins, and gennets for germanes^ 

Buii What prophane wretch art thou ? 

252 Othello, the 

lago. I am one, Sir, that comes to tell you, your 
daughter and the Moor are now making the bead with 
two backs. 

Bra. Thou art a villain. 

lago. You are a fenator. 

Bra. Thi9 thou fhalt anfwer. I know thee, Ro- 

Rod. Sir, I will anfwer any thing. But I befeech you, 
8 IPtbe your pleafure and moil wife confent, 
(As partly, I find, it is,) that your fair daughter, 
At this odd even and dull watch o' th' night, 
Tranfported with no worfe nor better guard, 
But with a knave of hire, a Gundalier, 
To the grofs clafps of a lafcivious Moor : 
If this be known to you, and your allowance, 
We then have done you bold and fawcy wrongs. 
But if you know not this, my manners tell me, 
We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe, 
That from the fenfe of all civility 
I thus would play, and trifle with your reverence. 
Your daughter, if you have not given her leave, 
I fay again, hath made a grofs revolt ; 
Tying her duty, beauty, wit and fortunes 
To an extravagant and wheeling ftranger, 
Of here and every where ; ftraight fatisfie your felf, 
If ftie be in her chamber, or your houfe, 
Let loofe on me the juitice of the State 
For thus deluding you. 

Bra. Strike on the tinder, ho ! 

Give me a taper ; call up all my people ; ■ ■ 

This accident is not unlike my Dream, 
Belief of it oppreiles me already. 
Light, I fay, light! 

lago. Farewei ; for I mud leave you. • 
It feerns not meet, nor wholfome to my place, 
To be produc'd (as, if I flay, I (hall) 
Againlt the Moor. For I do know, the State, 

8 Tpt he yow pica fun &c] The feventeen following lines are 
added 'finer- the firft edition/ where, after the words, Ihefeechy)u > 
immediately follows, 

If fa H in her chamber t &c, Mr. Pope. 


Me of of V e n i c f. 253 

However this may gall him with fome check, 

Cannot withfafety caft him. For he's embark'd 

With fuch loud reafon to the Cyprus* wars, 

•Which ev'n now Hand in act, that, for their fouls, 

Another of his fadom they have none, 

To lead their bufinefs. In which regard,, 

Tho' I do hate him as I do hell's pains, 

Yet, for neceiTity of prefent life, 

I mull (hew out a flag and fign of love : 

(Which is, indeed, but figtu) That you may furely 

find him, 
Lead to the Sagittary the raifed fearch ; 
And there will I be with him. So, farewel. [Exit, 


Enter Brabantio^ and fer*vants with torches* 

Bra. It is too true an evil. Gone (he is ; 
9 And what's to come of my defpired time, 
Is nought buc bicternefs. Now, Rodorigo, 
Where didft thou fee her ? oh unhappy girl! 
With the Moor, faidft thou ?■ who would be a father ? 
How didft thou know 'twas (he ? oh, (lie deceives me 

Pad thought What faid (he to you ? get more 

Raife all my kindred are they married, think you? 

Rod. Truly, I think, they are. 

Bra. O heaven ! how gat (he out ? 
Oh treafon of my blood ! 

Fathers, from hence trull not your daughters' minds 
By what you fee them acl. Are there not charms, 
By which the property of youth and maidhood 
May be abus'd ? have you not read, Rodorigo, 
Of fome fuch thing ? 

Rod. Yes, Sir, I have, indeed. 

Bra. Call up my brother : oh, 'would you had had 

9 And what's to come of my despised time,] Why defpifed 
time ? We mould read, 

— .1. ■ 1 »m ii m PXSP J TJCD time. 

i,.e. vexatious. 


254 Othello, the 

Some one way, fome another ■ Do you know- 
Where we may apprehend her and the Moor ? 

Rod. I think, I can difcover him, if you pleafe 
To get good guard, and go along with me. 

Bra. Pray yoa, lead on. At every houfe I'll call, 
I may command at moft ; get weapons, hoa ! 
And raife fome fpecial officers of might : 
On, good Rodorigo, I'll deferve your pains* [Exeunt. 


Changes to another Street, before the Sagitrary. 

Enter Othello, Iago, and attendants with Torches. 
lag*/ I * H O' in the trade of war I have flain men,. 
J. Yet do I hold it very fluff o' th' confcience- 
To do no contriv'd murther : I lack iniquity 

Sometimes to do me fervice Nine or ten times 

I thought to've jerk'd him here under the ribs. 

Oth. It's better as it is. 

Iago. Nay, but he prated, 
And fpokefueh fcurvy and provoking terms 
Againftyour honour ; 
That, with the little godiinefs I have, 
I did full hard forbear him. But I pray, Sir, 
Are you faft married? for, befure of this, 
That the Magnifico is much belov'd, 
And hath in his effect a voice potential' 
1 As double as the Duke's : he will divorce you ? 
Or put upon you what reftraint or grievance 
The law (with all his might t'enforce it on) 
Will give him cable. 

I As double as the Duke's :] Rymer feems to have had his eye 
on this pailage, amongtt others, where he talks fo much of the im- 
propriety and barbarity in the ftyie of this play. . But it is an ele- 
gant Grecifm. As double, fignifies as large, as extenfive j for thus 
the Greeks ufe <W*fcl$. Dicfc. 1. 2. c. 2,13. And in the fame 
manner and conftruction, the Latins fometimes ufed duplex. And 
the old French writers fay, La fins double. Dr. Bentley has been 
as fevere on Milton for as elegant a Grecifm, 

Yet-Virgin of Proferpina/row Jove, lib. 9. <ver. 396. 
'Tis an imitation of the Uuflivoy Ik 0«/V»p* of Theocritus for aa 
unmarried Virgin* 

Moor ^/Venice. 255, 

~Oth. Let him do his fpight : 
My fervices, which I have done the Signory, 
Shall out-tongue his complaints. 'Tis yet to know, 
(Which, when I know that Boafting is an honour, 
I (hall promulgate) I fetch my Life and Being 
From men of royal fiege ; and my demerits 
May a fpeak, unbonnetting, to as proud a fortunes 
As this that I have reach'd. For know, logo, 
But that I love the gentle Defdemona , 
I would not my unhoufed free condition 
Put into circumfcription and confine, 
For the fea's worth. But look I what lights come yon.- 
der \ 


Enter Cafllo, with torches. 

lago. Thofe are the raifed father, and his friends: 
You were belt go in. 

Oth. Not I : I mud be found. 
My parts, my title and my perfect Soul 
Shall manifefime rightly. Is it they ? 

Iago J By Janus, I think, no. 

Oth. The Servants of the Duke, and my lieutenant; 
The goodnefs of the night upon you, Friends I 
What is the news ? 

Caf The Duke does greet you, General ; 
And he requires your hafte, pofte-h arte,, appearance, 
Ev'n on the inftant. 

Oth. What is the matter, think you ? 

Caf. Something from Cyprus, as I may divine ; 
It is a bufinefs of fome heat. The Gallies 
Have fent a dozen fequent meffengers 
This very night, at one another's heels : 

2. — fpeak, UNBOKMSTID-] Thus all the copies read;. It 
fliould be un bonneting. i. e. without putting off the bonnet. 

Mr. Pope. 
3 By Janus, I think, no.] There is great propriety in making 
the double lago fwear by Janus, who has two faces. The addrefs 
of it likewife is as remarkable, for as the people coming up appear- 
ed at different diftances to have different fhapes, he might ftvear by 
Janus, without fufpicioa of ar.y other emblematic meaning. 


256 Othello, tht 

And many of theConfuls, rais'd and met, 

Are at the Duke's already. You have been hotly calPd 

When, being not at your lodging to be found, 
The Senate lent above three feveral quells, 
To fearch you out. 

Oth. 'Tis well I am found by you : : 
I will but fpend a word here in the houfe, 
And go with you. [Exit Othello. 

Caf. Ancient, what makes he here ? 

lago. Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land-car- 
rack ; 
If it prove lawful prize,- he's made for ever. 

Caf. I do not underftand. 

lago. He's married. 

Caf To whom ? 

lago. Marry to — Come, Captain, will you go ? 
Enter Othello. 

Oth. Have with you. 

Caf. Here comes another troop to feek for you. 


Enter Brabantio, Rodorigo, with officers and torches. 

lago. It is Brabantio : General, be advis'd ; 
He comes to bad intent. 
Oth. Holla ! ftand there. 
Rod. Signior, it is the Moor. 
Bra. Down with him, thief f w 

[They draw on both fides, 
lago. You, Rodorigo I come, Sir, I am for you — 
Oth. Keep up your bright fwords, for the dew will 
ruft 'em. 
Good Signior, you (hall more command with years, 
Than with your weapons. 

Bra. O thou foul thief ! where haft thou ftow'd my 
daughter ? 
Damn'd as thou art, thou haft enchanted her ; 
For I'll refer me to all things of fenfe, 
If (he in chains of magick were not bound, 
Whether a maid, fo tender, fair, and happy, 


Moor of V E NICE. 2$f 

So oppofite to marriage, that (he (hunn'd 

3: The wealthy culled darlings of our nation, 

Would ever have, t' incur a general mock, 

Run from her guardage to the footy bofom 

Of fuch a thing as thou, to fear, not to delight t 

4 Judge me the world, if 'tis not grofs in fenfe, 

That thou haft practis'd on her with foul charms, 

Abus'd her delicate youth with drugs or minerals, 

That weaken (a) Notion*—— I'll have't difputed<M^ 

*Tis probable, and palpable to thinking. 

I therefore apprehend and do attach thee 

For an abufer of the world, a praclifer 

Of arts inhibited and out of warrant j 

Lay hold upon him ; if he do refill, 

Subdue him at his peril. 

Oth. Hold your hands, 
Both you of my inclining, and the reft. 
Were it my cue to fight, I mould have known it 
Without a prompter. Where will you I go 
To anfwer this your charge ? 

Bra. To prifon, 'till fit time 
Of law, and courfe of direct Seflion 
Call thee to anfwer. 

Oth. What if I do obey ? 
How may the Duke be therewith fatkfied, 
Whofe meflengers are here about my fide, 
Upon fome prefent bufmefs of the State, 
To bring me to him ? 

Offi. True, moft worthy fignior,. 
The Duke's in Council ; and your noble felf, 
I'm fure, is fent for. 

3 The wealthy curled darlings of eur nation.'] I read cullzd 3 
il e. feleft,chofen. Shake/pear u(es this word very frequently. 

Thefe cull'd and choice drawn Cavaliers from France. 

Henry V. 

Curled was an improper mark of difference between a Venetian 
and a Moor, which latter people are remarkably curVd by nature. 

4 J u dg e me tf >e world, &c] The five following lines are not 
in the firft Edition. Mr. Pope. 

[ (a) Notion. Mr. Theobald. 

258 Othello, the 

Bra. How ! the Duke in Council ? 
In this time of the night ? bring him away ; 
Mine's not an idle caufe. The Duke- himfelf, 
Or any of my Brothers of the State, 
Cannot but feel this wrong, as 'twere their own ; 
For if fuch a&ions may have paffage free, 
* Bond-flaves, and Pagans, lhall our Statefmen be. 


Changes to the Senate Houfe. 

Duke and Senators, fet at a table with lights, and 

Duke. 6 '"""jpHERE is no compofition in thefe news, 
j^ That gives them credit. 

1 Sen. Indeed they're diiproportion'd ; 
My letters fay, a hundred and feven Gallie*. 

Duke. And mine a hundred and forty. 

2 Sen. And mine, two hundred ; 

But though they jump not on a jufr account, 
(7 As in thefe cafes, where the aim reports, 
r Tis oft with diff'rence ;) yet do they all confirm 
A Turki/h Fleet, and tearing up to Cyprus. 

Duke. Nay, it is poffible enough to judgment ; 
I do not fo fecure me in the error, 

5 Bond-flaves and Pagans— ~~~] Mr. Theobald alters Pagans 
to Pageants for this reafon, That Pagans are asftricl and moral, air 
the ivorldover, as the mofi regular Chrifnans, in the prefervaiicn of 
private property. Bat what then ? The ipeaker had not this high 
opinion of pagan morality, as is plain from hence, that this im- 
portant difcovery, fo much to the honour of paganifm, was firft 
made by our Editor. 

6 There is no compofition ] Compofition, for confiftency,. 


7 As in thefe cafes, ivhere thet aim reports,'] Thefe Vene- 
tians feem to have had a very odd fort of perfons in employment, 
who did ail by hazard, as to ivhat, and hoiv, they fhould report j 
for this is the fenfe of man's aiming reports. The true reading, 
without queftion, is, 

* — ■ — - •where the aim reports. 
1. e. Where there is no better ground for information than ccnjetlure : 
Which not only improves the fenfe, but, by changing the verb 
into a noun, and the noun into a verb, mends the expreffion. 


Moor of V e n i c e. 259 

But the main article I do approve 
In fearful fenfe. 

[Sailors within.] What hoa f what hoa \ what hoa f 
Enter Sailors. 

Offi. A meffenger from the Gallies. 

Duke. Now !— what's the bufinefs ? 

Sail The Turkijh preparation makes for Rhodes, 
So was I bid report here to the State. 

Duke. How fay you by this change I 

1 Sen. This cannot be, 
By no allay of reafon. 'Tis a pageant, 
To keep us in falfe gaze ; when we coniider 
Th'importancy of Cyprus to the Turk, 
And let our felves again but underhand, 
That as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes, 
So may he with more facile queftion bear it ; 
8 For that it (lands not in fuch warlike brace, 
But altogether lacks th' abilities 

That Rhodes is drefs'd in. If we make thought of this, 
We mutt not think the Turk is fo unfkiHUl, 
To leave that laiett, which concerns him Mi 
Neglecting an aaempt of eafe and gain, 
To wake, and wage, a danger profitlefs. 

Duke. Nay, in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes, 

Ojfi. Here is more news. 

Enter a Mejfengsr. 

Mejf. The Ottomites, (reverend and gracious,) 
Steering with due courfe toward the ifle of Rhodes, 
Have there injoin'd thern with an after-fleet 

1 Sen. Ay, fo I thought ; how many, as you guefs ? 

Mejf. Of thirty fail; and now they do re-ftem 
Their backward courfe, bearing with frank appearance 
Their Purpofes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano, 
Your trufty and moft valiant Servitor, 
With his free duty, recommends you thus, 
And prays you to believe him. 

Duke. 'Tis certain then for Cyprus : Marcus Luccicos, 
Is he not here in town ? 

8 For that it Jiands not, &c.J The kven following lines are 
aided fince the firft Edition, Mr. Pope. 

i Stn* 

260 Othello,/^ 

i Sen. He's now in Florence. 

Duke. Write from us, to him, port, poft-hafte, dif- 

I Sen. Here comes Brabantio, and the valiant Moor. 


To them, enter Brabantio, Othello, Caffio, Iago, Rodo- 
rigo, and Officers. 

Duke. Valiant Othello, we muft ftraight employ you* 
Againft the general enemy Ottoman, 
I did not fee you; welcome,gentle fignior : [To Braban. 
We lack'd your counfel, and your help to night. 

Bra. So did I yours ; good your Grace, pardon me y 
Neither my place, nor aught I heard of bufinefs, 
Hath rais'd me from my bed ; nor doth the general 
Take hold on me : For my particular grief 
Is of fo flood gate^ and o'er -bearing nature, 
That it ingluts and fwallows other forrows, 
And yet is ftill itfelf. 

Duke. Why ? what's the matter ? 

Bra. My daughter ! oh, my daughter ! — 

Sen. Dead ? 

Bra. To me ; 
She is abus'd, ftolen from me, and corrupted 
9 By fpells and medicines, bought of mountebanks r 
For nature fo prepofteroufly to err, 
(Being not deficient, blind, or lame of fenfe,) 
Sans Witchcraft could not . 

9 fy fp e ^ s att d medicines, bought of mountebanks ; ] Rymer has 
ridiculed this circumftance as unbecoming (both for its weaknefs 
and fuperftkion) the gravity of the accufer, and the dignity of 
the Tribunal : But his criticifm only expofes his own ignorance. 
The circumftance was not only exactly in character, but urged with 
the greateft addrefs, as the thing chiefly to be infifted on. For, by 
the Venetian Law, the giving Love-potions was very criminal, as. 
Shakefpear without queftion well underftood, Thus the Law, 
De i maleficii &f herbarie, cap. 17. of the Code, intitled, Delia 
tromij/ion del maleficio. Statuimo etiamdio, cbe-fe alcun homo, 9 
fsmina harrafatto maleficii, iqualife dimandano 'vulgarmente ama- 
torie, veramente alcuni altri maleficii, che alcun homo ofeminafe ha- 
•vefibn in odia,fia frufta & bollado, & che bar a confegliado patifcafi- 
mils fena.And therefore in the preceding Scene, Brabantio calls them 
-■.■■1 > « -drts inhibited, and out of warrant. 


Moor of Venice. 261 

"Duke. Whoe'er he be, that in this foul proceeding 
Hath thus beguiPd your daughter of her felf, 
And you of her, the bloody book of Jaw 
You (hall your felf read in the bitter letter, 
After your own fenfe; yea, though our proper Son 
Stood in your action. 

Bra. Humbly I thank your Grace. 
Here is the man, this Moor, whom now, it feems, 
Your fpecial mandate, for the State-affairs, 
Hath hither brought. 

All. We're very forry for't. 

Duke. What in your own part can you fay to this » 

Bra. Nothing, but this isTO*. 
Oth. Moft potent, grave, and reverend figniors, 
My very noble and approv'd good matters ; 
That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter, 
It is moft true ; true, I have married her ; 
The very head and front of my offending 
Hath this extent ; no more. Rude am I in my fpeech, 
1 And little blefs'd with the fet phrafe of peace ; 
For fince thefe arms of mine had feven years' Pith, 
'Till now, fome nine moons wafted, they have us'd 
Their deareft a&ion in the tented field ; 
And little of this great world can I fpeak, 
More than pertains to feats of broils and battle ; 
And therefore little lhall I grace my caufe, 
In fpeaking for my felf. Yet, by your patience, 
I will a round unvarniih'd tale deliver, 
Of my whole courfe of love ; what drugs, what charms. 
What conjuration, and what mighty magick, 
(For fuch proceeding I am charg'd withal,) 
I won his daughter with. 

Bra. A maiden, never bold j 
Of fpirit fo ftill and quiet, that her motion 

I And little blefs'd ivith the soft phrafe of peace ;] This po • 
logy, if addreiled to his mijlrefs, had been well exprelTed. But 
what he wanted, in fpeaking before a Venetian Senate, was not 
the foft bland ifhments of fpeech, but the art and method of maf- 
culine eloquence. The old Quarto reads it, therefore, as I am per- 
fiiaded, Shakjfpear wrote, 

■ 1 ■ » the set fbrafe of peace j 


262 Othello, the 

Blufh'd at itfelf ; and fhe, in fpight of nature, 
Of years, of country, credit, every thing, 
To fall in love with what fhe fear'd to look on— 
It is a judgment maim'd, and moll imperfect, 
That will confefs, Perfection fo could err 
Againft all rules of nature ; and muft be driven 
To find out practices of cunning hell, 
Why this mould be. I therefore vouch again, 
That with fome mixtures powerful o'er the blood, 
Or with fome dram, conjur'd to this effect, 
He wrought upon her. 

Duke. To vouch this, is no proof, 
Without more certain and more overt tefr, 
Than thefe thin habits a*h#poor likelyhoods 
Of modern feemingdo prefer againft him. 

i Sen. But, Othello, fpeak ; 
Did you by indirect and forced courfes 
Subdue and poifon this young maid's affections r 
Or came it by requeft, and fuch fair queftion 
As foul to foul afrordeth ? 

Oth. Ibefeechyou, 
Send for the lady to the Sagittary, 
And let her fpeak of me before her father ; 
If you do find me foul in her report, 
The Truft, the Office, I do hold of you, 
Not only take away, but let your Sentence 
Even fall upon my life. 

Duke. Fetch Defdemona hither. 

[Exeunt two or three. 

Otb. Ancient, conduct them, you beft know the place. 

[Exit Iago. 
And 'till (he come, as truly as to heav'n 
I do confefs the vices of my blood, 
So juftly to your grave ears I'll prefent 
How I did thrive in this fair lady's love, 
And fhe in mine. 

Duke. Say it, Othello. 

Oth. Her father lov'd me, oft invited me; 
Still queflion'd me the ftory of my life, 
From year to year j the battles, fieges, fortunes, 
That I have paft. 

I ran 

Moor of V E N I C E. 263 

1 ran it through, e'en from my boyifh days, 
To th' very moment that he bad me tell it : 
Wherein I fpoke of mod difaftrous chances, 
Of moving accidents by flood and field j 

Of hair-breadth fcapes in th' imminent deadly breach • 

Of being taken by the infolent foe, 

And fold to flavery ; of my redemption thence, 

2 And with it, all my travel's hiftory : 

3 Wherein of * antres vail, and s defarts idle, 
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills, whofe heads touck 

* It was my hent to fpeak ; fuch was the procefs ; 
And of the Canibals that each other eat, 
The Anthropophagi ; and men whofe heads 
Do grow beneath their moulders. All thefe to hear 
Would Uefdemona ferioufly incline ; 
But ftill the houfe-afrairs would draw her thence 
Which even as fhe could with hafte difpatch, 
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear 
Devour up my difcourfe : which I obferving, 
Took once a pliant hour, and found good means 
To draw from her a prayer of earneft heart, 

a And tmtb it, all my travel's biftory ;] This lice is »4*»M 
from the old Edition. It is in the reft, ^ * 

Andportance in my travePs hiftory, 

2&«.££?* m . this play - haschan ^ d * ***««. 

,J Tt-t"°/i°' r 'l "'A &C -J Difco -»fe of this natural 
the fubject of the politeft conventions, when voyages into and 

» 7TS *,' t ^-j ,w WOrU werc *» in vogue/ So Xn the 
X££t'&' J" **/?* def « b « th e W« our tf 

e^ffth^owniZte' """ ™" •"*»* **» *' "nl, 
4 .*»»;] Fnmb, Grottoes. Mr - ,,, 


264 Othello, the 

That I would all my pilgrimage dilate ; 

Whereof by parcels fhe had foirtething Heard, 

But not diftin&ively : I did confent, 

And often did beguile her of her tears, 

When I did fpeak of fome diftrefsful ftroke 

That my youth fuffer'd. My ftory being done, 

She gave me for my pains 7 a world of fighs : 

She fwore, in faith 'twas flrange, 'twas pafling flrange, 

'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful- 

8he wifh'd, fhe had not heard it ;— yet fhe wifh'd, 

That heav*n had made her fuch a man : < fhe 

thank'd me 
And bad me, if I had a friend that lov'd her, 
I fhould but teach him how to tell my ftory, 
And that would wooe her. On this hint I fpake, 
She lov'd me for the dangers I had paft, ■ 

And I lov'd her, that fhe did pity them ; 
This only is the witchcraft I have us'd. 
Here comes the lady, let her witnefs it. 


Enter Defdemona, Iago, and Attendants, 
Duke. I think, this tale would win my daughter too- 
Good Brabantio, 

Take up this mangled matter at the beft. 
Men do their broken weapons rather ufe, 
Than their bare hands. 

Bra. I pray you, hear her fpeak ; 
If fhe confefs that fhe was half the wooer, 
Deflruftion on my head, if my bad blame 
Lighton the man ! Come hither, gentle miftrefs, 
Do you perceive in all this noble company, 
Where you mod owe obedience ? 

Def. My noble father, 
I do perceive here a divided duty ; 
To you I'm bound for life and education : 

7 T""~~ a ™ rl d of 'Jigbs >] ^ was kiffes in the later Editions • 
But this is evidendy the true reading. The lady had been for- 
ward indeed to give him a vucr/d of kijfa upon the bate recital of 
his ftory j nor does it agree with the following lines. Mr Pofe. 


Moor of V e n i c e. 265 

My life and education both do learn me 

How to refpeft you. You're the lord of duty ; 

I'm hitherto your daughter. But here's my hufband ; 

And fo much duty as my mother fhew'd 

To you, preferring you before her father ; 

So much I challenge, that I may profefs 

Due to the Moor, my lord. 

Bra. God be with you ; I have done. 
Pleafe it your Grace, on to the State-affairs ; 
I had rather to adopt a child, than get it. 
Come hither, Moor : 

I here do give thee That with all my heart, 
Which, but thou haft already, with all my heart 
I would keep from thee. For your fake, jewel, 
I'm glad at foul I have no other child ; 
For thy efcape would teach me tyranny, 
To hang clogs on them. I have done, my lord. 

Duke. 8 Let me fpeak like our felf ; and lay a 
Which, as a grife, or ftep, may help thefe lovers 

Into your favour — 

When remedies are part, the griefs are ended 

By feeing the worft, which late on hopes depended. 

To mourn a mifchief that is paft and gone, 

Is the next way to draw new mifchief on. 

What cannot be preferv'd when Fortune takes, 

Patience her injury a mockery makes. 

The robb'd, that fmiles, fteals fomething from the 

He robs hirnfelf, that fpends a bootlefs grief. 

Bra. So, let the Turk of Cyprus us beguile, 
We lofe it not, fo long as we can fmile ; 
He bears the fentence well, that nothing bears 
But the free comfort which from thence he hears; 
But he bears both the fentence, and the forrow, 
That, to pay grief, mull of poor patience borrow. 

% Let me fpeak like Yous/f;- ] It mould be, like our felf. 
i. e. Let me mediate between you as becomes a prince and com- 
mon father of his people : For the prince's opinion, here deli- 
vered, was quite contrary to Brabantio'% featiment. 

Vol. VIII. N Thefe 

166 Othello, the 

Thefe fentences to fugar, or to gall, 

Being ftrong on both fides, are equivocal. 

9 But words are words ; I never yet did hear, 

That the bruis'd heart was pieced through the ear- — - 

Befeech you, now to the affairs o' th' State. 

Duke. The 'Turk with a moft mighty preparation 
makes for Cyprus : Othello, the fortitude of the place 
is belt known to you. And though we have there a 
fubftitute of moft allowed fufficiency : yet opinion, a 
fovereign miftrefs of effects, throws a more fafe voice 
on you ; you muft therefore be content to flubber the 
glofs of your new fortunes, with this more ftubbor* 
and boifterous expedition. 

Oth. The tyrant cuftom, moft grave fenators, 
Hath made the flinty and fleel couch of war 
My thrice-driven bed of down. I do agnize 
A natural and prompt alacrity 
I find in hardnefs ; and do undertake 
This prefent war againft the Ottomites. 
Moft numbly therefore bending to your State, 
I crave fit difpofition for my wife, 
Due reference of place and exhibition j 
With fuch accommodation and before 
As levels with her breeding. 

Duke. Why, at her father's. 

Bra. I will not have it fo. 

Oth. Nor I. 

Dsf. Nor would I there refute, 
To put my father in impatient thoughts 
By being in his eye. Moft gracious Duke, 
To my unfolding lend your gracious ear, 

9 But ivords are ivords j / never yet did hear, 

That the bruis'd heart ivas pierced through the ear.] The 
Duke had by fage fentences been exhorting Brabaniio to patience, 
and to forget the grief of his daughter's ftolen marriage, to which 
Brabantio is made very pertinently to reply to this efFedt : My lord, 
1 apprehend very nvelltbe nvifdam of your advice ; but tho" 1 you ivould 
comfort me, ivords are but ivords ; and the heart, already bruis'd, 
•was never piere'd, or wounded, through the ear. It is obvious 
that the text muft be reflcr'd thus, 

That the bruiCd heart ivas pieced thro'' the ear. 
i. e. That the wounds of forrow were ever cur'd, or a man made 
beart-wltole, meerly by words of conillation. 


Moor of V e n i c e. 267 

And let me find a charter in your voice 
TT aflift my fimplenefs. 

Duke. What would you, Defdemotia ? 

Def. That I did love the Moor to live with him, 
* My down-right violence to forms, my fortunes 
May trumpet to the world. My heart's fubdu'd 
Ev'n to the very quality of my lord ; 
I faw Othello 's vifage in his mind, 
And to his honours and his valiant parts 
Did I my foul and fortunes confecrate. 
So that, dear lords, if I be left behind 
A moth of peace, and he go to the war, 
4 The rights, for which I love him, are bereft me : 
And I a heavy interim (hall fupport, 
By his dear abfence. Let me go with him. 

Oth. Your voices, lords ; I befeech you, let her will 
Have a free way. I therefore beg it not, 
To pleafe the palate of my appetite ; 
3 Nor to comply with heat, the young affects 
In my defunct and proper Satisfaction j 
But to be free and bounteous to her mind. 
And heav'n defend your good fouls, that you think, 
I will your ferious and great bufinefs fcant, 
For me is with me. — No, when light- vving'd toys 

I My doivn-rigbt violence and storm of fortunes] But 
what violence was it that drove her to run away with the Moor? 
We mould read, 

My doivn-rigbt violence to forms, my fortunes. 
a 'The rites, for icbicb I love bim are bereft me :] By 
rites can be meant no other than conjugal rites : But it is abfurd 
to think the poet could make her commit fo high an indecorum 
again ft the modefty of her chara&er to fay this. Without queftion 
Shakefpear wrote, 

The rights, for ivbicb I love bim, are bereft me : 
i, e. The right of fharing his dangers with him. So Othello tells 
the Senate, 

Sbe lov'dmefor the dangers I bad p'afs^d, 
and fhe was now defirous of iharing with him what were to come : 
on which account he calls her afterwards, 
Ob my fair tvarrior ! 
3 Nor to comply nvitb heat, the young affects 

In my def unci and proper SatisfacUon :] i. e. With that heat 
and new afFe&ions which the indulgence of mv appetite hasraifed 
and created. This is the meaning of defunFt, 'which has made all 
the difficulty of the paflage. 

N 2 Of 

268 Othello, the 

Of feather'd Cupid foil with wanton dulnefs 
My fpeculative and offic'd inftruments, 
That my difports corrupt and taint my bufinefs;; 
Let houfewites make a skillet of my helm, 
And all indign and bafe adverfities 
Make head againft my eftimation. 

Duke. Be it as you mall privately determine, 
Or for her ftay or going ; th' affair cries hafte ; 
And fpeed muft anfwer. You muft hence to-night. 

Def. To night, my lord ? 

Duke. This night. 

Oth. With all my heart. 

Duke. At nine i' th' morning here we'll meet again. 
Othello, leave fome officer behind, 
And he fhall our commiiTion bring to you ; 
And fuch things elfe of quality and refpeft 
As doth import you. 

Oth. Pleafe your Grace, my Ancient j 
(A man he is of honefty and truft,) 
To his conveyance I affign my wife, 
With what elfe needful your good Grace (hall think 
To be fent after me. 

Duke. Let it be fo ; 
Good night to every one. And, noble Signior, 
4 If virtue no belighted beauty lack, 
Your fon- in-law is far more fair than black. 

Sen. Adieu, brave Moor, ufe Defdemona well. 

"Bra. Look to her, Moor, if thou haft eyes to fee. 
She has deceiv'd her father, and may thee. 

[Exit Duke, with Senators 

Oth. My life upon her faith.- Honeft lago, 

My Defdemona muft I leave to thee ; 

I pVythee, let thy wife attend on her ; 

And bring her after in the belt advantage. 

Come, Defdemona, I have but an hour 

Of love, of worldly matter snd direction 

To fpeak with thee. We muft obey the time. [Exeunt. 

4. If virtue no delighted beauty lack,'} This is a fenfelefs 
epithet. We IhouU read bei.ightei» pcauty. i. e. white 

wdfak ' SCENE 

Moor (//Venice. 269 

Manent Rodorigo and Jago. 

Rod. Iago.- 

Jago. What fayeft thou, noble heart ? 

Rod. What will I do, thinkeft thou ? 

Jago. Why, go to bed, and fleep. 

Rod. I will incontinently drown my felf. 

Iago. Well, if thou doft, I mall never love thee 
Why, thou filly gentleman ! 

Rod. It is iillinefs to live, when to live is a tor- 
ment ; and then have we a prefcription to die, when 
death is our phyfician. 

Iago. O villanous ! I have look'd upon the world 
for four times feven years, and fince I could diftinguilh 
betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man 
that knew how to love himfelf. Ere I would fay, I 
would drown my felf for the love of a Guinnej-hen, 
I would change my humanity with a baboon. 

Rod. What fhould I do ? I confefs, it is my (hame 
to be fo fond, but it is not in my virtue to amend it. 

Iago. Virtue ? a fig : 'tis in our felves that we arer 
thus or thus. Our bodies are our gardens, to th« 
which our wills are gardiners. So that if we will 
plant nettles, or fow lettuce ; fet hyffop, and weed up 
thyme ; fupply it with one gender of herbs, or dif- 
tratt it with many ; either have it fleril with idle- 
nefs, or manured with induftry ; why, the power and 
corrigible authority of this lies in our will. If the ba- 
lance of our lives had not one fcale of reafon to poife 
another of fenfuality, the blood and bafenefs of our na- 
tures would condutt us to mofl prepofterous conclu- 
fions. But we have reafon, to cool our raging mo- 
tions, our carnal ftings, our unbitted lulls ; whereof I 
take this, that you call love, to be a fed*, or fyen. 
Rod. It cannot be. 

Iago. It is meerly a lull of the blood, and a per- 

mimon of the will. Come, be a man : drown thy felf 5 

drown cats and blind puppies. I have profeft mi 

N 3 thy 

270 Othello, the 

thy friend, and I confefs me knit to thy deferving with 
cables of perdurable toughnefs. I could never better 
fteed thee than now. Put money in thy purfe ; follow 
thou thefe wars ; * dhTeat thy favour with an ufurped 
beard ; I fay, put money in thy purfe. It cannot be, 
that Defdemona fhould long continue her love to the 
Moor — put money in thy purfe— nor he his to her. It 
was a violent commencement in her, and thou (halt 
fee an anfwerable fequeftration, — put but money in thy 
purfe.- — Thefe Moors are changeable in their wills ;— 
fill thy purfe with money. The food, that to him 
now is 6 as lufcious as loches, mall fhortly be as bitter 
as coloquintida. When fhe is fated with his body, 
fhe will find the errors of her choice. — She mufl have 
change, fhemuft : therefore put money in thy purfe.— 
If thou wilt needs damn thy felf, do it a more delicate 
way than drowning. Make all the money thou canft. 
If fanclimony and a frail vow, 7 betwixt an errant Bar- 
barian and a fuper-fubtle Venetian, be not too hard for 
my wits, and all the tribe of hell, thou (halt enjoy 
her ; therefore make money. A pox of drowning thy 
felf ! it is clean out of the way. Seek thou rather to 
be hung'd in comparing thy joy, than to be drown'd 
and go without her. 

Rod. Wilt thou be fob to my hopes, if I depend on 
the iilue ? 

Iago. Thou art fure of me.— Go, make money. 
I have told thee often, and I re-tell thee again and 
again, I hate the Moor. My caufe is hearted ; thine 
hath no lefs reafon. Let us be conjunctive in our re- 
venge againft him. If thou canft cuckold him, thou 

5 defeat thy favour ivith an ufurped beard)] This is not 
Er.glijh. We fhould read disseat thy favour, i. e. turn it out 
of its feat, change it for another. The word ufurped dire&s us to 
this reading. 

6 As lufcious as locufts,] Whether you understand by this the in- 
ftdt or the fruit, it cannot be given as an inftance of a delicious 
morfel, notwithstanding the exaggerations of lying travellers. The 
true reading is locbes, a very pleafant confection introduced into me- 
dicine by the Arabian phyficians j and fo very fitly oppofed both 
to" the bitternefs and ufe of Cohquintida. 

7 betivixt an erring Barbarian] We ihould read errant, 
that is a vagabond, one who has no houfenox country, 


Moor 0/ Venice. 271 

doft thy felf a pleafure, and me a fport. There are 
many events in the womb of time, which will be deli- 
vered. Traverfe, go, provide thy money. We will 
have more of this to-morrow. Adieu. 

Rod. Where fhall we meet i' th* morning ? 

lago. At my lodging. 

Rod. I'll be with thee betimes. 

lago. Go to, farewel. Do you hear, Rodorlgo? 

Rod. What fay you ? 

lag p. No more of drowning, do you hear. 

Rod. I am chang'd ; I'll go fell all my land. \_ExiiC 
Manet lago. 

lago.Go to,farewel, put money enough in your puife— 
Thus do I ever make ray fool my purfe ; 
For I mine own gain'd knowledge mould profane, 
If I mould time expend 8 with fuch a fnipe, 
But for my fport and profit.. I hate the Moor, 
And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my meets 

He has done my office. I know not, if *t be true •- 

But I, for meer fufpicion in that kind,. 
Will do, as if for furety. He holds me well ■ 

The better fhall my purpofe work on him ; 
Cajjio's a proper man : let me fee now ; " « 
To get his place, and to plume up my Will, 

A double knavery — How ? how ? let's fee * 

After fome time, V abufe Othello's ear, 

That he is too familiar with his wife ■ 

He hath a perfon, and a fmooth difpofe, 

To be fufpecled j fram'd to make women falfe. 

The Moor is of a free and open nature, 

That thinks men honeft that but feem to be fo ; 

And, will as tenderly be led by th' nofe, 

As affes are : 

I have't— it is ingendred 9 Hell and Spite 

Mull bring this monftrous birth to the world's light, 


8 — ivitb fucb a fnipe, J i. e. a diminutive woodcock. 

9 — — Hell and night J "We fhould read Spite, i. e, love *i 
wifchief, and love of revenge, 

N * ACT 

272 Othello, the 


Tin Capital of C y p r u s. 
Enter Montano Governor of Cyprus, and Gentlemen. 

Mont. TT7HAT from the cape can you difcern at 
VV fca? 

1 Gent. Nothing at all, it is a high- wrought flood ; 
I cannot' twixt the heaven and the main 

Defcry a fail. 

Mont. Methinks the wind hath fpoke aloud at 
land ; 
A fuller blaft ne'er fhook our battlements ; 
If it hath rufrian'd fo upon the fea, 
What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them, 
Can hold the mortife ? what {hall we hear of this ? 

2 Gent. A fegregation of the Turkijb fleet ; 
For do but (land upon the foaming ihore, 
The chiding billows feem to pelt the clouds ; 

Tha wind-fhak'd furge, with high and monftrous 

Seems to caft water on the burning Bear, 
And quench the guards of th' ever-fired pole ; 
I never did like moleftationview 
On the enchafed flood. 

Mont. If that the Turkijb fleet 
Be not inlhelterM and embay'd, they're drown'd j 
It is impoffible to bear it out. 

Enter a third Gentleman-. 

3 Gent. News, lords, our wars are done r 
The defperate tempeft hath fo bang'd the Turks, 
That their defignment halts. A noble fhip of Venice 
Hath feen a grievous wreck and fufferance 

On moft part of the fleet. 
Mont. How J is this true ? 
3 Gen. The Ship is here put in, 

A Ver* 

Moor of V en i c e. tyi 

A Veroneffa ; Michal CaJJlo, 
Lieutenant of the warlike Moor Othello, 
Is come on more ; the Moor himfelf 's at fea, 
And is in full commiflion here for Cyprus. 

Mont. I'm glad on't ; 'tis a worthy Governor. 

3 Gent. But this fame CaJJlo, though he fpeak of 
Touching the Turkijh lofs, yet he looks fadly, 
And prays the Moor be fafe ; for they were parted 
With foul and violent tempeft. 

Mont. Pray heav'ns he be : 
For I have ferv'd him, and the man commands 
Like a full fold ier. Let's to the fea-fide, 
As well to fee the veffel that's come in, 
As to throw out our eyes for brave Othdlo, 
Even 'till we make the main and th' aerial blue- 
An indiftincl regard. 

Gent. Come, let's do fo ; 
For every minute is expectancy 
Of more arrivance. 


Enter Caflio. 

Caf. Thanks to the valiant of this warlike ffle, approve the Moor : oh, let the heav'ns 
Give him defence againft the elements, 
For Thave loft him on a dangerous fea.. 

Mont. Is he well fhipp'd ? 

Caf. His bark is ftoutly timber'd, and his pilot; 
Cf very expert and approv'd allowance ; 
Therefore my hopes, not forfeited to death, 
Stand in bold cure. 

Within.} A fail, a fail, a fail!. 

Caf. What noife ? 

Gent. The town is empty ; on the brow o-'th' Tea i 
Stand ranks of people, and they cry, a fail. 

Caf. My hopes do fhape him for the Governor. 

Gent. They do diicharge their (hot of courtefie j . 
Our friends, at leaft. 

Caf I pray you, Sir, go forth, 
And give us truth who 'tis that is arriv'd, 

N 5 Gtnt* 

274 Othello,/^ 

Gent. I (hall. [Exit, 

Mont. But, good lieutenant, is your General wiv'd ? 
Caf. Moil fortunately, he hath atchiev'd a maid 

That paragons defcription and wild fame : 

One that excels the quirks of blazoning pens, 

x And in terreftrial vefture of creation 

Do*s bear all excellency- 


Enter Gentleman. 
How now ? who has put in ? 

Gent. 'Tis one Iago, Ancient to the General. 

Caf. H'as had moft favourable and happy fpeed y, 
Tempefts themfelves, high feas, and howling winds j 
The gutter'd rocks, and congregated fands, 
(Traitors enfteep'd to clog the guiltlefs keel ',) 
As having fenfe of beauty, do omit 
Their mortal natures, letting fafe go by 
The divine Defdemona. 

Mont. What is me ? 

Caf. She that I fpake of, our great Captain** 
Left in theconducl of the bold Iago ; 
Whofe footing here anticipates our thoughts, 
A fe'nnight's fpeed. Great Jove, Othello guard ! 
And fwell his fail with thine own powerful breath, 
That he may blefs this bay with his t$ll fhip, 
Make love's quick pants in Defdemona 1 ^ arms, 

I And in th'' essential •vefltire of creation 

Do - " shear all excellency — — - j It is plain that fomething very 
hyperbolical was here intended. But what is there as it ftands ? 
Why this, that in the eiTence cf creation fhe bore all excellency. 
The exprefiion is intolerable, and could never come from one who fo 
well understood the force of" words as our Poet. The cjjential i/ef- 
ture is the fame as eJJ'ential form. So that the expreilion is non- 
fenfe. For thcufure of creation fignifies the forms in which creat- 
ed beings are call. And eJJ'ence relates not to the form, but to the 
matter, Skaktfpear certainly wrote, » 

And in terrestrial vefture of creation. 

An\ in this Jay the wonder. That all created excellence fhould be 
contained within an earthly murtal form. 


Moor of V e n r c i : «75F 

Give renewM fire to our extinguifti'd fpirits^ 
And bring all Cyprus comfort 


Enter Defdemona, Iago, Rodorigo, and Emilia. 

behold ! 

The riches of the- (hip is come on more : 
You men of Cyprus let her have your knees. 
Hail to thee, lady ! and the grace of heav'n, 
Before, behind thee, and on every hand 
Enwheel thee round. 

Def. I thank you, valiant Caffio, 
"What tidings can you tell me of my lord ? 

Caf He is not yet arriv'd, nor know I aught 
But that he's well, and will be fhortly here. 

Def. O, but I fear — how loft you company ? 

Caf The great contention of the fea and ikies 
Parted ourfellowfhip. But hark, a fail ! 

Within A A fail, a fail! 

Gent. They give this greeting to the Citadel : 
This like wife is a friend. 

Caf. See for the news : • 
Good Ancient, you are welcome. Welcome, mirtrefs^ 

[To ^Emilia, 
Let it not gall your patience, good Iago, 
That I extend my manners. 'Tis my breeding, 
That gives me this bold ihew of courtefie. 

Iago. Sir, would lhe give you fo much of her' 
As of her tongue lhe oft bellows on me, 
You'd have enough. 

Def Alas ! fhe has no fpeech. 

Iago. In faith, too much ; 

1 find it flill, when I have lift to ileep ; 
Marry, before your ladyfhip, I grant, 
She puts her tongue a little in her heart, 
And chides with thinking. 

JEmiL You have little caufe to fay Co. 

Iago. Come on, come on 3 you're pi&ores out of door?, 

2j6 Othello,^ 

Bells in year parlours, wild-cats in your kitchens,. 
Saints in your injuries, devils being offended, 
Players in your houfewifery, and houfewives in your 
beds ! 

Def O, fie upon thee, flanderer ! 

lag*. Nay, it is true, or elfe I am a Turk ; 
You rife to play, and go to bed to work. 

JEmil. You (hall not write my praife. 

lago. No, let me not. 

Def. What woukTft thou write of me, if thou fhould'ft 
praife me ? 

lago. O gentle lady, do not put me to't, 
For I am nothing, z if not critical. 

Def Come, one affay. There's one gone to the. 

lago. Ay, Madam. 

Def. I am not merry; but I do beguile 
The thing I am, by feeming otherwife ; 
Come, how would'ft thou praife me ? 

lago. I am about it ; but, indeed, " my invention. 
" comes from my pate, as birdlime does from freeze,. 
** it plucks out brainsand all." But my mufe labours, 
and thus fhe is delivered. 

If /be be fair and wife, fairnefs and wit, 
The one"** for ufe, the other ufeth it. 

Def. Well prais'd ; hew if (he be black and witty R 

lago. If fhe be black, and thereto have a wit, 

She* 11 find a white that /hall her blacknefs fit. 

Def Worfe and worfe. 

JEmil. How, if fair and foolifh ? 

lago. She never yet nvas foolifh , that was fair y 

For even her folly helpi her to an heir. 
Def Thefe are old fond paradoxes, to make fools 
laugh i' th' alehoufe. What miferable praife haft thou 
for her that's foul and fooliffl ? 

lago. There 's none fo foul and foolifh thereunto. 

But does foul pranks, whichfair and wife ones do. 

5j i ■ . if twt critical.] Critical, for fatirica/, 


Moor of V e n i c e-. 277 

Def Oh heavy ignorance ! thou praifeft the word 
beft. But what praife couldft thou bellow on a der 
ferving woman indeed ? 3 one, that in the authority of 
her merit, did juftly put on the vouch of very malice 

Iago. '* She that was ever fair, and never proud, 

" Had tongue at will, and yet was never hud y. 
" Never lackt gold, and yet went never gay, 
'* Fled from her wijh, and yet f aid % novo 1 may % 
u She that vjhen anger d, her r&venge being 

u Bad her wrong fay, and her difpleafure fly j 
4: She that invjifdom never was fa frail 
To change the cod's head for the falmoti 's tail ;. 
** She that could think, and ne'er difclofe her 

H See fuitors following, and not look behind;. 
•' She was a wight, (if ever fuch wight were). — ^ 

Def To do what ? 

Iago. To fuckh 'fools, and chronicle fmallbeer, 

Def. O raofl lame and impotent conclufion ! do not 

learn of him, JEmilia, tho' he be thy hufband. How 

fay you, Ca/Jio, is he not a moll * profane and liberal 
counfeilbr ? 

3 one, that in the authority of her merit, did juftly put on the 
vouch of very malice itfelf f\ The editor, Mr. Theobald, not un- 
der ftanding the phiafe, To put on the vouch of malice, has alter'ci 
it to put doivn, and wrote a deal of unintelligible fluff" to juftifyhis- 
blunder. To put on the vouch of any one, fignifies, t<f call upon 
any one to vouch for another. So that the fenfe of the place is 
this, One that was fo confcious of her own merit, and of the au- 
thority her character had with every one, that fhe durft venture to 
call upon malice itfelf to vouch for her. This was fome commenda- 
tion. And the character only of the cleaiefr virtue j which could, 
force malice, even againft its nature, to do juftice. 

4 She that in ivifdom never luasfo frail 

To change the cod's bead for the falmon's tail.] Becaufe the Ita- 
lian proverb fays, E meglio ejfertefia di Luccio che coda di flurione 5 
meaning, that a wife man would always chufe to be in the firft rank 
of a lower flation rather than in the laft of a higher. 

5 profane and liberal ceunfello r J Liberal, for licentious. 


278 Othello,/^ 

Caf. He fpeaks home, Madam ; you may relifh 
him more in the foldier, than in the fcholar. 

logo, [d/ide.] He takes her by the palm ; ay, well 
faid — whifper . — With as little a web as this, will I 
enfnare as great a fly as Cajfio. Ay, fmile upon her, 

do ■ 6 1 will gyve thee in thine own courtfliip. You 

fay true, 'tis fo, indeed. — If fuch tricks as thefe ftrip 
you out of your lieutenancy, it had been better you 
had not kifs'd your three fingers fo oft, which now 
again you are moft apt to play the Sir in. Very good 
—well kifs'd, and excellent courtefie — 'tis ib, indeed. 
—Yet again — your fingers to your lips? 'would, they- 
were clifter-pipes for your fake. [Trumpet. - 

The Moor, I know his trumpet. 

Ctf/.'Tis truly fo. 

Def. Let's meet him, and receive him. 

Caf. Lo, where he comes ! 


Enter Othello and Attendants, 

Oth. Oh my fair warrior ! 

Def. My dear Othello ! 

Oth. It gives me wonder, great as my content, 
To fee you here before me. O my foul's joy ! 
If after every tempeft come fuch calms, 
May the winds blow 'till they have waken'd death : 
And let the labouring bark climb hills of feas 
Olympus high ; and duck again as low 
As hell's from heav'n \ If I were now to die, 
'Twere now to be moft happy j for, I fear, 
My foul hath her content fo abfolute, 
That not another comfort like to this 
Succeeds in unknown fate. 

Def. The heav'ns forbid, 
But that our loves and comforts mould encreafe, 
Ev'n as our days do grow ! 

6 /wzV/gyye thee>] /. e, catch, /hackfo Mr. Pope* 


Moor ^/Venice. 279 

Oth. 7 Amen, to that fweet Prayer I 
I cannot fpeak enough of this content, 
It flops me here : it is too much of joy, 
And this, and this, the greateit difcords be 

[KiJJing her. 
That e'er our hearts fhall make f 

Iaga. Oh, you are wdl-tun'd now ; but I'll letdown 
the pegs that make this mufick, as honell as I am. 

Oth. Come, let's to the caftle. 
Now, friends, our wars are done ; the Turks are 

How do our old acquaintance of this ifle } 
Honey, you (hall be well defir'd in Cyprus, 
I've found great love amongfl them. Oh my Sweet, 
I prattle out of fafhion, and I dote 
In mine own comfort. Pr'ythee, good Tago, 
Go to the bay, and difembark my coffers ^ 
Bring thou the mailer to the citadel, 
He is a good one, and his worthinefs 
Does challenge much refpecl. Come, Defdembna, 
Once more well met at Cyprus. 

[Exeunt Othello and Defdemona. 


Manent la go and Rodorigo. 

Tago. Do you meet me prefently at the harbour. 
Come thither, if rhou be'il valiant ; (as, they fay, bafe 
men, being in love, have then a nobility in their na- 
tures, more than is native to them) lift me; the 

lieutenant to-night watches on the Court of Guard. 
Firft, I mull tell thee this, De/dtmona is directly in 
love with him. 

7 Amen, to that jive et power.] Thus the old Quarto, in which 
it is followed by the other Editions. It is plainly corrupt and 
fhould be read, 

Amen, to that fiveet Prayer I 
i. e. the prayer ihe had made that their love mould increafe with 


2Sb Othello, the 

Rod, With him ? why, 'tis not poflible ? 

lago. Lay thy fingers thus j and let thy foul be- 
inftru&ed. Mark me with what violence (he firft 
lov'd the Moor, but for bragging,, and telling her 
fantaftical lies. And will fhe love him ftill for prat- 
ing ? let not thy difcreet heart think it. Her eye mufl 
be fed. And what delight fhall fhe have to look on 
the Devil ? when the blood is made dull with the aft 
of fport, there mould be again to inflame it, and to 
give Satiety a frefh appetite, lovelinefs in favour, fym- 
pathy in years, manners, and beauties ,• all which the 
Moor is defective in. Now, for want of thefe re- 
quired conveniences, her delicate tendernefs will find 
itfelf abus'd, begin to heave the gorge, difrelifh and 
abhor the Moor ; very nature will inftruct her in it, 
and compel her to fome fecond choice. Now, Sir, 
this granted, (as it is a moll pregnant and unforc'd 
pofition) who ftands fo eminent in the degree of this 
fortune, as CaJJto does ? a knave very voluble ; no 
further confcionable, than in putting on the meer 
form of civil and humane Seeming, for the better com- 
pafiihg of his fait and moft hidden loofe affection ; a 
flippery and fubtle knave, a finder of occafions, that 
has an eye can (lamp and counterfeit advantages, tho' 
true advantage never prefent itfelf. A devilifh knave I. 
befides, the knave is handfom, young, and hath all 
thofe requifites in him, that folly and green minds look 
after. A peftilent compleat knave! and the woman 
hath found him already. 

Rod. I cannot believe that of her, fhe's full of moft 
blefs'd condition. 

lago. Blefs'd figs' end ! the wine fhe drinks is made 
of grapes. If fhe had been blefs'd, fhe would never 
have lov'd the Moor : BJefs'd pudding! didft thou not 
fee her paddle with the palm of his hand ? didft not 
mark that ? 

Rod. Yes, that I did ; but that was but courtefie. 

lago. Letchery, by this hand ; an index, and ob^ 
fcure prologue to the hiftory of luft, and foul thoughts. 
They met fo near with their lips, that their breaths 
embrac'd ;ogether. Villanoua thought* Rodorigo.K 


Moor 0/ V e n i c e. 281 

when thefe mutualities fo marfhal the way, hard at 
hand comes the mailer and main exercife, the incor- 
porate conclufion : pifh But, Sir, be you ruPd by 

me. I have brought you from Venice. Watch you 
to-night; for the command, I'll lay't upon you. 
Caffio knows you not : Til not be far from you. Do 
you find fome occafion to anger Caffio, either by 
fpeaking too loud, or tainting his difcipline, or from 
what other eourfe you pleafe, which the time fhall 
more favourably minifter. 

Rod. Well. 

Iago. Sir, he's ram, and very fudden in choler : 
and, happily, may ftrike at you. Provoke him, that 
he may ; for even out of that will I caufe thofe of Cy- 
prus to mutiny : whofe qualification mall come into 
no true tafte again, but by difplanting of Caffio. So 
lhall you have a (horter journey to your defires, by 
the means I (hall then have to prefer them : And the 
impediments moft profitably removed, without which 
there was no expeftation of our profperity. 

Rod. I will do this, if you can bring it to any op- 

Iago. I warrant thee. Meet me by and by at the 
citadel. I muft fetch his neceffaries aftiore. Farewel. 

Rod. Adieu. [Exit, 


Manet Iago. 
Iago. That Caffio loves her, I do well believe: 
That fhe loves him, 'tis apt, and of great credit. 
The Moor, howbeit that I endure him not, 
Is of a conftant, loving, noble nature ; 
And, I dare think, he'll prove to Defdemona 
A moft dear hufband. Now I love her too, 
Not out of abfolute luft, (though, peradventure^ 
I ftand accountant for as great a fin f) 
But partly led to diet my revenge, 
For that I do fufpecl, the lufty Moor 
Hath leapt into my feat. The thought whereof 
Doth, like a poifonous mineral, gnaw my inwards, 


282 Othello, the 

And nothing can, or fhall, content my foul, 

'Till I am even'd with him, wife for wife : 

Or failing fo, yet that I put the Moor 

At laft into a jealoufie fo ftrong, 

That judgment cannot cure. 8 Which thing to do, 

If this poor brach of Venice, 9 whom I cherifh 

For his quick hunting, (land the putting on, 

I'll have our Ivlichael Cajjio on the hip, 

Abufe him to the Moor in the ranke garb ; 

(For I fear Caffio with my night-cap too,) 

Make the Moor thank me, love me, and reward mev 

For making him egregioufly an afs j 

And prac~Uiing upon his peace and quiet, 

Even to madnefs. 'Tis here but yet confus'd ; 

Knavery's plain face is never feen, 'till us'd. [.Exit* 

8 — — Which thing to do, 

If this poor Train of Venice, whom I trace 
For bis quick bunting, ft and the putting on."} A trifling, in- 
significant fellow may, in fome refpects, very well be call'd Trap j 
but the metaphor is not preferved. For what agreement is there 
betwixt trajlj, and. quick-bunting,, and ftandir.g the putting on ? 
The allufion to the chafe Shake/pear feems to be fond of apply- 
ing to Rodcrigo > who fays of hirnfelf towards the conclufion of 
this AB j 

J follow her in the chafe, not like a hound that hunts, but one 
that fills up the cry. 

I fuppofe therefore that the poet wrote, 
If this poor brach ^/"Venice, 
■which is a low fpecics of hounds of the chace, and a term genernlly. 
us'd in contempt: and this compleats and perfedls the metaphorical 
allufion, and makes it much more fatirical. Utilus } in his notes 
en Gracian, fays, Racha Saxonibus canem fignificabat, unde Scoti 
bodie Rache pro cane femina habent, quod Anglis eft Brache. Nos 
verb (he fpeaks of the Hollanders) Brach non quemvis canem fed 
fagacem I'ocamus, So die French, Braque, efptct de chien de cbajje... 
Menage Etymol. 

q ™~,*^- whom I do trace 

For his quick hunting, ■—- ] Juft the contrary. He did not 
trace him, heput bim on, as he fays immediately after. Th« old 
Quarto leads to the true reading. 

— — — lohom I do crush.. 
For his quick hunting, 
Plainly corrupted from chjrish. 


Moor of V e n i c e. 283 

Enter Herald with a Proclamation. 

Ber. TT is Othel/o's pleafure, our noble and valiant 
X General, that upon certain tidings now ar- 
rived, importing ■ the meer perdition of the Turkifh 
fleet, every man put himfelf into triumph : fome to 
dance, fome to make bonfires, each man to what fport 
and revels his mind leads him. For, befides this be- 
neficial news, it is the celebration of his nuptials. So 
much was his pleafure, mould be proclaimed. All 
offices are open, and there is full liberty of feafting, 
from this prefent hour of five, till the bell have told 
eleven. Blefs the ill e of Cyprus, and our noble Gene» 
ral Othello I 

Enter Othello, Defdemona, Cafllo, and Attendants. 

Oth. Good Michael, look you to the guard to night* 
Let's teach ourfelves that honourable flop, 
Not to out-fport difcretion. 

Caf. lago hath direction what to do : 
But, notwithstanding, wi.h my peifonal eye 
Will I look to't. 

Oth. lago is rnoft honed : 
Michael, good- night. Tomorrow, with your enrlieft^ 
Let me have fpeech with you. Come, my dear love, 
The purchafe made, the fruits are to eniue ; 
That profit's yet to come 'tween me and you. 
Good-night. [Exeunt Othello and Defdemona, 

Enter lago. 

Caf. Welcome, lago ; we muft to the Watch. 

lago. Not this hour, lieutenant ; 'tis not yet ten 
o'th' clock. Our General call us thus early for the 
love of his Defdemona : whom let us not therefore 
blame ; he hath not yet made wanton the night with 
her : and ihe is fport for Jove. 

I The meer perdition,] Aher y for total. 


284 Othello, the 

Caf. She's a mod exquifite lady. 

lago. Arid, 1*11 warrant her, full of game. 

Caf. Indeed, lhe's a moft frelh and delicate creature*. 

lago. What an eye ihe has ? methinks, it founds a 
parley to provocation. 

Caf. An inviting eye ; and yet, methinks, right 

Iago. And when fhe fpeaks, is it not an alarum to 
love ? 

Caf. She is, indeed, perfection. 

lago. Well, happinefs to their fheets : come, lieute- 
nant, I have a ftoop of wine, and here without are a 
brace of Cyprus gallants, that would fain have a meafure 
to the health of the black Othello. 

CaJ. Not to night, good lago ; I have very poor 
and unhappy brains for drinking. I could well wifh, 
courtefie would invent fome other cuitom of entertain- 

lago. Oh, they are our friends ;. but one cup : I'll 
drink for you. 

Caf. I have drunk but one cup to night, and that 
was craftily qualified too : and, behold, what innova- 
tion it makes here. I am unfortunate in the infirmity, 
and dare not task my weaknefs with any more. 

lago. What, man ? 'tis a night of revels, the gal- 
lants defire it. 

Caf. Where are they ? 

lago. Here at the door ; I pray you, call them in. 

Caf. I'll do't, but it diflikes me. [£**>Caffio. 

lago. If I can fallen but one cup upon him, 
With that which he bath drunk to-night already, 
" He'll be as full of quarrel and offence, 
f* As my young miitrefs' dog.- 
Now, my fick fool, Rodorigo, 
M Whom love hath turn'd almoft the wrong fide out, 
To Defdemona hath to-night carouz'd 
Potations pottle deep ; and he's to watch. 
Three lads of Cyprus, noble fwelling fpirits, 
(That hold their honours in a wary diftance,. 
The very elements of this wa r like ifle,) 
Have I to-night flufter'd with flowing cups. 


Moor 0/ V e n ice. 285 

And they watch too. Now 'mongft this flock of 

Am I to put our Cafjio in fome action 
That may offend the ifle. Bat here they come. 
If confequence do but approve my [a) Deem, 
My boat fails freely, both with wind and ftream. 


Enter Caflio, Montano, and Gentlemen. 

Caf. 'Fore heav'n, they have given me a roufe al- 

Mont. Good faith, a little one : not paft a pint, as 
I am a foldier. 

lago. Some wine, ho ! [J*gpfags* 

And let me the eanakin clink, clink, 

And let me the eanakin clink. 

A foldier 3 a man ; oh, man's lifers hut a /pan ; 

Why, then iet a foldier drink. 

Some wine, boys. 

Caf. 'Fore heav'n, an excellent fong. 

lago. I learn'd it in England: where, indeed, they 
are moft potent in potting. Your Dane, your German, 
and your f wag-belly 'd Hollander, — Drink, ho ! — are 
nothing to your Englifb. 

Caf. Is your Englifbman fo exquifite in his drinking ? 

lago. Why, he drinks you with facility your Dane 
dead drunk. He fweats not to overthiow your Almain. 
He gives your Hollander a vomit, ere the next pottle 
can be fill'd. 

Caf. To the health of our General. 

Mont. I am for it, lieutenant, ?.nd I'll do you juflice. 

lago. Oh fueet England. 

King Stephen *was an a ivorthv t »•, 
Mis brt'.hes cnjl him hut a crown; 

He be id them fix pence ul' .■ dear 9 
Witb:h<Jt he calf d to, tailor town* 

[faj Dter.i, Mr. Theobald.--- Vulg. Dream.] 


286 Othello, the 

He was a wight of high renown, 

Jlnd thou art but of /onv degree : 
'Tis pride that pulls the country down? 

7hen take thine auld cloak about thee. 

Some wine, ho ! 

Caf. Why, this is a more exquifite fong than the 

lago. Will you hear't again ? 

Caf. " No, for I hold him to be unworthy of his 

€< place that does thofe things. Well Heaven's 

*' above all ; and there be fouls that muft be faved, 
f ' and there be fouls muft not be faved, 

lago. It's true, good lieutenant. 

Caf "For mine own part, (no offence to the 
" General, nor any man of quality jj I hope to be 
5« faved. 

lago. And fo do I too, lieutenant. 

Caf " Ay, but, by your leave, not before me. 
" The Lieutenant is to be faved before the Ancient. 
u Let's have no more of this j let's to our affairs. 

" Forgive our fins- gentlemen, let's look to 

" our bufinefs. Do not think, gentlemen, I am drunk : 
" this is my Ancient j this is my right-hand, and this 
** is my left. I am not drunk now j I can Hand well 
ts enough, and I fpeak well enough. 

Gent. Excellent well. 

Caf " Why, very well then : you muft not think 
'• then that I am drunk. [Exit, 


Manent lago and Montano. 
Mont. To the platform, mailers ; come, let's fet the 

lago. You fee this fellow, that is gone before; 
He is a foldier, fit to ftand by C&far, 
And give direction. And do but fee his vice ; 
'Tis to his virtues a juft equinox, 
The one as long as th' ether. 'Tis pity of him ; 
I fear, the Trull Othello puts him in, 


Moor of V e n i c e. 287 

On fome odd time of his infirmity, 
Will make this ifland. 

Mont. But is he often thus ? 

lago. 'Tis evermore the prologue to his fleep. 
He'll watch the horologue a double fet, 
If drink rock not his cradle* 

Mont. It were well, 
The General were put in mind of it " 
Perhaps, he fees it not; or his good nature 
Prizes the virtue that appears in CafJio % 
And looks not on his evils : is not this true r 
Enter Rodorigo. 

lago. How now, Rodorigo f 
I pray you, after the lieutenant, go. [Exit Rod, 

Mont. And 'tis great pity, that the noble Moor 
Should hazard fuch a Place as his own Second, 
With one of an ingraft infirmity ; 
It were an honeft adlion to fay fo 
Unto the Moor. 

lago. Not I, for this fair ifland ; 
I do love Cafjio well, and would do much 
To cure him of this evil. Hark, what noife? 

{Within, help! help! 
Re-enter Cafiio, purfuing Rodorigo. 

Caf You rogue ! you rafcal ! 

Mont. What's the matter, lieutenant ? 

Caf. A knave teach me my duty 1 I'll beat the knave 
into a twiggen bottle. 

Rod. Beat me 

Caf. Doft thou prate, rogue ? 

Mont. Nay, good lieutenant ; {Staying him* 

I pray you, Sir, hold your hand. 

Caf. Let me go, Sir, or I'll knock you o'er the 

Mont. Come, ccme, you're drunk. 

Caf Drunk ? {They fight. 

lago. Away, I fay, go out and cry a munity. 

[Exit Rodorigo. 

Nay, good lieutenant — Alas, gentlemen* — 

Help, ho !—— Lieutenant— Sir — Montana- 


288 Othello, the 

Help, mailers ! here's a goodly watch, indeed — — 

Who's that, who rings the bell diablo, ho ! 

[Be firings. 
The town will rife. Fie, fie, lieutenant! hold: 
You will be fham'd for ever. 


Enter Othello, and Attendants. 
Oth. What is the matter here ? 
Mont. I bleed Hill, I am hurt, but not to th' death. 
Oth. Hold, for your lives. 
lag: Hold, ho ! lieutenant — Sir — ■ — Montana 


Have you forgot (a) all fenfe of place and duty ? 
The General {peaks to you— —hold, hold, for (hame — 
Oth. Why, how now, ho ? from whence arifeth this ? 
Are we turn'd lurks ? and to our felves do That, 
Which heaven hath forbid the Ottomites ? 
For chriftian (hame, put by this barbarous brawl ; 
He, that ftirs next to carve for his own rage, 
Holds his foul light •. he dies upon his motion. 
Silence that dreadful bell ; it frights the ifle 
From her propriety. What is the matter ? 
Honeft logo, that looks dead with grieving, 
Speak, who began this ? on thy love, I charge thee. 
lago. J do not know ; friends all, but now, even 
In quarter, and in terms like bride and groom 
Diverting them for bed ; and then, but now 
(As if fome planet had unvvitted men,) 
Swords out, and tilting one at other's breafts, 
In oppofition bloody, I can't fpeak 
Any beginning to this peevifh odds, 
And 'would, in a&ion glorious I had loft 
Thofe legs chat brought me to a part of it ! 

Oth How comes it, Michael, you are thus forgot ? 
Caf. I pray you, pardon me, I cannot fpeak. 

\(a) All Jenjc of place. Oxford Editor. Vulg. all place 


Moor ^/Venice. 289 

Oth. Worthy Montana, you were wont be civil : 
The gravity and ftillnefs of your youth 
The world hath noted ; And your name is great 
In mouths of wifeft cenfure. What's the matter, 
That you unlace your reputation thus, 
And fpend your rich opinion, for the name 
Of a night-brawler ? give me anfwer to it. 

Mont. Worthy Othello, I am hurt to danger ; 
Your officer, lago, T:an inform you, 
While I fpare fpeech, which fomething now offends me, 
Or all that I do know ; nor know I aught 
By me that's faid or done amifs this night, 
* Unlefs felf-charity befometimes a vice, 
And to defend our felves it be a fin, 
When violence affails us. 

Oth. Now, by heav'n, 
My blood begins my fafer guides to rule \ 
And paffion, having my belt judgment choler'd, * 
Aflays to lead the way. If I once ftir, 
Or do but lift this arm, the belt of you 
Shall fink in my rebuke. Give me to know 
How this foul rout began ; who fet it on ; 
And he, that is approv'd in this offence, 
Tho' he had twinn'd with me both at a birth, 
Shall lofe me.— What, in a town of war, 
Yet wild, the people's hearts brim-full of fear, 
To manage private and domeftick quarrel ? 
In night, and on the Court and Guard of fafety ; 
T !?- monftrous - S *y> Ja £°> who began't ? 

Mont. If partially affin'd, or leagu'd in office, 
Thou dofi: deliver more or lefs than truth, 
Thou art no foldier. 

lago. Touch me not (o near : 
I'd rather have this tongue cut from my mouth, 
1 nan it mould do offence to Michael CaJTio • 
Yet I perfwade my felf, to fpeak the truth 
bhall nothing wrong him. Thus 'tis, General : 
Montana and my felf being in fpeech, 
There comes a fellow crying out for help, 

the%^ s fe ^ h r f ty - ] ***** f ° r ^ - h -nt * 
Vol. VIII." O And 

290 Othello, the 

And Caffio following with determin'd fword, 

To execute upon him. Sir, this Gentleman 

Steps in to Ca'Jio, andintreats his paufe ; 

My felf the crying fellow did purfue, 

Left by his clamour (as it fo fell out) 

The town might fall in fright. He, fvvift of foot, 

Out-ran my purpofe : I return'd, the rather 

For that I heard the clink and fall of fwords, 

And Cajfio high in oath ; which 'till to-night 

I ne'er might fay before. When I came back, 

(For this was brief) I found them clofe together 

At blow and thruft ; even as again they were, 

When you your felf did part them. 

More of this matter cannot I report. 

But men are men ; the beft fometimes forget ; 

Tho' Caffio did fome little wrong to him, 

A^ men in rage ftrike thofe that wifh them beft, 

Yet, furely, Caffio, I believe, receiv'd 

From him, that fled, fome ftrange indignity, 

Which patience could not paft. 

Otb. I know, lago, 
Thy honefty and love doth mince this matter, 
Making it light to Caffio. Caffio, I love thee, 

But never more' be officer of mine 

Enter Defdemona attended. 
Look, if my gentle love be not rds'd up : 
I'll make thee an example. 
Def. What's the matter ? 

Otb. All is well, Sweeting, come, away to bed. 
Sir, for your hurts, my felf will beyouriurgeon. 
Lead him off. 

Jago, look with care about the town, 
And filence thofe whom this vile brawl diftracled. 
Come, Defdemona, 'tis the foldier's life, 
To have -their balmy fiunrbers wak'd with ftrife. 


Manent lago arJ Ca£b. 
logo. What, are you hurt, lieutenant ? 
Caf. Paft all Surgery. 


Moor of V e n i c i. 291 

Iago. Marry, heav'n forbid ! 

Caf. Reputation, reputation, reputation ! oh I have 
loft my reputation ! I have loft the immortal part of 
my felf, and what remains is beftial. My reputation ! 
Iago, my reputation — ~— 

Iago. As I am an honeft man, I had thought, you 
had receiv'd fome bodily wound ; there is more fenfe 
in That than in Reputation. Reputation is an idle, 
and mod falfe impoiition ; oft got without merit, and 
loft without deferving. You have loft no reputation 
at all, unlefs you repute your felf fuch a lofer. What, 
man,— —there are ways to recover the General again. 
You are but now caft in his mood, a puni(hment more 
in policy than in malice ; even fo as one would beat 
his offencelefs dog, to affright an imperious lion. Sue to 
him again, and he's yours. 

Caf. I will rather fue to be defpis'd, than to deceive 
fo good a commander, with fo flight, (o drunken, and 
fo indifcreet an oiHcer. Drunk ? ? and fpeak Parrot ? 
and fquabble ? fwagger ? fwear ? and difcourfe fuftian 
with one's own fhadovv ? oh thou.invifible fpirit of 
wine I if thou haft no name to be known by, let us 
call thee devil. 

Iago. What was he that you followed with yoar 
fword ? what had he done to you ? 

Caf. I know not. 

Iago. Is't poflible ? 

Caf. I remember a mafs of things, but nothing di- 
ftin&ly : a quarrel, but nothing wherefore. Oh, that 
men fliould put an enemy in their mouths, to ileal 
away their brains ! that we mould with joy, pieafonce, 
revel, andapplaufe, transform our felves into beads. 

Iago. Why, but you are now well enough : how 
came you thus recovered ? 

3 And fpsak Parrot .?] A phrafe fignifyinj to aft fo^li/hly and 
chiidifhly. So Skelton. 

Thef; maidem full mehlj with navy a divers fnrr y 

Frejbly they drefs and make fioeete u:y &■:::>■?, 

With fpake parrot 1 pray. you full court eoujly thei faye. 

O 2 

292 Othello,/^ 

Caf It has pleas'd the devil, drunkennefs, to give 
place to the devil, wrath ; one unperfeclnefs mews me 
another, to make me frankly defpife my felf. 

lago. Come, you are too {evere a moraler. As the 
time, the place, and the condition of this country 
Hands, I could heartily wifh this had not befallen : but 
fmce it is as it is, mend it for your own good. 

Caf I will afk him for my Place again ; he (hall tell 

me, I am a drunkard! had I as many mouths 

as Hydra; fuch an anfwer would flop them all. To 
be now a fenfible man, by and by a fool, and prefently 
a beaft !— Every inordinate cup is unbleis'd, and 
the ingredient is a devil. 

lago. Come, come, good wine is a good familiar 
creature, if it be well us'd : exclaim no more againftit. 
And, good lieutenant, I think, you think, I love you. 

Caf. I have well approv'd it, Sir. I drunk ! 

lago. You, or any man living, may be drank St 
fome time, man. I tell you what you fhall do : our 
General's wife is now the General. I may fay fo, in 
this refpect, for . that he hath devoted arid given up 
himfelf to the contemplation, mark and (a) denote- 
ment of her parts and graces. Confefs your felf freely 
to her : importune her help, to put you in your Place 
again. She is of fo free, fo kind, fo apt, fo blefied a 
diipofition, me holds it a vice in her goodnefs not to- 
do more than (he is requeued. This broken joint, 
between you and her husband, intreat her to fplinter. 
And, my fortunes againft any lay worth naming, this 
crack of your love mail grow ftronger than it was before. 

Caf. You advife me well. 

lago. 1 proteft, in the fincerity of love, and honeft 

Caf I think it freely ; and betimes in the morning 
I will befeech the virtuous DefJgmona to undertake for 
me : I am defperateof my fortunes, if they check me 

lago. You are in the right : good night, lieutenant, 
I mult to the Waich. 

Caf Good night, honeft lago. [Exit Caffio. 

\Ja) Denotement, Mr. lltobald. — — —Vulg. tfavtfemtnt.l 


Moor 0/ V e n i c e. 293 


Manet Iago. 
lago. And what's he then, that fays, I play the 
villain ? 
When this advice is free I give, and honeft, 
Likely to thinking, and, indeed, the courfe 
To win the Moor again. For 'tis moll eafie 
Th' inclining Defdemona to fubdue 
In any honeft fait; (he's fram'd as fruitful 
As the free elements. And then for her 
To win the Moor, were't to renounce his baptifm, 
All feals and fymbols of redeemed fin, 
His foul is fo enfetter'd to her love 
That (he'may make, unmake, do what (he lift, 
Even as her appetite (hall play the God 
With his weak function. Am I then a villain, 
To counfel CaJJio *■ to this parallel courfe, 
-Direftly to his Good \ Divinity of Hell ! 
When Devils will their blackeft fins put on, 
They do fuggeft at firft with heav'nly Shews, 
As I do now. — For while this honeft fool 
Plies Defdemona to repair his fortune, 
And (he for him pleads ftrongly to the Moor ; 
* I'll pour this peftilence into his ear, 
That (lie repeals him for her body's luft : 
And by how much (he drives to do him good, 
She (hall undo her credit with the Moor. 
So will I turn her virtue into Pitch ; 
And out of her own goodnefs make the net, 
6 That (hall enraelh them all. How now, Rodorigo ! 


Enter Rodorigo. 
Rod. I do follow here in thechace, not like a hound 
that hunts, but one that fills up the cry. My money 

4 — - to this parallel courfe,'] Parallel for even ; becaufe paral- 
lel lines run even and equidiftant. 

5 I'll pour this peftilence ], for poifon. 

6 That pall enmefli them all.} A metaphor from taking birds In 
mefhes. Mr. Pope. 

O 3 is 

294 Othello, the 

is almoft fpent ; I have been to-night exceedinoly well 
cudgelled j anjl, I think, the ifiue will be, I flfall have 
fo much experience for my pains; and fo with no 
money at all, and a little more wit, return again to 

lago. How poor are they, that have not patience ? 
What wound did ever heal but by degrees ? 
Thou know 'it, we work by vvit, and not by witch- 
craft ; 
And wit depends on dilatory time : 
Does't not go well ? Cafie hath beaten thee, 
And thou by thatfmail hurt haft cafhier'd CaJJig. 
Tho' other things grow fair againft the Sun, 
Yet fruits, that bloffom firft, will firft be ripe : 
Content thy felf awhile. In troth, 'tis morning : 
Pleafure and action make the hours feem fhort. 
Retire thee ; go where thou art billetted : 
Away, I fay ; thou (halt know more hereafter : 
Nay, get thee gone. [Exit Rodorig©, 

Two things are to be done ; 
My Wife muft move for Cajfio to hermiftrefs : 

I'll fet he.ron : • 

hlyklf, the while, to draw the Moor apart, 

And bring him jump, when he may CaJJio find 

Soliciting his Wife,— ay, that's the way : 

Dull not, Device, by coldnefs and delay. [Exit. 


Before OTHELLO'; Palace. 

Enter Cailio, tvitb Muji.i^ns. 

C ^-]Vr A STE R S ' P 1 ^ here ' * v/ill content 

iVJL your pains, 
Something that's brief ; and bid, good morrow, Ge- 


Mocr ^/Venice. 295 

[Mujtck plays ; and enter Clown from- the Houfe. 

Clown. Why, mafters, have your infcruments beea 
in Naples, that they fpeak i'th' nofe thus ? 

Muf. How, Sir, how ? 

Clown. Are thefe, I pray you, vvind-inllruments r 
Muf. Ay, marry, are they, Sir. j 

Clown. Oh, thereby hangs a tail. 

Muf. Whereby hangs a ule, Sir ? 

Clown. Marry, Sir, by many a wind-inftrument 
that I know. But, Matters, here's money for' you: 
and the General fo likes your mufick, that he defires 
you for love's fake to make no more noife with it. 

Muf Well, Sir, we will not. 

Clown. If you have any mufick that may not be 
heard, to't again : Eut, as they fa.y, to hear mufick, 
the General does not greatly care. 

Muf, We have none iuch, Sir. 

Clown. Then put up your pipes in your bag, and hye 
(■ajaw&y. Go, 'vanifh into air, away. 

\Exeuni Muficiana. 

Caf Doft thou hear, mine honefi friend ? 

Clown. No, I hear not your honeft friend ; I hear 

C«/!'Pr'ythee, keep up thy quillets, there's a poor 
piece of gold for thee : if the gentlewoman, that attends 
the General's wife, be flirring, tell her, there's one 
Gaffio entreats of her a little favour of fpeech. Wilt 
thou do this ?- 

Clown. She is flirring, Sir ; if fhe will ftir hither, 
I Ihall feem to notifie unto her. [Exit Clown. 

Caf. Do, my good friend. 

To him, enter Iago. 
In happy time, Iago. 

Iago. You have not been a-bed then ? 

Caf. Why, no ; the day had broke, before we parted, 
I have made bold to fend in to your wife ; 
My fuit is, that (he will to Defdcmona 
Procure me fome accefs. 

[(a) And hye aivay. Oxford Editor. — Vulg. far I'll away. ~\ 
O £ lag9> 


Othello, the 

lago. I'll fend her prefently ; 
And ] 'II devife a mean to draw the Moor 
Out of the way, that your converfe ahd bufmefs 
May be more free. [ E 't 

Caf. I humbly thank you for't. I never knew 
A Florentine more kind and honefl. 

To him, enter iEmilia. 

JEmil Good morrow, good lieutenant, I am forry 
*or your difpleafure ; but all will, fure, be well. 
The General and his wife are talking of it : 
And /he fpeaks for you ftoutly. The Moor replies, 
That he, you hurt, is of great fame in Cyprus, 
And great affinity ; and that in wifdom 
He might not but refufe you. But he protefts, he 

loves you ; 
And needs no other fuitor, but his likings, 
To bring you in again. 

Caf Yet I befeech you, 
If you think fit, or that it may be done, 
Give me advantage of fome brief difcourfe 
With Defdemona alone. 

JEmil. Pray you, come in ; 
I will bellow you where you {hall have time 
To fpeak your bofom freely. 
. Caf I'm much bound to you. [Exeunt* 


Enter Othello, lago, and Gentlemen. 

Otb. Thefe letters give, lago, to the pilot, 
And by him do my duties to the Senate ; 
That done, I will be walking on the Works ; 
Repair there to me. 

lago. My good lord, I'll do't. 

Otb. This fortification, gentlemen, mail we fee't ? 

Cent. We'll wait upon your lordfhip. [Exeunt. 


Moor c/Venice, 297 


Changes to an Apartmtnt in the Pa/ace, 
Enter Defdemona, Caffio, and Emilia, 

Def T)E thou aflur'd, good Caffto, I will do 
X3 All my abilities in thy behalf. 
JEmil. Good Madam, do : I know, it grieves my 
As if the caufe were his. 

Def. Oh, that's an honed fellow ; doubt not, CaJ/t9 9 
But I will have my lord and you again 
As friendly as you were. 

Caf. Molt bounteous Madam, 
Whatever fhall become of Michael CaJJio y 
He's never any thing but your true fervant. 

Def. I know't, I thank you ; you do love my 
You've known him long ; and, be you well aflur'd, 
He fhall in ftrangenefs iTand no farther off 
Than in a politick diftance. 

Caf. Ay, but, lady, 
That policy may either laft fo long, 
Or feed upon fuch nice and waterifh diet, 
Or breed itfelf fo out of circumftances, 
That I being abfent, and my place fupply'd, 
My General will forget my love and fervice. 

Def. Do not doubt that ; before JEmilia here, 
I give thee warrant of thy Place; Aflure thee. 
If I do vow a friendfhip, I'll perform it 
To the laft article. My lord fhall never reft ; 
I'll watch him tame, and talk him out of patience ; 
His bed fhall feem a fchool, his board a fhrift ; 
I'll intermingle every thing he does 
With Cajto's fuit : therefore be merry, Cajfio ; 
JFor thy follicitor fhall rather die, 
Than give thy caufe away. 


298 Othello, the 


Enter Othello, and Iago, at dijlance* 

JEmlL Madam, here comes my lord. 

Caf. Madam, I'll take my leave. 

Def Why, flay, and hear me fpeak. 

Caf. Madam, not now ; I'm very ill at eafe, 
Unfit for mine own purpofes. 

Def. Well, do your difcretion. [Exit Ceffio. 

Iago. Hah ! I like not that. 

Otb. What doft thou fay ? 

Iago. Nothing, my lord ; or if — I know not what. 

Otb. Was not that Cajio, parted from my wife ? 

Iago. CaJJto, my lord ? — no, fare, I cannot think it, 
That he would ileal away fo guilty-like, 
Seeing you coming. 

Otb. I believe, 'twas he. 

Def. How now, my lord ? 
I have been talking with a fuitor here, 
A man that languishes in your difpleafure. 

Otb. Who is't you mean ? 

Def Why, your lieutenant Cafjio. Good my lord,. 
If I have any grace, or power to move you, 
1 His prefent reconciliation make. 
For if he be not one that truly loves you, 
That errs in ignorance, * and not in cunning, 
I have no judgment in an honeft face. 
I pr'ythee, call him back. 
Otb. Went he hence now ? 
Def I, footh, fo humbled, 
That he hath left part of his grief with me, 
To fuffer with him. Good love, call him back. 
Otb. Not now, fweet Defdemona ; fome other time. 
Def. But fhall't be fhortly ? 

I His prefent reconciliation take.] CaJJio was to be reconciled 
to his General, not his General to him, therefore take cannot be 
right. We fhould read make. 

•^ — and not in cunning,] Cunning , for defign, or purpofe, 


Moor of V e n i c e. . 299 

0//&. The fooner, Sweet, for you. 

Def. Shall' t be to-night at fupper ? 

Oth. Not to-night. 

Def To morrow dinner then ? 

Oth. I mail not dine at home : 
I meet the Captains at the citadel. 

Def. Why then to morrow night, or 'tuefday morn, 
Or 'luefday noon, or night, or Wednefday morn, 
I pr'ythee, name the time ; but let it not 
Exceed three days ; in faith, he's penitent : 
And yet his trefpafs, in our common reafon, 
(Save that, they fay, the wars muft make examples 
Out of thsir beft,) is not almoft a fault 
T'incura private check. When fhall he come ? 
Tell me, Othello. I wonder in my foul, 
What you would afk rae, that I would deny, 
Or ftand fo mutt'ring on ? what ? Michael Cajfio I 
That came a wooing with you, and many a time,- 
When I have fpoke of you dilpraifingly, 
Hath ta'en your part, tp have fo much to do 
To bring him in ? truft me, I could do much 

Oth. Pr'ythee, no more ; let him come when he will,-, 
I will deny thee nothing. 

Def. Why, this is not a boon : 
3 'Tisas I mould entreat you wear your cloths, 
Or feed on nourifhing meats, or keep you warm n 
Or fue to you, to do peculiar profit 
To your own perfon. Nay, when I have fuit, 
Wherein I mean to touch your love indeed, 
It fhall be full of poize and difficulty, 
And fearful to be granted. 

Oth. I will deny thee nothing. 
Whereon I do befeech thee, grant me this, 
To leave me but a little to my felf. 

Def. Shall I deny you ? no : farewel, my lord. 

Oth. Farewel, my Defdemona, I'll come ilraight. 

Def JEwilia, come ; be, as your fancies teach you : 
Whate'er you be, I am obedient. \ExeunU 

3 "Tm as I Jhould intreat you wear your gloves.] Abfurd.We 
fhculd read, cloths, . 


300 Othello, the 

Manent Othello, and Iago. 

Oth. " Excellent Wretch ! ~ Perdition catch 

my foul, 
*' But I do love thee ; and when I love thee not, 
" Chaos is come again." 

Iago. My noble lord,— — 

Oth. What doft thou fay, Iago ? 

Iago. Did Michael CaJJio, when you woo'd my lady, 
Know of your love ? 

Oth. He did, from firft to laft : why doft thou afk I 

Iago But for a fatisfa&ion of my thought, 
No farther harm. 

Oth. Why of thy thought, Iago ? 

Iago. I did not think, he'd been acquainted with it. 

Oth. Oh, yes, and went between us very oft. 

Iago. Indeed !. 

Oth. Indeed \ ay, indeed. Difcern'ft thou aught ia 
that ? 
Is he not honeft ? 

Iago. Hone!!, my lord ? 

Oth. Honeft ? ay, honeft. 

Iago. My lord, for aught I know. 

Oth. What doft thou think ? 

Iago. Think, my lord ? 

Oth. Think, my lord ! why, by heav'n, thou 
echo'ft me ; 
As if there were fome monfter in thy thought, 
Too hideous to be (hewn. Thou doft mean fome- 
thing : 

I heard thee fay but now, thou lit? dft not that ,- 

When Cafio left my Wife. What did'ft not like ? 

And when I told thee, he was of my counfel, 

Jn my whole courfe of wooing; thou cry'dft, indeed f 

And did'ft contract and purfe thy brow together, 

As if thou then hadftfhut up in thy brain 

Some horrible conceit : if thou doft love me, 

Shew me thy thought. 

Iago. My lord, you know, I love you. 


Moor of V e n i c e. 30 1 

Otb, I think, thou doll : 
" And for I know, thou art full of love and honefty, 
" And weigh'ft thy words before thou giv'ft them 

" Therefore thefe ftops of thine fright me the more* 
•■ For fuch things, in a falfe difloyal knave, 
" Are tricks of cuftom ; but, in a man that's juft, 
* They're cold dilations working from the heart, 
That paffion cannot rule. 

lago. For Michael Cafjio, 
I dare be fworn, I think, that he is honeft. 

Oth. I think fo too. 

Iago. Men mould be what they feem. 

5 Or, thofe that be not, would they might feem 

knaves ! 

Otb. Certain, men mould be what they feem. 

lago. Why, then, I think, Cajfio's an honefl man. 

Otb. Nay, yet there's more in this ; 
I pray thee, fpeak to me as to thy thinkings, 
As thou doft ruminate ; and give thy worft of thoughts 
The worft of words. 

lago. Good my lord, pardon me. 
Tho' I am bound to every aft of duty, 
I am not bound to that, all flaves are free to ; 
Utter my thoughts !— - Why, fay, they're vile and 

falfe ; 
As where's that Palace, whereinto foul things 
Sometimes intrude not ? who has a breaft fo pure, 
But fome uncleanly apprehenfions 

6 Keep leets and law-days, and in feflions fit 

4 They're cold dilations working from the heart 

That paffion cannot rule.] i. e. thefe flops and breaks are 
cold dilations, or cold keeping back a fecret, which men of phleg- 
matic conftitutions, whofe hearts are not fway'd or govern'd by 
their paffions, we find, can do : while more fanguine tempers re- 
veal themfelves at once, and without referve. But the Oxford 
Editor for cold dilations reads diftillations. 

5 Or, thofe that be not, 'would they might feem none 11 There 
is no fcnfe in this reading. I fuppofe Shake/pear wrote 

''would they might feem knaves 

6 Keep hets and law-days, J /...govern. A metaphor, 

wretchedly forced and quaint. 


jo2 Othello, the 

With meditations lawful ? 

Otb. Thou doll confpire againft thy friend, laga, 
If thou but think' ft him wronged, and mak'ft his ear 
A ftranger to thy thoughts. 
lago. I do befeech you,. 
T Think I, perchance, am vicious in my guefs, 
(As, I confefs, it is my nature's plague 
To fpie into abufe ; and oft my jealoufie 
Shapes faults that are not ;) I intreat you then, 
From one that (o imperfectly conjects, 
Your vvifdom would not build your felf a trouble 
Gut of my fcattering and unfure obfervance : 
It were not for your quiet, nor your good, 
Nor for my manhood, honefty, and wiidom, . 
To let you know my thoughts. 
Otb. What doft thou mean ? 

Iago. Good name in man and woman, dear my 
Is the immediate jewel of their fouls. 
a Who Heals ray purfe, iieals tram; 'tis fomething, 

nothing ; 
' 'Twas mine, 'tis his; and has been Have to thou^ 

fands ; 
' But he, that filches from me my good name, 
'Robs me of That, which not enriches him, 
*" And makes me poor indeed.' 
Otb. I'll know thy thoughts 

lago. You cannot, if my heart were in your hand j 
Nor fhall not, whilft 'tis in my cuftody. 
Otb. Ha I 

7 Though /, perchance, am vicious in my guefs, ~\ Not to men- 
tion that, in this reading, the fentence is abrupt and broken, it is 
likewiie highly abfurd. I befeech you give your felf no uneafi- 
nefs from my unfure obfervance, though I am vicious in my guefs. 
For his being an ill gueffer was a reafon why Othello fhould not be 
uneafy: in propriety, therefore, it fhould either have been, though 
lam not vicious, or becaufe lam vicious. It appears then we 
fhould read, 

I do befeech ycu, 

Think /, perchance, am vicious in my guefs. 
Which makes the {<zniz pertinent and perfefr. 


Moor of V e n i c e. 303 

i^(7. Oh, beware, my lord, of jealoufie ; 
Tt is a green-ey'd monfter, 8 which doth mock 
The meat it feeds on. That cuckold lives in blifs, 
Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger 5 
But, oh, what damned minutes tells he o'er, 
Who doats, yet doubts ; fufpeds, yet ftrongly loves I 
Otb. O raifery ! 

lago. Poor, and content, is rich, and rich enough ;, 
But rfches endiefs, is 9 as poor as winter, 
To him that ever fears he (hall be poor. 
Good heaven ! the fouls of all my tribe defend 
From jealouiie! 

Oth. Why ? why is this ? 
Think'it thou, I'd make a life of jealoufie ? 
To follow ftfll the changes of the moon 
With frefh fufpicions ? No ; to be once in doubt, 
Is once to be refolv'd. Exchange me for -a goat, 
When I (hall turn the bufinefs of my foul, 
To fuch exfurrolate and blown furmifes, 
* Matching thy inference.. 'Tis not to make me 

To fay, my wife is fair, feeds well, loves company, 
Is free of fpeech, fings, plays, and dances well; 
a Where virtue is, thefe make more virtuous. 


g — ■ ■ ■■■ •which doth mod 

The meat it feeds en. — ] i.e. loaths that which nourishes and 
fuftains it. This being a miferable Safer, lago bids him beware 
of it. The Oxford Editor reads, 

, — — — which dcth make 

The meat it feeds on — 

implying that its fufpicions are unreal and groundlefs, which if 
the very contrary to what he would here make his General think, 
as appears from what fellows, 

That cuckold lives in blifs, &zc. 
In a word, the villain is for fixing him jealous : and therefore bids 
him. beware of jealoufy, not that it was an unreasonable but a mi- 
ferable ftate, and this plunges him into it, as we fee by his reply, 
which is only 

Ob mifery ! 

9 MU poor as winter ,] Finely exprefied : Winter producing 

no fruits. 

j Matching thy inference.] Inference, for defcription, account. 
% Where virtue is, theft are most virtuous.'} But how can 

a virtuous 

304 Othello, the 

Nor from mine own weak merits will I draw 
The fmalleft fear, or doubt of her revolt ; 
For (he had eyes, and chofe me. No, lago, 
I'll fee, before I doubt ; when I doubt, prove ; 
And, on the proof, there is no more but this, 
Away at once with love, or jealoufie. 

lago. I'm glad of this ; for now I fhall have reafora 
To mew the love and duty that I bear you 
With franker fpirit. Therefore, as I'm bound, 
Receive it from me. I fpeak not yet of proof, 
Look to your wife, obferve her well with CaJJto ; 
Wear your eye, thus: not jealous, nor fecure; 
I would not have your free and noble nature 
5 Out of felf-bounty be abus'd ; look to't. 
I know our country difpofition well ; 
In Venice they do let heav'n fee the pranks, 
They dare not (hew their husbands ; the^r beft con- 

Is not to leave't undone, but keep't unknown. 
Otb. Doft thou fay fo ? 

lago. She did deceive her father, marrying you ; 
And when (he feem'd to fhake, and fear your looks, 
She lov'd them moil. 
Otb. And fo (he did. 
lago. Go to then ; 
She, that, fo young, could give out fuch a Seeming 

To feal her father's eyes up, clofe as oak . 

He thought, '(was witchcraft but I'm much to 

blame : 
I humbly do befeech you of your pardon, 
For too much loving you. 

a virtuous conduct make the indifferent a&ions of fuch a cha* after,, 
•virtuous, or moil: virtuous ? The old Quarto reads, a little nearer 
the truth, . 

Where -virtue is, theje are more 'vittueus. 
But Shakefpear wrote, 

Where virtue is, theft make more virtuous. 
7. e. where virtue is, the civil accomplifhments of polite life make 
that virtue more illuftrious, as coming GfF victorious from ail the 
temptations which fuch accomplifhments throw in the way. 

3 our of felf-bounty be abus'd;] Self-bounty, for inherent ge- 


Moor of V e n i c e. 305 

Oth. I'm bound to you for ever. 

Iago. I fee, this hath a little dafli'd your fpirits, 

Oth. Not a jot, not a jot. 

Iago. Trufl me, I fear, it has : 
I hope, you will confider, what is fpoke 
Comes from my love. But, I do fee, you're mov'd— 
I am to pray you, not to ftrain my fpeech 
* To groffer iffues, nor to larger reach, 
Than to fufpicion. 

Oth. I will not. 

Iago. Should you do fo, my lord, 
5 My fpeech would fall into fuch vile Saccefs, 
Which my thoughts aim not at. CaJJio^ my worthy 

My lord, I fee, you're mov'd 

Oth. No, not much mov'd 

I do not think, but Defdemona's honeft. 

Iago. Long live (he fo ! and long live you to think fo \ 

Oth. And yet, how nature erring from itfelf 

Iago. Ay, there's the point;— —as (to be bold 
with you) 
Not to affect many propofed matches 
Of her own clime, complexion and degree, 
Whereto we fee in all things Nature tends : 
Foh ! one may fmell, in fuch, a will molt rank, 
Foul difproportions, thoughts unnatural. 
But, pardon me, I do not in pofition 
Diftinclly fpeak of her ; tho' I may fear, 
Her will, recoiling to her better judgment, 
May fall to match you with her country forms, 
And, haply, fo repent. 

Oth. Farewel, farewel ; 
If more thou dolt perceive, let me know more : 
Set on thy wife t'obferve. Leave me, Iago. 

Iago. My lord, I take my leave. [Going. 

Oth. Why did I marry ? * 

This honeit creature, doubtlefs, 

Sees and knows more, much more, than he unfolds. 

4 To grojfer iffues,] TJfues, for conclufions. 

5 My fpeech nvculd fall into fuch vile Succefs,] Succefs, for fuo 
ceflion, i.e. conclufion j not profperous iflue, 


3o6 Othello, the 

lago. My lord, I would, I might entreat your 
To fcan this thing no farther ; leave it to time : 
Altho' 'tis fit that Cajfto have his Place, 
For, . fure, he fills it up with great ability ; 
Vet if you pleafe to hold him off a while, 
You fhall by that perceive him, and his means ; 
Note, if your lady (train his entertainment 
With any ftrong, or vehement importunity ; 
Much will be feen in That. In the mean time, 
Let me be thought too bufy in my fears, 
(As worthy caufe I have to fear, I am ;) 
And hold her free, I do befeech your Honour. 

Oth. Fear not my government. 

lago. I once more take my leave. [Exit-. 


Manet Othello. 
Oth. This fellow's of exceeding honefty, 
And knows all qualities, 6 with a learned fpirit, 
Of human dealings. If I prove her haggard* 
^Tho' that her jefTes were my dear heart- firings, 
I'd whittle her off, and let her down the wind 
To prey at fortune. Haply, for I'm black, 
And have not thofe foft parts of converfation 
That chamberer's have ; or, for I am declin'd 
Into the vale of years,— yet that's not much — 
She's gone, I am abus'd, and my relief 
Muft be to loath her. Oh the curie of marriage I 
That we can call thefe delicate.creatures ours, 
And not their appetites ! I had rather be a toad, 
And live upon the vapour of a dungeon. 
Than keep a corner in the thing I love, 
For others' ufe. Yet 'tis the plague of Great onej 5 
Prerogativ'd are they Iefs than the bafei 
*Tis deiliny unfliunnable, like death. 
Even then, this forked plague is fated to us, 
When we do quicken. Defdztnona comes ! 

6—~= .ivitha learned^/V/YJ Learned, for experienced. 
7 Tbo' that herjql'es &c.) A metaphor taken from Falcoary. 
Jeffti ar« the firings they held a hawk by. Mr. Pope. 


Moor of V e n i c e. 307 

Enter Defdemona and ^Emilia, 
K (he be falfe, oh, then heav'n mocks itfelf :, 
I'll not believe' t. 

Def How now, my dear Othello ? 
Your dinner, and the generous Iflanders, 
By you invited, do attend your prefence. 

Otb. I am to blame. 

Def, Why do you. fpeak fo faintly rV 
Are you not well ? 

Otb. I have a pain upon my forehead here. 

Def. Why, that's with watching, 'twill away again 5- 
Let me but bind it hard, within this hour 
It will be well. 

Otb. Your napkin is too little ; 

[She drops her handkerchief. 
Let it alone : come, I'll go in with you. 

Def I am very forry, that you are not well. 



Manet /Emilia. 

JEmil. I am glad, I have found this napkin ; 
This was her firft remembrance from the Moor ; 
My wayward hufband hath a hundred times 
Woo'd me to fteal it. But (he fo loves the token, 
(For he conjur'd her, me mould ever keep it} 
That (he referves it evermore about her, 
To kifs and talk to. I'll have the work ta'en out,. 
And give't lago j what he'll do, with it, 
Heav'n knows, not I : 
I nothing, but to pleafe his fantalie. 
Enter lago. 

Iago. How now ? what do you here alone ? 

jEmil. Do not you chide; I have a thing for yoa. 

lago. You have a thing for me ? 
It is a common thing 

JEmil. Ha? 

lago. To have a foolifh wife. 

JEmil. Oh, is that all ? what will you give me now 
For that fame handkerchief ? 

lago. What handkerchief?. 


308 Othello, the 

jEmil. What handkerchief? . 

Why, That the Moor firft gave to Defdemona ; 
That which fo often you did bid me fteal. 

/ago. Haft ftolen it from her ? 

jEmil. No ; but (he let it drop by negligence r 
And, to th' advantage, I, being here, took't up : 
Look, here 'tis. 

Iago. A good wench, give it me. 

uEmil. What will you do with't, you have been fo 
To have me filch it ? 

Iago. Why, what is that to you ? [Snatching it. 

JEmil. If 't be not for fome purpofe of import, 
Give't me again. Poor lady ! fhe'll run mad, 
When fhe mall lack it. 

Iago. Be not you known on't : 
I have ufe for it. Go, leave me- [Exit MtclIaz* 
I will in CaJJio's lodging lofe this napkin, 
And let him find it. *« Trifles light as air 
•' Are, to the jealous, confirmations ftrong 
" As proofs of holy Writ. This may do fomething, 
•' The Moor already changes with my poifons : 
" 8 Dang'rous conceits are in their nature poifons, 
•' Which at the firft are fcarce found to diftafte ; 
** But, with a little a& upon the biood, 
" Burn like the mines of fulphur. I did fay fo." 

x S C E o N E VIII. 

Enter Othello. 
Look, where he comes ! Not Poppy, nor Mandragora, 
Nor all the drowfy Syrups of the .vorld, 
9 Shall ever medicine thee to that fweet Sleep, 
Which thou owedft yefterday. 

8 Dang'rous conceits are in their nature poifons,] This line re- 
ftored from the firft edition compleats the fenfe. Mr. Pope. 

Cf Shall never medicine thee to that fweet Sleep, 

Which thou had st yefterday.] The old Quarto reads, 
Which thou owedst yefterday. 
And this is right, and of much greater force than the common 
reading ; not to fleep, being finely called defrauding the day of a 
debt of nature. 


Moor of Venice. 309 

Otb. Ha ! falfe to me ! 

Jago. Why, how now, General ? no more of that. 
' Otb. " Avant ! be gone ! thou'ft fet me on the rack: 
94 I fwear, 'tis better to be much abus'd, 
** Than but to know a little. 

lago. How, my lord ? 

Otb. " What fenfe had I of her fbPn hours of luft > 
" I faw't not, thought it not, it harm'd not me ; 
" I flept the next night well j was free, and merry ; 
" I found not Cajjio's khTes on her lips : 
He, that is robb'd, not wanting what is ftol'n, 
Let him not know't, and he's not robb'd at all. 

Iago. I am forry to hear this. 

Otb. " I had been happy, if the general Camp, 
" (Pioneers and all,) had tailed her fweet body, 
" So I had nothing known. Oh now, for ever 
" Farewel the tranquil mind ! Farewel content ! 
44 Farewel the plumed troops, and the big war, 
" That make ambition virtue ! oh, farewel ! 
" l Farewel the neighing fteed, and the fhrill trump, 
" The fpirit-ftirring drum, th'' ear-piercing fife, 
" The royal banner, and all quality, 
" Pride, pomp, and circumftance of glorious war t 
** And, oh, you mortal engines, whoferude throats 
" Th' immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit, 
" Farewel ! Othello's Occupation's gone ! 
lago. Is't poflible, my lord ? 

Otb. Villain, be fure, thou prove my love a whore j 
Be fure of it : give me the ocular proof, 

[ Catching hold on him. 
Or, by the worth of man's eternal foul, 

I Farcive! the neighing feed, and the fhrill trump, 

The fpirit-fiirring drum, th* ear-piercing fife. ] The at- 
tributes to the trumpet and fife, in the prefent reading, feem to be 
too much alike for the richnefs and variety of Shake/peer's ideas. 
Befides, as the feed and trumpet in the one line were designed to 
be characterized by their founds ; fo the drum and fife by their ef- 
fects on the hearers ; as appears in part from the epithet given to 
the drum of fpirit-ftirring : I would read then, 

The fpirit-ftirring drum, th* FEAR-'SPERSING.^, 
i. e. thefear-difperfing. 


£10 OTHEiLO, /^ 

Thou hadft been better have been born a dog, 
Than anfwer my wak'd wrath. 
lago. Is't come to this ? 

Otb. Make me to fee't ; or, at the leafl, fo prove it, 
That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop, 
To hang a doubt on : or, woe upon thy life ! 

Iago. My noble lord ■ 

Otb. If thou doft flander her, and torture me, 
Never pray more ; a abandon all remorfe j 
On horrors head horrors accumulate ; 
Do deeds to make heav'n weep, all earth amaz'd^ 
For nothing canft thou to damnation add, 
Greater than that. 

Iago. Oh grace ! oh heav'n defend me ! 
Are you a man ? have you a foul ? or fenfe ? 
God be w' you ; take mine office. O wretched fool, 
That liv'ft to make thine honefty a vice ! 
•Oh monftrous world ! take note, take note, oh 

To be direct and honeft, is not fafe.' 
I thank you for this profit, and from hence 
Til love no friend, fith love breeds fuch offence. 

Otb. Nay, flay — —thou (hould'ft be honeft « 

Iago. I fhould be wife, for honefty 's a fool, 
And lofes what it works for. 

Otb. " 3 By the world, 
" I think, my wife is honeft ; and think, fhe is not ; 
" I think, that thou art juft j and think, thou art not ; 
" I'll have fome proof. Her name, that was as 

" As Viaris vifage, is now begrim'd and black 
" As my own face. If there be cords, or knives, 
" Poifon, or fire, or fuftocating ftreams, 

" I'll not endure't — 'Would, I were fatisfied ! 

Iago, I fee, Sir, you are eaten up with paHion j 
I do repent me that I put it to you. 
You would be fatisfied ? 

Otb. Would ? nay, and will. 

2 ~mm*~~: akar.dsn all remorfe ;] Reywrfe, for repentance. 

3 By the %vQrld % Sec. J This fpeech not ia the fir# edition. 

Mr. Pope. 

Moor of V e n i c e. 311 

logo. And may ; but how ? how fatisfied, my 
lord ? 
Would you be fupervifor, groily gape on ? 
Behold her top'd ? 

Otb. Death and damnation ! oh ! 

lago. It were a tedious difficulty, I think, 
To bring 'err\ to that profpecl : damn them then* 
If ever mortal Eyes do fee them bolfter, 
More than their own. What then ? how then ? 
What (hall I fay ? where's fatisfa&ion ? 
It is impoffible you mould fee this, 
Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkey*, 
As fait as wolves in pride, and fools as grofs 
As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I fay,, 
If imputation and llrcng circumftances, 
Which lead dire&ly to the door of truth, 
Will give you fatisfaclion, you might have't. 

Otb. + Give me a living reafou fhe's difloyal. 

Iago. I do not like the office ; 
But fince I'm entred in thiscaufe fo far, 
Prick'd to't by foolifh honefty and love, 
I will go on. I lay with CaJJio lately, 
And, being troubled with a raging tooth, 
I could not fleep.- — - — 
" There area kind of men, fo loofe of foul, 
That in their fleeps will mutter their afFairs i 
One of this kind is Cajfio ; 
In fleep I heard him fay, Sweet Defdemona, 
Let us be wary, let us hide our loves ! 
And then, Sir, would he gripe, and wring my hand ; 
Cry — Oh fvveet creature \ and then kifs me hard, 
As if he pluck 1 1 up kuTes by the roots, 
That grew upon my lips ; then lay his leg 
Over my thigh, and figh and kifs, and then 
Cry, Curfed fate ! that gave thee to the Moor. 

Otb. Oh monftrous ! monftrous ! 

Iago. Nay, this was but his dream. 

Otb. But this denoted s a fore-gone conclufion. 

4 Give tr.c a living reafon~\ Li-v-rg, for fpeaking, manifeft. 

5 a fare-gone coaclufion j] Cmclujiott, for £»&. 

f lagi. 

312 Othello,/^ 

6 Iago. 'Tis a ftirewd doubt, tho' it be but a dream. 
And this may help to thicken other proofs, 
That do demonftrate thinly. 

Otb. I'll tear her all to pieces. 

Iago. Nay, but be wife ; 7 yet wcfee nothing done ; 

She may be honeft yet. Tell me but this, 

Have you not fometimes feen a handkerchief, 
Spotted with ftrawberries in your wife's hand ? 

Otb. I gave her fuch a one ; 'twas my firft gift. 

Iago. I know not that ; but fuch a handkerchief, 
(I'm fure, it was your wife's,) did I to-day 
See Cajfio wipe his beard with. 

Oth. If it be that 

Iago. If it be that, or any, if 'twas hers, 
It fpeaks againft her with the other proofs. 

Otb. Oh, that the flave had forty thoufand lives ? 
One is too poor, too weak for my Revenge. 

'* 8 Now do I fee 'tis time. Look here, Iago, 

" All my fond love thus do I blow to heav'n : 

" 'Tis gene ; 

9 Arife, black Vengeance, from th' unhallow'd cell ! 

6 Othel. 'Tisafhretvd doubt, &c] The old Quarto gives this 
line with the two following to Iago • and rightly. 

7 ~y?t "*»« fee nothing done ; J This is an oblique and fc- 

cret mock at Othello's faying, Give me the ocular proof. 

% Now do I fee 'tis true.] The old Quarto reads, 

Now do I fee 'tis time. ■ - 

And this is Shakefpear's, and has in it much more force and folem- 
mty, and preparation for what follows ; as alluding to what he had 
faid before, 

■ - ' ■ No, Iago ! 

/'//fee, before I doubt ; ivhen I doubt, prove j 

And, on the proof, there is no more but this, 

Away at once with love or jealoufie. 
This timewas now come. 

9 Arife, black vengeance, from the hollow hei!.~\ This is a poor, 
unmeaning epithet. The old quarto reads, 

Arife black vengeance from thy hollow cell. 
Which the editors not knowing what to make of, alter'd it as above. 
It is corrupt and mould be read thus, 

Arife, black vengeance, from th' uN-HALLOw'd cell. 
meaning the infernal regions. 

' Yield 

Moor of Venice. 31$ 

* Yield up, oh Love, thy crown and parted throne 
To tyrannous Hate ! * fwell, bofom, with thy fraught. 
For 'tis of afpicks' tongues. 

lago. Yet be content. 

Oth. Oh blood, blood, blood 

lago. Patience, I fay j your mind, perhaps, may 

Oth. Never, lago. 3 Like the Pontick Sea, 
Whofe icy current and compulfive courfe, 
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on 
To the Propontick, and the Hellefpont : 
Even fo my bloody thoughts with violent pace 
Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love, 
'Till that a capable and wide revenge 
Swallow them up.— Now by yond marble heav'n, 
In the due rev'rence of a facred vow [He kneels. 

I here engage my words — 

lago. Do not rife yet : [lago kneels, 

Witnefs, you ever-burning lights above f 
You elements, that clip us round about ! 
Witnefs, that here lago doth give up 
The execution of his wit, hands, heart, 
To wrong'd Othello"* fervice. * Let him command, 


X Yield up, oh Love, thy crown and hearted throvi\ Hearted 
throne is ftrange nonfenfe. The old Quarto reads, 

■' and harted throne : 

Which the editors took For a word mif-fpelt, whereas it was a word 
mi/called. We fhould read, 

Yield up, oh Lroe, thy crnvn and parted throne, 
i. e. thy throne which was parted between me and Defdemona : 
This prefents us with a fine image. The union of Othello and Defde- 
tn$na was fo perfeft, that love divided his throne between them : 
which he is now bid to refume, and give to hatred. * 

a fwell, bofom, Sec.] i. e.fivell, becaufe the fraught is of 


3 Like the Pontick Sea, &c,] This fimile is omitted in the 

firft edition : I think it fhould be fo, as an unnatural excurfion in 
this place, Mr. Pope* 

4 Let hint command, x 

And to obey, Jhall be in me remorfe, 

What bloody bujinefs ever.] Thus the old copies read, but 
evidently wrong. Some editions read, Not to obey : on which the 

Vol. VIII, P. editor 

314 Othello,/^ 

And to obey fhall be in me. Remord 
What bloody bimnefs ever. 

Oth. I greet thy love, 
Not with vain thinks, but with acceptance bounteous, 
And wiil upon the inftant put thee to't : 
Within theie three days let me hear thee fay, 
That Caffto^s not alive. 

Iago. s My friend is dead ; 
'Tis done at your requeft. But, let her live. 

Oth. Damn her, lewd Minx ! oh, damn her, damn 
Come, go with me apart ; I will withdraw 
Tofurnifh me with fome fwift means of death 
For the fair Devil. Now art thou my Lieutenant.— 

Iago. I am your own for ever. [Exeunt. 

editor Mr. Theobald takes occafion to alter it to, Nor to obey ; 
and thought he had much mended matters. But he miftcok the 
found end of the line for the corrupt ; and fo by his emendation, 
the deep-deiigning Iago is foolHhly made to throw off his mask 
when he h?.d moft occafion for it ; and without any provocation, 
ftand before his Captain a villain confeffed ; at a time, when, for 
the carrying on his plot, he fhould make the leaft {how of it. 
For thus Mr. Theobald forces him to fay, I pall have no rcmorft 
to obey your commands hotv bloody foever the bujinefs be. But this it 
jiot Shake/pea^s way of preserving the unity of character. Iago, 
till now, pretended to be one, tvho, tho'' in the trade of war he had 
(lain men, yet held it the very fluff of tb? conscience to Jo no contrived 
murder 5 when, of a fudden, without caufe or occafion, he owns 
himlelf a ruffian without remorfe. Shake/pear wrote and pointed 
the pafiage thus, 

Let him command, 

And to cbey,Jhall be in me. Re m it D 
What bleo'dy bujinefs ever. 
7. e. however the bufinefs he fets me upon may fhock my honour 
and humanity, yet I prcmife to go thro' with it, and obey with- 
out referve. Here lego fpeaks in character, while the fenfe and 
grammar are made better by it. So Skclton, 

And if jo him fortune to write and plaine, 
As fometimes he muji vices remokdi, 

And again, 

Squire, Knight, and Lord, 
Thus the Churche remoeqi. 
5 My friend is dead;] I cannot but think this a verv artful 
imitation of nature. Iago, while he would magnify his fervices, be- 
trays his villany. For was it pofiible he could be honeft who 
would aflafiinate his Friend ? And net to take at this, fliew'd the 
.staaoft blindnefi of Jcalosfy. 

c C E JN £< 

Moor o/Veni<:e. 315 


Another Apartment in the Palace. 

Enter Defdemona, iEmilia, and Clown. 

DtfY^\ O you know, firrah, where Lieutenant Gajfit 
\J lies ? 

Clown. I dare not fay, he lies any where. 

Def Why, man ? 

C/onvn. He's a foldier ; and for me to fay, a foldier 
lies, 'tisftabbing. 

Def. Go to ; where lodges he ? 

Clown. To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you 
where I lie. 

Def. Can any thing be made of this ? 

Cloivn. I know not where he lodges ; and for me 
to devife a lodging, and fay, he lies here, or he lies 
there, were to lie in mine own throat. 

Def. Can you enquire him out ? and be edified by 
report ? 

6 Clown. I will catechize the world for him ; that 
is, make queftions, and bid them anfwer. 

Def. Seek him, bid him come hither ; tell him, I 
have mov'd my lord on his behalf, and hope, all will 
be well. 

Clown. To do this is within the compafs of man's 
wit, and therefore I will attempt the doing of it. 

[ Exit Clown. 

Def. Where mould I lofethat handkerchief, uEmilia ? 

jEmil. I know not, Madam. 

Def Believe me, I had rather have loft my purfe 
Full of Cruzadoes. And but my noble Moor 
Is true of mind, and made of no fuch bafenefs 
As jealous creatures are, it were enough 
To put him to ill thinking. 

6 Clow r. Iivitl f teebljsit the ivorld for him ; that is, make quef- 
tions, and by tbem anfufe¥\\ This (.. n is a Fool to feme pur- 
pofe. He was to go Gek for one ; he fays, he will ask for him, 
and by his own queftions make anfwer. Without 'doubt, we 
fhould read ; and bid wem anfwer. i. e, the "world j thofe, whom 
he queftions. 

P 2 MmiL 

gi 6 Othello, the 

JEtnil. Is he not jealous ? 

Def Who, he ? I think, the Sun, where he was born. 
Drew all fuch humours from him. 

jEmil. Look, where he comes. 

Def. I will not leave him now, 'till Caffio be 
Call'd to him. How is it with you, my lord ? 


Enter Othello. 

Oth. Well, my good lady. Oh, hardnefs to de- 
ferable ! 
How do you, Defdemona ? 

Def. Well, my Lord. 

Oth. Give me your hand ; this hand is moift, my 

Def. It yet hath felt no age, nor known no farrow. 

Oth. This argues fruitfulnefs, and liberal heart : 

Hot, hot, and moift this hand of yours requires 

A fequefter from liberty ; falling and prayer, 
Much caftigation, exercife devout ; 
7 For here's a ftrong and fweating devil here, 
That commonly rebels : 'tis a good hand, 
A frank one. 

Def You may, indeed, fay fo ; 
For 'twas that hand, that gave away my heart. 

Oth. A liberal hand. 8 The hands of old gave hearts; 
But our new heraldry is hands, not hearts. 


7 Tor here's a y o ttn g — — ] We fhouid read, strong. 

8 'The hearts of old, gave hands j 

But our new heraldry is bands, not hearts.] It is evident that 
the firft line fhould be read thus, 

The hands of old gave hearts : 
Otherwifeit would be no reply to the preceding words, 

For 'twas that hand, that gave away my heart : 
Not fo, fays her husband : The hards of old indeed gave hearts : 
But the cujiom now is to give hands without hearts. The expref- 
fion of new heraldry was a fatirical allulion to the times. Soon 
after yamst the Firft came to the Crown, he created the new 
dignity of Baronets for money. Amongft their other prerogative* 
•f" honour* they had an addition to their paternal arms, of a 
N an d gules in an Efcuteheon argent. And we are not to doubt 
bat that this was ths nn* heraldry alluded to by our author : By 


Moor of V e isr i c e. 317 

Def. I cannot fpeak of this ; come, now your pro- 

Otb. What promife, chuck ? 

Def. I've fent to bid CaJJio come fpeak with you. 

Otb. I have a fait and forry Rheum offends me : 
Lend me thy handkerchief. 

Def. Here, my Lord. 

Otb. That, which I gave yovr. 

Def. I have it not about me. 

Otb. Not ? 

Def. No, indeed, my Lord. 

Otb. That's a fault. That handkerchief 
Did an jEoyptian to my mother give ; 
She was a Charmer, and could almoft read 
The thoughts of people. She told her, whHe fhe kept it, 
*T would make her amiable, fubdue my father 
Jntirely- to her love ; but if flie loft ie, 
Or made a gift of it, my father's eye 
Should hold her loathed, and his fpirits hunt 
After new fancies. She, dying, gave it me ; 
And bid me, when my fate would have me wiVd, 
To give it her. I did fo ; and take heed on't : ■ ■ 
Make it a darling, like your precious eye ; 
To lofe't, or give't away, were fuch perdition, 
As nothing elfe could match. 

which he infinuates, thatfome then created had bands indeed, but 
not hearts ; that is, money to pay for the creation, but no virtue to 
purohafe the honour.. But the fineft part of the poet's addrefs in 
tfais allufion, ir- the compliment he pays to his old miftrefs Elixa- 
hetb. For James's pretence for raifing money by this creation^ 
was the reduction of Uljier, and other parts of Ireland; the me- 
mory of which he would perpet-uate by that addition to their arms, 
it being the arms of Uljier. Now the method ufed by Elixabetb 
in' the reduftion of that kingdom was fo different from this, the 
dignities fhe conferred being on thofe who err " ;ed their fieel 
and not their gold in this fervice, that nothing could add more to 
her glory, than the being compar'd to her fuccefTor in this point 
of view: Nor was it uncommon for the dramatic poets of that 
time to fatirize the ignominy of James's reign. So Fletcher,- in 
The Fair Maid of the Inn. One fays, I will fend thee to Am- 
boyna f th' Eaft Indies for pepper. The other replies, To Am- 
boyna ? fo I might he pepper d. Again, in the fame play, a Sailor 
ays, Defpife not this pitcWd Canvas, the time was ive have ktuwn 
t hem lined with Spanifh Duckats. 

P 3 D*f. 

3 1 8 Othello,/^ 

Def Is*t poffible ? 

Oth. 'Tis true ; there's magick in the web of it : 
A Sybil!, that had 9 numbrcd in the world 
The Sun to courfe two hundred compares, 
In her prophetick fury fow'd the Work : 
The worms were hallowed, that did breed the filk ; 
And it was dy'd in Mummey, which the skilful 
Conferv'd of Maidens' hearts. 

Def. Indeed ! is't true ? 

Oth. Moil veritable, therefore look to't well. 

Def Then would to heav'n, that I had never feen'tf 

Oth. Ha ! wherefore ? 

Def. Why do you fpeak fo ftartingly, and ram ? 

Oth. Is't loft ? is't gone ? fpeak, is it out o'th' way? 
• Def Blefsus! . 

Oth. Say you ? 

Def It is not loft ; but what, an if it were ? 

Oth. Ha! 

Def I fay, it is not loft. 

Oth. Fetch't, let me fee't. 

Def. Why, fo I can, Sir ; but I will not now : 
This is a trick to put me from my fuit, 
Pray you, let Cafjio be received again. 

Oth. Fetch me the handkerchief -my mind 

mifgi ves ■ 

Def Come, you'll ne'er meet a more fufficient man. 

Oth. The handkerchief — 

Def. A man, that, all his time, 
Hath founded his good fortunes on your love ; 
Shar'd dangers with you. 

Oth. The handkerchief — 

Def. Infooth, you are to blame. 

Oth. Away !— [Exit Othello. 


Manent Defdemona and iEmilia. 
JEmil. Is not this man jealous ? 
Def I ne'er faw this before. 

9 — — numb red — — — 

The Sun to courft-m ■ ■ ■ , j j, c , numbered the Sun's courfes i 
Badly exprefled. 


Moor c/Venice, 319 

Sure, there's fome wonder in this handkerchief: 
I'm mod unhappy in the lofs of it. 

JSmil. 'Tis not a year, or two, mews us a man : 
They are all but ftomachs, and we all but food ; 
They eat us hungerly, and, when they're fall, 
They beich us. Look you ! Cajpo, and my husband. 
Enter Iago and Cafiio. 
logo. There is no other way, 'tis Hie muft do't -, 
And to, the happinefs ! go and importune her. 

Def How now, good Caffio, what's the news with 
you ? 

Caf. Madam, my former fuit. I do befeech you, 
That by your virtuous means I may again ; 
Exift, and be a member of his love ; 
Whom I, with all the office of my heart, 
Intirely honour. I would not be delay'd ; 
If my offence be of fuch mortal kind, 
That not my fervice pad, nor prefent forrows, 
Nor purpos'd merit in futurity, 
Gan ranfom me into his love again .; 
But to know fo, mull be my benefit. 
So fhall I cloath me in a forc'd content, 
And fhut my felf up in fome other courfe, 
To fortune's alms. 

Def. Alas ! thrice-gentle Caffio, 
My advocation is not now in tune ; 
My lord is not my lord ; nor mould I know him, 
Were he in favour, as in humour, alter'd. 
So help me every fpirit fanclified, 
As I have fpoken for you all my belt ; 
And flood within the blank of his difpleafure, 
For my free fpeech ! You muft a-whi!e be patient ; 
What I can do, I will : and more I will 
Than for my felf I dare. Let That fuffice you. 

Iago. Is my lord angry ? 

JEuiil. He went hence but now ; 
And, certainly, in ftrange unquietnefs. 

Iago. " Can he be angry ? I have feen the Cannon, 
" When it hath blown his ranks into the air, 
" And, like the Devil, from his very arm 

P 4 Puft 

320 Othello, the 

m Puft his own brother •; and can he be angry ? 
" Something of moment then ; I will go meet him ; 
•• There's matter in't indeed, if he be angry. {Exit. 


"Manent Defdemona, Emilia, and Caffio. 

Def. I pr'ythee, do fb. — Something, fure, of State, 
Either from Ftntce, or fome unhatch'd practice, 
Made here demonftrable in Cyprus to him, 

• Hath puddled his clear fpirit; and, in fuch cafes, 
** Men's natures wrangle with inferior things, 

* f ho' great ones are their objett. 'Tis ev'n fo. 
For let our finger ake, and it endues 

Our other healthful members with a fenfe 
Of pain. Nay, we mull think, Men are not Gods & 
Nor of them look for fuch obfervance always, 
As fits the bridal. Befhrew me much, JEmilia,. 
I was (» unhandfome wrangler, as 1 am,) 
Arraigning his unkindnef3 with my foul ; 
But now I find, I had fubocn'd the witneis*. 
And he's indited faifely. 

JEmiL Pray heav'n, it be 
State- matter, as you think; and no conception,. 
Nor jealous toy concerning you. 

Def. Alas-the-day, I never gave him caufe. But jealous fouls will not be anfwer'd fo j; 
They are not ever jealous for a caufe ;, 
Butjealcus, for they're jealous. It'samonftec 
Begot upon itfel£, born on itfelf. 

Def. Heav'n keep that monfier from Q.tbelk\ 
mind ! 

JEmiL Lady, amen. 

Def. I will go feek him. C0JJ10, walk hereabout y 
If 1 do find him fit, I'll move your fuit,. 

I - — ( unhandfome warrior at I am. J ] How this came to 
be fo blundered, i cannot conceive. It is plain Sbakefpear wrote, 

unhandfome wrangler, as I am. 

So Antony and Cleopatra 9 

.-.... » - fe wrangling SSueen* 


Moor of V e n r c I. 5.2-1 

And feek t'cfFed it to my uttermoft. _ 
Caf. I humbly thank your Ladyfhip. 

[Ex. Defdemona and Emilia at one 
door; Caflio, at the other. 

Changes to the Street before the Palace. 

Reenter Caflio, meeting Bianca. 

Bian.'Q AVE you, friend Cajfto. 

O Ca/. What makes you from home ? 
How is it with you, my moft fair Bianca ? 
Indeed, fweet; Love, I was coming to your houfe. 
Bian. And I was going to your lodging, CaJJtt.. 

* What? keep a week away ? feven days and nights?; 
*■ Eightfcore eight hours ? and lovers' abfent hours,. 

* More tedious than the dial, eightfcore times r 
■ Oh weary reck'ning ! 

Caf. Pardon me, Bianca : 
I have this while with leaden thoughts been preft ; 
But I (hall in a more convenient time 
Strike off this fcore of abfence. Sweet Bianca, 

[Giving her Defdemona's Handkerchief. 
Take me this work out.. 

Bian. Oh Caffta, whence came this ? 
This is fome token from a newer friend : 
Of thy felt abfence now I feel a caufe : 
Is't come to this ? well, well. 

Caf. Goto, woman: 
Throw your vile gueffes in the Devil's teeth, 
From whence you have them. You are jealous now,. 
That this is from fome miftrefs, fome remembrance ? 3 
No, in good troth, Bianca, 

Bian. Why, whofc is it ? 

Caf. I know not neither; I found it in my chamber;: 
I like the work well; ere it be demanded, 
At like enough it will, I'd have it copied : • 
Take it, and do't. and leave me for this time.. 

Bian. Leave you? wherefore? 

i _ 



222 Othello,/^ 

Caf. I do attend here on the General,. 
And think it no addition, nor my wifh,. 
To have him fee me woman'd. 

Bian. Why, I pray you ? 

Caf. Not that I love you not. 

Bian. But that you do not love me ; 
I pray you, bring me on the way a little ; 
And fay, if I fhall fee you foon at night ? 

Caf. 'Tis but a little way that I can bring you,. 
For 1 attend here. But I'll fee you foon. 

Bian. 'Tis very good ; x I mufl be circumftanc'd. 


A C T IV. S C E N E I. 

A Court before the PALACE. 

Enter Othello, and Iago. 

lago. T I7ILL you think fo ? 

VV Otb. Think fo, Iago? 

lago. What, to kifs in private ? 

Otb. An unauthoriz'd kifs ? 

lago. Cr to be naked with her friend in bed,. 
An hour or more, not meaning any harm ?- 

Oth. J Naked in bed, lago, and not mean harm £ 
* It is hypocrify againft the Devil -. 

ft , „ . » ,. . Irnuji be circumftanc'd.'] i. e, your civility is now grown, 

I Naked in bed, Iago, and not mean barm ? 

It is hypocrify again/I the Devi/ ;.] This obfervation feems 
•irrangely abrupt and unoccaiioned. We muil fuppofe that Iago 
had, before they appear in this fcene, been applying cafes of falfe 
comfort to Othello ; as that tho' the parties- had been even found 
in bed together, there might be no harm done ; it might be only 
for the trial of their virtue ; as was reported of the Romijh Saint,. 
Robert D'ArbriJfel and his Nuns. To this we muft fuppofe Othello 
here replies j and like a good Proteftant,. For fo the fentiment 
does but fuit the character of the fpeaker, Sbakefpear little heeds 
how thoie fentisnents are circumftanced,. 

! They 

Moor of V enic a.- 323 

f They that mean virtuoufly, and yet do fo, 
« * The Devil their virtue tempts not; they tempt 

lago. If they do nothing, 'tis a venial flip : 
But if I give my wife a handkerchief 

Oth. What then? 

lago. Why then, 'tis hers, my lord ; and being hers, 
She may, I think, beftow'ton any man. 

Oth. 5 She is propertied of her honour too ; 
May me give That ? 

lago. Her honour is an edence that's not feen, 
They have it very oft, that have it not : 

2 The Devil their -virtue tempts, and they tempt heaven.] It is 
plain, from the whole tenour of the words, that the fpeaker would 
diftinguifh this ftrange fantaftical prefumption from other lefler 
kinds of indifcretion, where prudence is off its guard. But this 
reading does not diftinguifn it from any other, it being true of 
all who run into temptation, that the Devil their -virtue tempts, 
and they tempt heavn. The true reading, therefore, without quef- 
tion, is this, 

"The Devil their -virtue tempts not ; they tempt heav'n. 
7. e. they do not give the Devil the trouble cf throwing tempta-- 
tions in their way : they feek them out themfelves, and fo tempt 
heav'n by their prefumption. This is a juft character of the ex- 
travagance here condemned, and diftinguiihes it from other infe- 
rior indifcretions. 

3 She is protetlrefs cf her honour too (] This is plainly intended 
an anfwer to Jagoi's principle, That -what a man is propertied in 
he may gi-ve to -whom he pleafes, by fhewing the falfhoed of it, in 
the inftance of a woman's honour, which he fays me is protetlrefs 
of. But this is ftrange logic that infers from the acknowledged 
right of my alienating my property, that I may alienate my truji t 
for that protetlrefs only fignifies. Had lago catched him arguing 
thus, we may be fure he would have expofed his fophiftry. On 
the contrary he replies, on a fuppofiticn thrt Othello argued right 
from his principles, and endeavour'd to instance in a properly that 
could not be alienated j which reduces him to this cavil, that the 
property infranced in was of fo fantaftic a nature, that one might and 
might net have it at the fame time.. 

Her honour is an ejfence that's not feen, 
They have it -very oft, thai have it net. 
From all this I conclude, that Si.akcfpear wrote, 
She is propertied cf her honour too j 
May Jhe give that ? 
And then Q thefts? % anfwer will be logical, and Iago^s reply perti- 
Bent. Shake fpear ufes the fame word again in Timon. 

■ " ' ■ ' ' fubdi. si and properties to his love,- 


324 Othello, tht 

But for the handkerchief. 

Oth. " By heav'n, I would, moft gladly have for- 
got it j 
m Tliou faid'r\~ h, it comes o'er my memory, 
" As doth the Raven o'er th' infeded houfe, 
" Boading to ill,— he had my handkerchief; 
lago. Ay, what of that h 
Oth. That's not fo good now. 
Ugo. What if Ifaid, I'ad feen him do you wrong?- 
Or heard him fay, (as knaves be fuch abroad,. 
Who having by their own importunate fuit,. 
Or voluntary dotage of fome miftrefs, 
4- Convinc'd or fuppled them, they cannot chufe- 
But they mufl blab.) 

Oth. Hath he faid any thing ? 
laga. He hath, my lord, but he you well affur'd;. 
No more than he'll unfwear. 
Oth. What hath he faid? 

lago. Why, that he did . I know net what: 

he did -» 

Oth, What ?' what ?: 

Iago. Lye ■ — 

Oth. With her I- 

lago. With her ; on her- what you will' 

Oth. " Lie with her! lie on her ! lie with her !' 
" that's fulfom :— handkerchief— confeffions— hand- 

«« kerchief— handkerchief [ 5 to confefs, and be 

" hang'd for his labour Firft, to be hang'd, and 

" then— to confefs []— r tremble at it— Nature would 
" not inveil herfelf in fuchihadowing 6 without fome 
•« induction. It is not words, that (bake me thus — 


4 Convinc'd] Convinced, fcr conquer'd, fbbdued. 

5 to confefs, Sec] The words between the hooks feem to be 

the player's train. 

(T without feme itijlruaiott.] The forts and broken reflexions 
in this fpeeeh have foraethlhg very terrible, and {hew the mind 
«f the fpeaker to be in ineypreflible agonTes. But the words we are 
\ipcn, wlien fet right, have a fublime in them that can never be 
enough admired. The ridiculous blunder of writing instruc- 
tion tor inpccticn (for fo it mould "be read) has indeed funk 
it into arrant nenfenfe. Olbcih is juft going to fall into a fwoon j 
and, a? is common for people in that circum/lance, feels an i:nu- 
fual mift and' cavknef^ s. v eornpanied with horror, coming upon, 


Moor of V e M r c e. 3*5 

" piOr — nofes, ears, and lips — is't poflible f con- 

" fefs !.— • handkerchief !— oh devil— 

{.Falls in a trance, 

lago. Work on, 
My medicine, work ! thus credulous fools are caught s 
And many worthy and chaft Dames even thus, 
All guiltlefs, meet reproach. What hoa ! my. lord :. !i 
My lord, I fay, Othello, 


Enter Caflio.. 
How now, Cajfiof 

Caf. What's the matter t 

lago. My lord is fain into an Epilepfy,. 
This is the fecond Fit ; he had one yelterday.. 

Caf. Rub him aboutthe temples. 

lago. No, forbear, 
The lethargy rauft have his quiet courfe ; 
If not, he foams at 'mouth, and by and by 
Breaks out to favage madnefs : look, he itirs. 
Do you withdraw your felf a little while, 
He will recover ftraight ; when he is gone, 
I would on great occafion fpeak with you. [Exit Caffibi. 
How. is it, General ? have you not hurt your head? 

Otb. Doft thou mock me ? 

lago. I mock you not, by heav'n y 
Would you would bear your fortunes like a man. 

Otb. A horned man's a monfter, and a beaft. 

him. This, with vaft fublimity of thought, is, compared to the 
feafon of the Sun's eclipfe, at which time the earth becomes ftia- 
dowed by the indu&ion or bringing over of the Moon between it and 
the Sun. This being the allufion the reafoning ftands thus, My 
nature could never be thus over -Jhadoived, and falling, as it wire 
into dijfolution for no caufe. "There mujl be an induction of 
Comet bin? : there ntufi be a reaicaufe. My jcaloufy ca nnot be merely 
imaginary Ideas, words only, couldnotfiakeme thus, andraije 
all this diforder. My jealoujy therefore mufl be grounded on matter 
of fatt. Shake/pear ufes this word in the fame fcnfe, Richard III. 

A dire induction am I ivitnefs to.. 
Marjlon feems to have read it thus in fome copy, and to aftude 
*o it ia thefe words cf his Fame, 

Pku ha' you laid/ 3 inductions danger cui ! 

2,26 Othello,/^ ' 

lago. There's many a beaft, then, in a populous city, 
And many a civil monfter. 
Oth. Did he confefs it ? — 
lago. Good Sir, be a man : 
Think, every bearded fellow, that's but yoak'd, 
May draw with you. Millions are now alive, 
That nightly lie 7 in thofe improper beds, 
Which they dare fwear peculiar. Your cafe is better," 
Oh, 'tis the fpiteof hell, the fiend's arch-mock, 
To lip a "Wanton in a fecure couch ; 
And to fuppofe her chad. No, let me know, 
And knowing what I am, I know what me (hall be, 
Oth. Oh, thou art wife; 'tis certain. 
lago. Stand you a while apart, 
Confine your felf but in a patient lift. 
Whilft you were here, o'er-whelmed with your grief, 
(A paffion moll unfuiting fuch a man,) 
CaJJto came hither. I fhifted him away, 
And laid good 'fcufes on your ecftafy j 
Bad him anon return, and here fpeak with me ; 
The which he promis'd. Do but encave your (elf, 
And mark the fleers, the gibes, and notable fcorns,. 
That dwell in every region of his face. 
For I will make him tell the tale anew ; 
Where, how, how oft, how long ago and when, 
He hath, and is again to cope your wife. 
I fay, but mark his gefiure. Marry, patience ; 
Or I mall fay, you are all in all in fpleen, 
And nothing of a Man. 

Oth. Doft thou hear, lago ? 
I will be found moll cunning in my patience y, 
But, doil thou hear, moll bloody ? 

lago. That's not amifs ; 
But yet keep time in all.. Will you withdraw ?' 

[Othello withdraws* 
Now will I queflion Cajjio of Bianca, 
A hufvvife, that, by felling her defires, 
Buys her felf bread and cloth. It is a creature, 
That dotes on Cajjio ; as 'tis the ftrumpet's plague 

j — in tbofe improper beds.] Unfroftr, for common,- 


Moor of V e n i c e. s 2 7 

To beguile many, and be beguil'd by one - T 
He, when he hears of her, cannot refrain 
From the excefs of laughter.— Here he comes — 


Enter Caffio. 
As he malffmile, Othello mail go mad ; 
8 And his unbookifh jealoufy mull conftrue 
Poor Cajfio's fmiles, geftures, and light behaviour, 
Quite in the wrong. How do you now, Lieutenant ? 

Caf The worfer, that you give me the addition, 
Whofe want even kills me. 

Iago, Ply Defdemona well, and you are fure on't : 
Now, if this fuit lay in Bianco? s power, 

[/peaking lower. 
How quickly mould you fpeed ? 

Caf. Alas, poor caitiff! 

Otb. Look, how he laughs already. \afide. 

Iago. I never knew a woman love man fo. 

Caf. Alas poor rogue, I think, indeed, fhe loves me. 

Otb. Now he denies it faintly, and laughs out. 


Iago. Do you hear, Cafjio ? 

Otb. Now he importunes him 
To tell it o'er: goto, well faid, well faid. [a/ide. 

Iago. She gives it out that you (hall marry her. 
Do you intend it ?- 

Caf Ha, ha ha! 

Otb. 9 Do you triumph, Rogue ? do you triumph ?' 


Caf. I marry her ! — What ? a cuftomer ? pr'ythee,. 
bear fome charity to my wit, do not think it fo un- 
wholfome.. Ha, ha, ha! 

8 And bis unbookifh jealoufy'] Unbookijb, for Ignorant. 

9 Do you triumph , roman ? do you triumph ?~\ Never was a more 
ridiculous blunder than the word Roman. Shake/pear wrote, 

Do you triumph, rogue ?— — — 
Which being obfcurely written the editors miftook for Rome, and 
fo made Roman of it,- 


328 Othello, the 

Oth. So,- fo : they laugh that win. [ajfde* 

lago. Why, the Cry goes, that you fhall marry her. 

Caf. Pr'ythee, fay true. 

lago. I am a very villain elfe. 

Oth. Have you fcor'd me ? welL [afide. 

Caf. This is the monkey's own giving out : me is- 
perfwaded, I will marry her, out of her own love and 
flattery, not out of my promife. 

Oth. lago beckons me : now he begins the ftoryv 


Caf. She was here even now : (he haunts me in 
every place. I was the other day talking on the 
Sea-bank with certain Venetians, and thither comes the 
bauble, and falls me thus about the neck— 

Oth. Crying, Oh dear Ceffio, as it were :: his ges- 
ture imports it. \_afide. 

Caf. So hangs, and lolls, and weeps upon me, h 
makes, and pulls me. Ha, ha, ha! 

Oth. Now he tells, how me pluckt him -to- my. 
chamber : oh, I fee that nofe of yours, but not that 
dog I (hall throw it to. \afidg. 

C a f. Well, I muft leave her company. 

lago. Before me ! look, where me comes.. 


Enter Eianca. 

Caf. 'Tis fuch another « fitchew ! marry, a per- 
fum'd one :■ 
What do you mean by this haunting of me ? 

Bian. Let the Devil and his Dam haunt you ! what; 
did you mean by that fame handkerchief, you gave 
me even now ? I was a fine fool to take it : I mull 
take out the work ? A likely piece of work, that you 
mould find it in your chamber, and know not who 
left it there. This is fome minxe's token, and I mult 

take out the work ? there give it your hobby- horfe. 

wherefoever you had it, I'll take out no work on't. 

Caf. How now, my fweet Bianca? how now ?. how 
sow ? 

jfe Fitckeiv /] A polecat, Mr. Pete. 


Moor o/Venice, S 2 9 

Oth. By heaven, that mould be my handkerchief. 


Bian. If you'll come to fupper to-night, you may; 
if you will not, come when you are next prepar'd for. 


Jago. After her, after her.— — 

Caf. 1 muft, fhe'll rail in the ftreets elfe. 

Jago. Will you fup there ? 

Caf. Yes, I intend fo. 

Jago. Well, I may chance to fee you s for I would 
very fain fpeak with you. 

Caf. Pr'ythee, come, will you. ? 

Jago. Go to, fay no more. {Exit Caffia. 


Manent Othello, and Iaga. 

Oth. How (hall I murther him,. Jago ? 

Jago. Did you perceive, how he laugh' d at his vice ? 

Oth. Oh, Jago ! 

Jago. And did you fee the handkerchief ? 

Oth. Was that mine ? 

. Jago. Yours, by this hand : and to fee how he- 
prizes the foolifh woman your wife — She gave it 
him, and he hath given it his whore. 

Oth. I would have him nine years- a killing— — 
A fine woman ! a fair woman ! a fweet woman E 

Jago. Nay, you muft forget That. 

Oth. Ay, let her rot and perifh, and be damn'd to 
night ; for me ihall not live. No, my heart is turn'd 

to ftone : I ftrike it, and it hurts my hand Oh, the 

world hath not a lweeter creature. She might lie by 
an Emperor's fide and command him tasks. 

Jago. Nay, that's not your way. 

Ojh. Hang her, I do but fay what me is--fo deli- 
cate with her needle. An admirable mufician.— ^Oh, 

Ihe will fing the favagenefs out of a bear : of fo high 
and plenteous wit and invention \ 

Jago. She's the worfe for all this. 

Oth. Oh,, a thoufand, a thoufand times : 
And then of fo gentle condition ! ■ > 

33° Othello, the 

lago. Ay, too gentle. 

Otb. Nay, that's certain. 

But yet the pity of it, lago Oh, lago, the pity 

or it, logo* - i 

lago. If you are fo fond over her iniquity, give her 
patent to offend ; for if it touch not you, it comes near 
no body. . 

Ota. I will chop her into mefles : cuckold me ! 

lago. Oh, 'tis foul in her. 

Otb. With mine officer I 

lago. That's fouler. 

Otb. Get me fome poifonj lago, this night ; I'll not 
expoHulate with her, left her body and her beauty un- 
provide my mind again ; this night, lago. 

lago. Do it not with poifon, ftrangle her in her bed, 
Even m the bed fhe hath contaminated. 

Otb. Good, good : 
The juftice of it pleafes ; very good. 

lago. And for Cafjio, let me be his undertaker : 
You mall hear more by midnight. ' [J Trumpet witbin. 

Otb. Excellent good: What Trumpet is that 

fame ? 
lago. Something from Venice, fure. 'Tis Lodomico 
Come from the Duke : and, fee, your wife is with him. 


Enter Lodovico, Defdemona, and Attendants, from 
tbe Palace^ 
Lod. Save you, worthy General. 
Otb. With all my heart, Sir. 

Lod. The Duke and the Senators of Venice greet you. 

[Gives him a letter. 
Otb. I kifs the inftrument of their pleafures. 
Def. And what's the news, good Coufm Lodovico ? 
lago. I am very glad to fee you, fignior. 
Welcome to Cyprus. 

Lod. I thank you ; how does lieutenant Caflio ? 
lago. Lives, Sir. 

Def. Coiifin, there's fall'n between him and my 
lord J 


Moor c/Venicl 33 1 

An unkind breach : but you fhall make all well. 

Otb. Are you fure of that I V A P di - 

Def. My lord! , 

Otb. This fail you not to Jo, as you nvill— ^acts, 

Lod. He did not call ; he's bufy in the paper. 
Is there divifion 'twixt my lord and Caffio ? 

Def. A moft unhappy one ; I would do much 
T' atone them, for the love I bear to Caffio. 

Otb. Fire and brimftone ! 

Def My lord ! 

Otb. Are you wife? 

Def What, is he angry ? 

Lod. 'May be the letter mov'd him. 
For, as I think, they do command him home, 
Deputing Cajfio in his Government. 

Def. Trufc me, I am glad on't. 

Otb. Indeed ! l4*** 

Def. My lord ! 

Otb. I am glad to fee you mad. 

Def V/hy. (weetOtbe/to? 

,1 Devil! 1 [Strthng for. 

Def I have not deferv'd this. m 

Lod. My lord, this would not be believM in Venice, 
Though I mould fvvear, I faw't. 'Tis very much i 
Make her amends, fhe weeps. 

Otb. Oh devil, devil ! 
If that the earth could teem with woman's tears, 
Each drop, fte falls, would prove a crocodile : 
Out of my fight . 

Def. I will not ftay t' offend you. [G"»J> 

Lod. Truly, an obedient lady : 
I do befeech your lordfliip, call her back. 

Otb. Miftrefs, 

Def My lord. 

Otb. What would you with her, Sir ? 

Lod. Who, I, my lord r ' .■ -»-. 

Otb. Ay ; you did wifli, that I would make nes 
turn : 
Sir, ihe can turn and turn, and yet go on ; 
And turn again. And (he can weep, Sir, weep 5 
And fhe's obedient : as you fay, obedient 5 

33 2 Othello, the 

Very ohedient proceed you in your tears—— 

Concerning this, Sir, oh well-painted paffion ? 

lam commanded home ■ ■ get you away, 

I'll fend for you anon, Sir, I obey the mandate, 

And will return to Venice.— Hence, avant t — 

[Exit Befdemona, 
CaJJio fhaH have my Place*. And, Sir, to-night 
I do entreat that we may fup together. 
You are welcome, Sir,, to Cyprtw ■ ■ 
Goats and Monkies f [Exit, 


Manent Lodovico, and lago. 
Lod. Is this the noble Moor, whom our full Scnat* 
Call all-in-all fufficient ? " this the Nature, 
•* Which paffion could not wake ? • whofe folid: 

*' The fhot of accident, nor dart of chance*. 
*' Could neither raze, nor pierce? 
lago. He is much chang'd. 
Lod. Are his wits fafe ? is he not light of brain ? 
Togo. He's what he is i I may not breathe my 
What he might be, if what he might he is not, 
I would to heaven, he were ! 
Lod. What, ftrike his wife ! 

lago. 'Faith, that was not fo well ; yet 'would I 
That ftroke would prove the worff. 

ivbofe folid virtue 

The /hot of accident, nor dart of chance, 

Could neither graze nor pierce.'] But 'tis no commendation tt> 
the moft folid virtue to be free from the attacks of fortune : butr 
that it is fo impenetrable as to fuffer no imprefiion. Now to graze 
fignifles, only to touch the fuperfcies of any thing. That is the 
attack of fortune : And by that virtue is try r d, butnot difcredited.. 
We ought certainly therefore to read, 
Can neither raze nor pierce, 
i. e. neither lightly touch upon, nor pierce into. The ignorant 
tranfcribers being acquainted with the Phrafe of a bullet grazing, 
znijbot being mention'd in the line before, they corrupted the true 
word* Bcfides^ we do not fay, graze a thing y but grant- on it. 


Moor c/Venic e. 333 

Lad. Is it his ufe ? 
Or did the letters work upon his blood, 
And new-create this fault ? 

Iago. Alas, alas ? 
It is not honefty in me to fpeak 
What I have feen and known. You fhall obferve him^ 
And his own courfes will denote him fo, 
That I may fave my fpeech. Do but go after, 
And mark how he continues. 

Led. Tmforry, that I am deceived in him. 

[ Exeunt. 

Changes to an Apartment in the Pa/ace* 

Enter Othello and Emilia. 
Q/£. T7 O U have feen nothing then ? 

JL JEmil. Nor ever heard, nor ever did 

Oth. Yes, you have feen CaJJio and her together. 

JEmil. But then I faw no harm ; and then I heard 
Each fyllable, that breath made up between them. 

Oth. What ? did they never whifper ? 

jEmil. Never, my lord. 

Oth. Nor fend you out o' th* way ? 

jEmil. Never. 

Oth. To fetch Jier fan, her gloyes, her maik, nor 
nothing ? 

JEmil. Never, my lord. 

Oth. That's ftrange ! 

JEmil. I durft, my lord, to wager me is honeft, 
Lay down my foul at flake : if you think other, 
Remove your thought, it doth abufe your bofom. 
If any wretch hath put this in your head, 
Let heav'n requite it with the ferpent's curfe ! 
For if flie be not honeft, chafte and true, 
There's no man happy ; the.pureft of their wives 
Is foul as flander. 

Oth. Bid her come hither, go. [Exit iErniliaJ 

She fays enough ; yet (he's a fimple bawd, 
That cannot fay as much. This is a fubtle whore, 


334 Othello, the 

A clofet lock and key of villanous fecrcts ; 

And yet fhe'll kneel, and pray ; I've feen her do't. 

S C E N E IX. 

Enter Defdemona and Emilia. 

Def. My lord, what is your will ? 

Otb. Pray you, chuck, come hither. 

Def What is your pleafure ? 

Otb. Let me fee your eyes ; look in my face. 

Def What horrible fancy's this ? 

Otb. Some of your function, miftrefs ; 
Leave procreants alone, and fhut the door, 
Cough, or cry, hem, if any body come. 

Your miftery, your miftery ; nay, difpatch. 

[Exit JEmillsL. 

Def Upon my knee, what doth your fpeech import ? 
I underftand a fury in youT words, 
3 But not your words. 

Otb. Why? what art thou? 

Def. Your wife, my lord ; your true and loyal wife. 

Otb. Come, fwear it ; damn thy felf ; left, being 
like one 
Of heav'n, the devils themfelves mould fear to feize 

Therefore be double damn'd ; fwear, thou art honeft. 

Def Heav'n doth truly know it. 

Otb. Heav'n truly knows, 
That thou art falfe as hell. 

Def. To whom, my lord ? 
With whom ? how am I falfe ? 

Otb. Ah, Defdemona ! away, away, away— — 

Def. " Alas, the heavy day ! why do you weep ? 
" Am I the motive of thefe tears, my lord ? 
" If, haply, you my father do fufpeft 
" An inftrument of this your calling back, 
" Lay not your blame on me ; if you have loft him, 
" Why, I have loll him too. 

i But not your ■words.'] This line is added out of the firft edition. 
5 J Mr. Pope. 


Moor of . V e n i c e. ^§ 

Oth. " Had it pleas'd heav'n 
" To try me with affliction, had he rain'd 
" All kind of fores and fhames on my bare head, 
* l Steep'd me in poverty to the very lips, 
" Giv'n to captivity me and my hopes ; 
" I fhould have found in fome place of my foal 
W A drop of patience. But, alas, to make me 
" A fixed figure for the hand of fcorn 
" To point his flow unmoving finger at 
" Yet could I bear that too, well, very well. 
* But there, where I have garnerM up my heart, 
" Where either I muft live, or bear no life, 
" The fountain from the which my current runs, 
" Or elfe dries up ; to be difcarded thence ; 
*' Or keep it as a ciftern, for foul toads 
«' To knot and gender- in : * Turn thy complexion 

•* Patience, thou young, and rofe-lipp'd cherubin ; 
** I here look grim as hell." 

Def. I hope, my noble lord efteems me honeft. 

Oth. Oh, ay, as fummer flies are in the fhambles, 
That quicken ev*n with blowing, 
s O, thou bale weed, why art fo lovely fair ? 

-Turn thy complexion thus, 

I here look grim as hell.'] We mould read thenci. The 
meaning is, in fuch a cafe, as laft defcribed, Patience will have no 
power or efficacy j therefore let her turn herfelf elfewhcre. I am 
grim and inexorable as hell. 

5 — — — ■ ■ ■■ — »- — ' Oh thou weed ! 

Who art fo lovely fair y and fmeWfi fo fweet 
That the fen fe akes at thee J] The fairnefs of the flower does 
not contribute, with the fweetnefs of the fmell, to the aking of 
the fenfe. The old Quarto reads, 

Otbou b lac he weed, why art fo lovely fair t 
Thou fmelVJl fo fweet , that the fenfe akes at thee. 

Which the editors not being able to fet right, alter' d as above. 

Shakcfpear wrote, 

O, thou bale iveed, toby art fo lovely fair t 
Thou fmelVfl fo fweet that the fenfe akes at tffee. 

Bale, i. e. deadly poifonous. Why art thou fo fair to allure the 

admirer to deftru&ion. 


336 Othello, the 

Thou fmell'ft fo fweet that the fenfe akes at thee. 
*Would, thou had'ft ne'er been born ! 

Def. Alas, what ignorant fin have I committed ? 

Oth. Was this fair paper, this mod goodly book, 
Made to write whore upon ? what, what committed ? 

Committed ? oh, thou publick commoner ! 

I mould make very forges of my cheeks, 
That would to cynders burn up modefty, 
Did but I fpeakthy deeds. What, what committed ? 
Heav'n flops the nofe at it, and the moon winks ; 
The bawdy wind, that kifles all it meets, 
Is huftYd within the hollow mine of earth, 
And will not hear't. What committed ?— Impudent 
Strumpet [ 

Def. By heav'n, you do me wrong. 

Otb. Are not you a ftrumpet ? 

Def. No, as I am a chriftian. 
If to preferve this Veffel for my lord 
From any other, foul, unlawful, Touch, 
Be not to be a ftrumpet, I am none. 

Oth. What, not a whore ? 

Def. No, as I (hall be faved. 

Oth. Is't poflible ? 

Def. Oh, heav'n forgive us ! 

Oth. I cry you mercy, then. 
I took you for that cunning whore of Venicti 
That married with Othello 


Enter Emilia. 

You, miftrefs, 

That have the office oppofite to St. Peter, 

And keep the gate of hell ; You ! you ! ay, you ! 

We have done our courfe,there's money for your pains ; 

I pray you, turn the key, and keep our counfel. [Exit, 

uEmiL Alas, what does this gentleman conceive ? 
How do you, madam ? how do you, my good lady ? 

Def. Faith, half afleep. 

JEmil. Good madam, what's the matter with my 
lord r 


Moor ^/Venice. 33* 

Def With whom ? 

jEmi/. Why, with my lord, madam ? 

Def. Who is thy lord ? 

uEmil. He that is yours, fweet lady. 

Def. I have none ; do not talk to me, jEmilia, 
I cannot weep ; nor anfwer have I none, 
But what mould go by water. Pray, to night 
Lay on my bed my wedding meets, remember ; 
And call thy huiband hither. 

^mil. Here's a change indeed f [Exit, 

Def 'Tis meet I fhould be us'd fo, very meet : 
How have I been behav'd, that he might ftick 
The fmaH'ft opinion of my Ieafl mifufe ? 


Enter I ago and Emilia. 

lago. What is your pleafure, Madam ? how is'twitfe 

Def I cannot tell ; thofe, that do teach your babe«, 
Bo it with gentle means, and eaiie tafks ; 
He might have chid me fo : for, in good faith, 
I am a child to chiding. 

lago. What's the matter, lady ? 

JEtnil. Alas, lago, my lord hath fo bewhor'd her. 
Thrown fuch defpight and heavy terms upon her, 
That true hearts cannot bear it. 

Def Am I that name, lago ? 

lago. What name, fair lady ? 

Def. Such, as, (he faid, my lord did fay I was. 

JEtniL He calPd her whore ; a beggar, in his drink, 
Could not have laid fuch terms upon his callet. 

lago. Why did he fo ? 

Def I do not know ; I'm fure, I am none fuch. 

lago. Do not weep, do not weep ; alas, the day f 

JEmil. Hath fhe forfook fo many noble matches ? 
Her father ? and her country ? and her friends ? 
To be call'd whore ? would it not make one weep ? 

Def It is my wretched fortune. 

lago. Befhrcw him for't ! how comes this trick upoa 
him ? r 

Vol. Vlll (^ D$f% 

338 Othello,/^ 

Def. Nay, heav'n doth know. 

JEmiL I will be hang'd, if fome eternal villain, 
Some bufie and infmuating rogue, 
Some cogging, cozening flave, to get fome office, 
Has not devis'd thisflander : I'll be hang'd elfe. 

lago. Fie, there is no fuch man ; it is impoffible. 

Def. If any fuch there be, heav'n pardon him \ 

jEmit. A halter pardon him, and hell gnaw hi» 
bones ! 
Why mould he call her whore ? who keeps her com- 
pany ? 
What place ? what time ? what form ? what likely- 
hood ? 
The Moor's abus'd by fome mod villanous knave. 
Some bafe notorious knave, fome fcurvy fellow. 
Oh heav'n, that fuch companions thou'dft unfold, 
.And put in every honeft hand a whip, 
To la(h the rafcal naked through the world, 
Ev'n from the eaft to th' weft ! 

lago. Speak within door. 

JEmiL Oh, fie upon them ! fome fuch 'fquire he 
" That turn'd your wit the feamy fide without ; 
And made you to fufpeft me with the Moor. 

lago. You are a fool ; go to. 

Def. Alas, lago, 
*' What fhall I do to win my lord again ? 
" Good friend, go to him ; by this light of heav'n, 
w I know not how I loft him. Here I kneel ; 

" If e'er my will did trefpafs 'gainft his love, 
•* Or in difcourfe, or thought, or actual deed ; 
«« Or that mine eyes, mine ears, or any fenfe, 
•* Delighted them on any other form ; 
" Or that I do not yet, and ever did, 
" And ever will, though he do make me off 
•* To beggarly divorcement, love him dearly, 
" Comfort forfwear me ! Unkindnefs may do much ; 
" And his unkind nefs may defeat my life, 
"..But never taint my love. I can't fay, *whors ; 
Is does abhor me, now I fpeak the word ; 


Moor ^/Venice. 239 

To do the aft, that might th' addition earn, 
Not the world's mafs of vanity could make me. 

Iago. I pray you, be content ; 'tis but his humour j 
The bufinefs of the State do's him offence, 
And he does chide with you. 

Def. If 'twere no other, 

logo. It is but fo, I warrant. [ Trumpet tl 

Hark, how thefe inttruments fummon to fupper \ 
The meffenger of Venice ftays the meat ; 
Go in, and weep not ; all things (hall be well. 

[Exeunt Defdemona and JEm\\i%l 


Enter Rodorigo, to Iago. 
How now, Rodorigo ? 

Rod. I do not find, that thou deai'ftjuftly with meY 

Iago. What in the contrary ? 

Rod. Every day thou doft'ft me with fome device, 
lags-, and rather, as itfeems to me now, keep'fl from 
me all conveniency, than fupplieft me with the leaft ad- 
vantage of hope. I will, indeed, no longer endure it. 
Nor am I yet perfwaded to put up in peace what al- 
ready I have foolifhly fuffer'd. 

Iago. Will you hear me, Rodorigo ? 

Rod. Faith, I have heard too much ; and your worda 
and performances are no kin together. 

Iago. You charge me moll unjuflly. 

Rod. With nought but truth : I have wafted my 
felf out of my means. The jewels you have had from 
me, to deliver to Defdemona, would half have cor- 
rupted a Votarift. You have told me, (he hath re- 
ceiv'd them, and return'd me expectations and com- 
forts of fudden refped and acquittance ; but I find 

Iago. Well, go to; very well. 

Rod. Very well, go to ; I cannot go to, man, nor 
'tis not very well ; nay, I think, it is fcurvy, and begin 
to find my felf fob'd in it. 

Jago. Very well. 

Q^z Rgd. 

^40 Othello, the 

Rod. I tell you, 'tis not very well. I will make my 
felf known to Defdemona : If (lie will return me my 
jewels, I will give over my fuit, and repent my unlaw- 
ful follicitation : if not, allure your felf, I will feck fa- 
tisfaclion of you. 

/ago. You have faid now 

Rod. Ay, and faid nothing, but what I proteft in- 
tendment of doing. 

logo. Why, now, I fee, there's mettle in thee ; and 
even from this inftant do I build on thee a better opinion 
than ever before. Give me thy hand, Rodorigo, thou 
haft taken againft me a moft juft exception ; but, I pro- 
left, i have dealt moft directly in thy aifair. 

Rod. It hath not appear'd. 

lago. I grant, indeed, it hath not appearM ,• and 
your fufpicion is not without wit and judgment. But, 
Rodorigo, if thou haft That in thee indeed, which I 
have greater reafon to believe now than ever, (I mean, 
purpofe, courage, and valour) this night (hew it. If 
thou the next night following enjoy not Defdemona, 
take me from this world with treachery, and devife 
engines for my life. 

Rod. Well ; what is it ? is it within reafon and com- 
pafs ? 

lago. Sir, there is efpecial Commiffion come from 
Venice to depute CaJJio in Othello's place. 

Rod. Is that true ? why, then Othello and Defdemona 
return again to Venice. 

lago. Oh, no ; he goes into Mauritania, and taketh 
away with him the fair Defdemona, unlefs his abode be 
lingred here by fome accident : Wherein none can be fo 
determinate, as the removing of Cajjio. 

Rod. How do you mean removing him ? 

lago. Why, by making him incapable of Othello $ 
Place ; knocking out his brains. 

Rod. And that you would have me to do ? 

lago. Ay, if you dare do your felf a profit and a 
right. He fups to night with a harlot ; and thither 
will I go to him. He knows not yet of his honour- 
able fortune ; if you will watch his going thence, 
(which I will fafihion to fall out between twelve and 


Moor u/Venice, 341 

©ne) you may take him at your pleafure. I will be 
near to fecond your attempt, and he ihall fall betweea 
us. Come, (land not amaz'd at it, but go along with 
me ; I will fhew you fuch a neceflity in his death, that 
you fhall think your felf bound to put it on him. It is 
now high fupper-time ; and the night grows to waite. 
About it. 

Rod. I will hear further reafon for this. 

lago. And you (hall be fatisfied. [Exeunt, 


Enter Othello, Lodovico, Defdemona, Emilia, and 

hod, I do befeech you, Sir, trouble your felf no 

Oth. Oh, pardon me ; 'twill do me good to walk. 

Lod. Madam, good night; I humbly thank your 
lady (hip. 

Def. Your Honour is moft welcome. 

Oth. Will you walk. Sir ? oh Defdemona f 

Def. My lord. 

Oth. Get you to bed on th' inftant, I will be returned 
forthwith ; difmifs your attendant there ; look, it be 
done. [Exit. 

Def. I will, my Lord. 

jEmil. How goes it now ? he looks gentler than he 

Def. He fays, he will return incontinent ; 
And hath commanded me to go to bed, 
And bid me to difmifs you. 

jEmil. Difmifs me ? 

Def. It was his bidding; therefore, good JEmilia, 
Give me my nightly Wearing, and adieu. 
We mult not now difpleafe him. 

jEmil. I would, you had never feen him ! 

Def. So would not I ; my love doth fo approve him, 
That even his ftubbornnefs, his checks, and frowns, 
(Pr'ythee, unpin me) have grace and favour in them. 

JSmil. I have laid thofe fheets, you bad me, on the 

Q 3 Def, 

24-2 Othello, the 

Def All's one : good father ! how foolifh are our 
minds ? 
If I do die before thee, pr'ythee, fhroud me 
In one of thefe fame meets, 
JEmil. Come, come ; you talk. 
Def My Mother had a maid call'd Barbara, 
She was in love ; * and he, me Iov'd, forfook her, 
And fiie prov'd mad : She had a fong of willovj, 
An old thing 'twas, but it exprefs'd her fortune, 
And (be dy'd fjngingit. That fong to night 
Will no* go from my mind ; Pve much ado, 
But to go hang my head all at one fide, 
And {mg it like poor Barbara. Pry'thee, difpatch. 
JEmil. Shall I go fetch your night-gown? 
Def No, unpin me here ; 
This Lodovico is a proper man. 
JEmil. A very handfom man. 
Def. He fpeaks well. 

jEmil. I know a lady in Venice would have walk'd 
barefoot to Palefiine for a touch of his nether lip. 
Def. The poor foul fat Jinging by a Jycamore-tree, 

Sing all a green willow : [finging. 

Her band on her bofom, her head on her knee, 

Sing willow, willow, willow : 
*Tbefrefo ftream ran by her, and murmur d her moans', 

Sing willow, Sec. 
Her fait tears fell from her, and foftned the ft ones ; 

Sing willow, &c. 
Willow, willow, &c. 

(Pr'ythee, hye thee, he'll come anon) 
Sing all a green willow muft be my garland. 
Let no body blame him, his /corn J approve. 
Nay that's not next — Hark, who is it that knocks ? 
uEmil. It's the wind. 
Def IcalVdmy lovefalfe love', but whatfaid he then? 

Sing willow, &c. 
If 1 court more women, you 11 couch with more men. 

4j. — — and he, (he lov'd, proved mad, 

And did for fake her : ] We fhould read, 

— and he, fbe lonSd, ftrfook her, 
Andjhe proved mad : 


Moor of V e n i c e. 343 

Sa, get thee gone, good night ; mine eyes do itch, 
Doth that boad weeping ? 

JEmil. 'Tis neither here nor there. 

Def I have heard it faid fo; oh thefe men, thefe 
men ! 
Doft thou in confeience think, tell me, JEmilia, 
That there be women do abufe their husbands 
In fuch grofs kind ? 

JEmil. There be fome fuch, no quefcion. 

Def. Would'rt thou do fuch a deed for all the world? 

JEmil. Why, would not you ? 

Def. No, by this lieav'nly light. 

JEmil. Nor I neither, by this heav'nly light: 
I might do't as well i' th' dark. 

Def. Would'ft thou do fuch a deed for all the world \ 

jEmil. The world's a huge thing, 
It is a great price, for a fmall vice. 

Def In troth, I think, thou would'ft not. 

JEmil. In troth, I think, I mould ; and undo't,when 
I had done. Marry, I would not do fuch a thing for a 
joint-ring, nor for meafures of lawn, nor for gowns, 
petticoats, nor capa; nor any petty exhibition. But 
for all the whole world ; why who would not make 
her husband a cuckold, to make him a monarch ? I 
mould venture purgatory for't. 

Def Befhrew me, if I would do fuch a wrong 
For the whole world. 

JEmlL Why, the wrong is but a wrong i'th* world ; 
and having the world for your labour, 'tis a wrong 
in your own world, and you might quickly make it 

Def. I do not think, there is any fuch woman. 

JEmil. Yes, a dozen ; and as many to th' van- 
tage, as 
Would ftore the world they plaid for. 
But, I do think, it is their husbands' faults, 
If wives do fall : fay, that they flack their duties, 
And pour our treafures into foreign laps f 
Or elfe break out in peevilh jealoufies, 
Thrcwing reftraint on us j or fay, they flrike us, 
Orfcant our former Having in defpight ; 

CL 4 Why. 

544 Othello, tht 

Why, we have galls, and though we have fome graee, 
Yet have we fome revenge. Let husbands know, 
Their wives have fenfe like them ; they fee and fmell, 
And have their palates both for fweet and fower, 
As husbands have. What is it that they do, 
When they change us for others ? is it fport ? 
I think, it is ; and doth affedtion breed it ? 
I think, it doth : is't frailty, that thus errs ? 
It is fo too. And have not we affections ? 
Pefires for fport ? and frailty, as men have ? 
Then let them ufe us well j elfe let them know, 
The ills we do, their ills inftrucl us to. 

Def. Good night, good night ; heaven me fuch ufes 
Kot to pick bad/rom bad ; but by bad, mend ! 



A Street before the Palace. 

Enter Iago and Rodorigo . 

itfgg.T TERE, (land behind this bulk. Straight 

11 will he come : 
Wear thy good rapier bare, and put it home ; 
Quick, quick, fear nothing ; I'll be at thy elbow. 
It makes us, or it marrs us : think on That, 
And fix moll firm thy refolution. 

Rod. Be near at hand, I may mifcarry in'L 
lago. Here, at thy hand ; be bold and take thy fword. 
Rod. I have no great devotion to the deed, 
Yet he hath given me fatisfying reafons : 
*Tis but a man gone. Forth, my fword : he dies. 

[Stands apart, 
lago. I've rubb'd this young Gnat almoft to the 
And he grows angry. Now, whether he kill CaJJia, 


Moor 0/ V e n i c i. 345 

Or Caffio him, or each do kill the other, 
Every way makes my gain Live Rodorigo, 
He calls me to a reftitution large 
Of gold and jewels, that I bob'd from him, 
As gifts to Defdemona. 

It muft not be If Caffio do remain, 

He hath a daily beauty in his life, 
That makes me ugly ; and, befides, the Moor 
May unfold me to him ; there ftand I in peril ; 
No, he muft die. Be it fo ; I hear him coming. 
Enter Caffio. 
Rod. I know his gait ; 'tis he : villain, thou dyeft. 
[He runs at Caffio, and wounds him, 
Caf. That Thruft had been mine enemy indeed, 
But that my coat is better than thou know'ft : 
I will make proof of thine. 

{Fight. Iago cuts Caffio behind in the Leg, a nd exit. 
[Then Rodorigo and Czftio fa I/. 
Rod. Oh, I am flain. 

Caf. I'm maim'd for ever; help, hoa ! murther, 
murther! . 


Enter Othello above at a Window. 
Oth, The voice of Caffio,— lago keeps his word. 
Rod. Oh, villain that I am ! 
Oth. It is even Co. . 

Caf. Oh, help, ho! light ! a furgeon ? ■ 

Oth. 'Tis he J oh brave Iago, honeft and juft, 
That haft fuch noble fenfe of thy friend's wrong ; 

Thou teacheft me Minion, your Dear lies deads 

And your fate hyes apace. Strumpet, I come : 

From oftmy heart, thofe charms, thine eyes, are blotted: 
Thy bed, luft-ftain'd, fhall with luft's blood be fpotted. 

[Exit Othello. 

Enter Lodovico and Gratiano, at a diflance. 
Caf What, ho ! no watch ? no palTage I murther, 

346 Othello, the 

Grtf.'Tis fome mifchancc ; fhe voice is very direful. 

Caf. Oh help ! 

Lod. Hark ! 

Rod. Oh wretched villain ! 

Lod. Two or three groans. It is a heavy night ; 
Thefe may be counterfeits : let's think't unfafe 
To come into the cry, without more help. 

Rod. No body come ? then mail I bleed to death. 

Rnter Iago, in hisfpirt^ <witb a Light and Sword. 

Lod. Hark 

Gra. Here's one comes in his fhirt with light and 

'Iago. Who's there ? whofe noife is this, that cries 
out murther ? 

Lod. We do not know. 

iago. Do not you hear a cry ? 

Caf. Here, here : for heavVs fake, help me. 

Jago. What's the matter ? 

Gra. This is Othello** Ancient, as I take it. 

Lod. The fame, indeed, a very valiant fellow. 

Iago. What are you here, that cry fogrievoufly ? 

Caf. Iago ? oh I'm fpoil'd, undone by villains I 
Give me fome help. 

Jago. Oh me, lieutenant! what villains have done this? 

Caf. I think, that one of them is hereabout ; 
'And cannot make away. 

Jago. Oh treacherous villains f 
^What are you there ? come in, and give fome help. 

[To Lod. and Gra, 

Rod. Oh, help me there. 

Caf. That's one of them. 

Jago. Oh murth'rous Have I oh villain ! 

[Iago ftabs him. 

Rod. Oh damn'd Iago f oh inhuman dog ! 

Jago. Kill men i'th' dark ? where be thefe bloody 
thieves ? 
How filent is this town? ho, murther ! murther? 
What may you be ? are you of good or evil I 

Lod. As you fhall prove us, praife us. 

Jago. Signior Lodoiico P * ■■■■■ ■ % 


Moor ^/Venice. 347 

Lod. He, Sir. 

Iago. I cry you mercy ! here's Catfto, hurt by vil- 
Gra. CaJJio ? 
Iago. How is't, brother ? 
Caf. My leg is cut in two. 
Iago. Marry, heav'n forbid! 
Light, gentlemen, I'll bind it with my ftiirt. 


Enter Bianca. 

Bian. What is the matter, hoa, who is't that cry'd ? 

Iago. Who is't that cry'd ? 

Bian. Oh my dear CaJJio, 
My fweet CaJJio, oh CajJio, CaJJio, CaJJio. 

Iago. O notable {trumpet ! CaJJio, may you fufpeft 
Who they mould be, that have thus mangled you ? 

Caf. No. 

Gra. I'm forry to find you thus : 
I have been to feek you. 

Iago. Lend me a garter. So — Oh for a chair 
To bear him eafily hence. 

Bian. Alas, he faints. Oh CaJJio, CaJJio, CajJio! 

Iago. Gentlemen all, I do fufpect this Trafti 
To be a party in this Injury. 
Patience a while, good CaJJio ; come, come : 
Lend me a Light : know we this face, or no ? 
Alas, my friend, and my dear countryman 
Rcdorigo? no : Yes, fure : yea, 'tis Rodorigo. 

Gra. What, of Venice ? 

Iago. Even he, Sir : did you know him ? 

Gra. Kjiow him ? ah \ 

Iago. Signior Gratiano? I cry your gentle pardon : 
Thefe bloody accidents muft excufe my manners, 
That fo negle&ed you. 

Gra. I am glad to fee you. 

Iago. How do you, Caffio ? oh, a chair, a chair. 

Gra. Rodorigo P 

Iago. He, he, 'tis he: oh, that's well faid, the chair. 
Some good man. bear him carefully from hence h 


348 Othello, the 

I'll fetch the General's furgeon. For you, miftrefe, 
Save you your labour. He that lies (lain here, Cajfa 
Was my dear friend. What malice was between you ? 

Caf. None in the world j nor do I know the man. 

logo. What, look you pale I —oh, bear him out 
o'th* air. 
Stay you, good gentlemen. Look you pale, miftrefs ? 
Do you perceive the gaftnefs of her eye I [To Bianca. 
Nay, if you ftare, we fhall hear more anon. 
Behold her well ; I pray you, look upon her ; 
Do you fee, gentlemen ? nay, guihinefs 
Will fpeak, though tongues were out of ufe. 


Enter Emilia. 

jEmil. Alas, what is the matter J 
What is the matter, husband ? 

/ago, Cajfiohatb there been fet on in the dark 
By RoJorigo, and fellows that are '(cap'd : 
He's al molt flain, and Rodorigo dead. 

JEmil. Alas, good gentleman ! alas, good Cajfio t 

lago. This is the fruit of whoring— ———Fray ,, 
Go know of Caffio where he fupt to night. 
What, do you (hake at that ? 

Bian. He fupt at my houfe, but I therefore (hake- 

lago. Oh, did he fo ? I charge you go with me. 

JEmiL Oh rie upon thee, (trumpet ! 

Bian. I am no (trumpet, but of life as honeft 
As you that thusabufe me. 

JEmil. As I ? fie upon thee I 

lago. Kind gentlemen, let's fee poor CaJJia dre(L 
Come, miftrefs, you mud tell's another tale. 
jEmi/ia % run you to the citadel, 
And tell my lord and lady what hathhapM.i 

Wili you go on afore r. This is the night, 

That either makes me, or foredoes me quite. 

[Extunt, lagofo/lowing* 
SC E N 2 

Moor a/Yenice, 349 


A Bed-chamber : Defdemona is dif covered 
aJJeep in her Bed. 

Enter Othello, with a. Light and a~ Sword. 
Oth." TT is the caufe, it is the caufe, my foul ; 

X u Let me not name it to you, you chaft 
Stars f 

" It is the caufe. Yet I'll not (hed her Blood, 

" Nor fear that whiter skin of hers than fnow, 
■? And fmooth as monumental alabafter : 

[Lays down the /word. 
M Yet fhe muft die ; elfe (he'll betray more men. 
«' ■ Put out the light, and then — Put out the light ?— 
11 If 1 quench thee, thou flaming minifter, 
*' I can again thy former light reftore, 
■' Should I repent : but once put out thy light, 
" Thou cunning'ft pattern of excelling nature, 
u I know not where is that Promethean heat, 
" That can thy light re-lumine. — [Sets down the taper* 
" When I have pluck'd thy rofe, 
" I cannot give it vital growth again ; 
" It needs rauft wither. — I'll fmell thee on the tree ? 

[Kijjing her* 
41 Oh balmy breath, that doft aJmoft perfwade 

" Juftice to break her fword ! One more; one 

more ; 
" Be thus when thou art dead, and I will kill thee, 

" And love thee after. One more, that's the lail ; 

So fweet, was ne'er fo fatal ! I muft weep, 

But they are cruel tears : this Sorrow's heav'nly ; 

It (hikes, where it doth love. She wakes . 

I Put cut the light,, and thin. Put out the light, ? ] So it 

mould be printed. The meaning is, I will put out the light, and 
then proceed to the execution of my purpofe. But the exprefiioa 
of putting out the light, bringing to mind the effects of the extinction 
of the light, of life,; he breaks ihort, and queftions himfelf about 
the effefts of this metaphorical extinction, introduced by a repeti* 
tion of hii firft words, as much as to fay, But hold, let me firft 
weigh th« r§ flexions which this expreflioa fo naturally excites. 


350 Othello, the 

Dtf. Who's there ? Othello? 

Oth. Ay, Defdemona. 

Def Will you come to bed, my Lord ? 

Oth. Have you pray'd to night, Defdemona f 

Def. Ay, my Lord. 

Oth. If you bethink your felf of any crime- 
Unreconcil'd as yet to heav'n and grace, 
Sollicit for it ftraight. 

Def. Alack, my Lord, 
What may you mean by That r 

Oth. Well, do it, and be brief; I will walk by. 
I would not kill thy unprepared fpirit, 
No, (heav'ns forefend !) I would not kill thy foul. 

Def Talk you of killing? 

Oth. Ay, I do. 

Def. Then heav'n have mercy on me f 

Oth. Amen, with all my heart. 

Def If you fay fo, I hope, you will not kill me. 

Oth. Hum. 

Def. And yet I fear you : for you're fatal then, 
When your eyes rowl fo. Why I mould fear, I know 

Since guilt I know not : yet, I feel, I fear. 

Oth. Think on thy fins. 

Def They're Loves I bear to you. 

Oth. Ay, and for That thou dy'ft. 

Def. That death's unnatural, that kills for loving. 
Alas, why gnaw you fo your nether lip ? 
Some bloody paflion (hakes your very frame y 
Thefe are portents : but yet I hope, I hope, 
They do not point on me. 

Oth. Peace, and be flill. 

Def. I will fo : what's the matter ? 

Oth. That handkerchief 
Which I fo lov'd, and gave thee, thou gav*ft Caff: 

Def. No, by my life and foul : fend for the man, 
And afk him. 

Oth. Sweet Soul, take heed, take heed of perjury ; 
Thou art on thy death-bed. 

Def Ay, but not yet to die.. 

Oth. Prefemly -,. 


Moor o/Venici, 351 

Therefore confefs thee freely of thy fin : 

For to deny each article with oath, 

Cannot remove, nor choak, the ftrong conception 

That I do groan withal. Thou art to die. 

Def. Oh, heav'n have mercy on me ! 

Oth. I fay, amen. 

Def And have you mercy too \ 1 never did 

Offend you in my life ; never lov'd CaJJio, 
But with fuch general warranty of heav'n, 
As I might love. I never gave him token. 

Oth. By heav'n, I faw my handkerchief in's hand. 
Oh perjur'd woman ! tliou doft (lone my heart ; 
And mak'ft me call, what I intend to do, 
A murther, which I thought a facrifice. 
I faw the handkerchief. 

Def He found it then ; 
I never gave it him ; fend for him hither, 
Let him confefs a truth. 

Oth. He hath confeil. 

Def. What, my lord ? 

Oth. That he hath us'd thee ■ 

Def. How ? unlawfully ? 

Oth. Ay. 

Def. He will not fay fo. 

Oth. No, his mouth is ftopp'd ; 
Honeft lago hath ta'en order for't. 

Def. My fear interprets then What, is he dead ? 

Oth. Had all his hairs been lives, my great revenge 
Had ftomach for them all. 

Def. Alas, he is betray 'd, and I undone. 

Oth. Out, (trumpet ! weep'ft thou for him to my 
face ? 

Def. Oh banifh me, my Lord, but kill me not. 

Oth. Down, (trumpet. 

Def. Kill me to morrow, let me live to night. 

Oth. Nay, if you ftrive— 

Def. But half an hour. 

Oth. Being done, there is no paufe. 

Def But while I fay one prayer. 

Oth. It is too late. [He f mothers her, 


352 Othello, the 


Emilia, at the doer. 
JEmiL My lord, my lord ! what hoa ! my lord, 

my lord ; 
Oth, What noife is this ? not dead ? not yet quite 
I that am cruel, am yet merciful ; 
I would not have thee linger in thy pain. 
So, fo. 

JEmiL 'within.'] What hoa ! my Lord, my Lord f 

Oth. Who's there' ? 

jEmiL Oh, my good Lord, I would fpeak a word 

with you. 
Oth. " Yes, 'tis JEmilia—hy and by— fhe's dead. 
*' 'Tis like, (he comes to fpeak of CaJJtoh death ; 
" The noife was high. — Ha, no more moving? 
•« Still as the Grave. Shall (he come in ? were't good ? 

«« I think, (he ftirs again— No what's the beft ? 

•* If (lie come in, (he'll, fure, fpeak to my wife j 

•« My wife ! my wife ! what wife ? I have no wife. 

«« Oh infupportable ! oh heavy hour ! 

" Methinks, it (hould be now a huge eclipfe 

«« Of Sun, and Moon, and that th* affrighted globe 

«« * Should yawn at alteration 

JEmiL I befeech you, 
That I may fpeak with you. Oh, good my lord— 

Oth. I had forgot thee ; oh, come in, jEmitia. 
Soft, by and by, let me the curtains draw. 
Where art thou ? what's the matter with thee now ? 

{Unlocks the door. 
Enter Emilia. 
JBmil.'Oh, my good lord, yonder's foul murtherv 

Oth. What ? now? 
jEmil. But now, my Lord. 
Oth. It is the very error of the Moon ; . 
She comes more near the Earth than (he was. wont, 
And makes men mad. 
a Should y«wn (ft alttratien.] Tawp, for gape, 

Moor o/Venicl 353 

JEmiU Cafiio, my lord, hath kill'd 
A young Venetian, call'd Rodorigo. 

6th. RodorigokilVd ? and Caffto kill'd ? 

jEmil. No, C*^?* is not kill'd. 

Otb. Not C*^> kill'd ? then murther's out of tune, 
And fweet revenge grows harm. 

Def. Oh, falfely, falfely murther'd! — 

jEmil. Alas \ what cry is that ? 

Otb. That ? what ? 

JEmil. Out, and alas ! that was my lady's voice. 
Help ! help, hoa ! help ! oh lady, fpeak again i 
Sweet Defdemona I oh fweet miftrefs, ("peak. 

Def. A guiltlefs death I die. 

JEmiL Oh, who hath done this deed ? 

Def. No body, I my felf, farewel ; 
Commend me to my kind Lord ; oh, farewel. [Dies. 

Otb. Why, how mould the be murther'd ? 

JEmil. Alas ! who knows ? 

Otb. You heard her fay, herfelf,. it was not I. 

JEmil. She faid fo, I muft needs report the truth. 
Otb. She's like a lyar gone to burning hell ; 
•Twas I, that kill'd her. 

JEmil. Oh, the more Angel flie, and you the blacker 

Otb. She turn'd to folly, and fhe was a whore. 

JEmil. Thou dofl bely her, and thou art a Devil. 

Otb. She was falfe as water. 

uEmil. Thou art rafh as fire, to fay 
That fhe was falfe. Oh, (he was heav'nly true. 

Otb. CaJJio did top her ; afk thy hufband elfe. 
Oh, I were damn'd beneath all depth in hell, 
But that I did proceed upon juft grounds 
To this extremity. Thy hufband knew it all. 

jEmil. My hufband ! 

Otb. Thy hufband. 

uEmil. That fhe was falfe to wedlock ? 

Otb. Ay, with Caffto : had fhe been true, 
If heav'n would make me fuch another World, 
Of one entire and perfect Chryfolite> 
I'd not have fold her for it. 

JEmil. My hufband ! 



354 Othello, the 

Oth. Ay, 'twas he that told me firft : 
An honeft man he is, and hates the flime 
That (licks on filthy deeds. 

JEmil My hufband ! 

Oth. What needs this iteration, woman ? 
I Tay, thy hufband. 

JEmil. s Oh miftrefs \ villany has made mocks with love. 
My hufband fay, fhe was falfe ! 

Oth. He, woman ; 
I %, thy hufband ; do'ft underftand the word ? 
My friend, thy hufband, honeft, honeft logo. 

JEmil. If he fay fo, may his pernicious foul 
Rot half a grain a day ! he lyes to th' heart. 
She was too fond of her moil filthy bargain. 

Oft,. Hah! 

j&tniL Do thy worft : 
This deed of thine is no more worthy heav*n, 
Than thou waft worthy her. 

Otb. Peace, you were beft. 

JEmil. 4 Thou haft not half that power to do me 
As I have to be hurt : oh gull ! oh doft ! 

As ignorant as dirt ! thou'ft done a deed — 

I care not for thy fword, I'll make thee known, 
Though I loft twenty lives— Help ! help, hoa; help ! 
The Moor hath kill'd my miftrefs. Murther, murther ! 

Enter Montano, Gratiano, lago, and others. 
Man. What is the matter ? how now, General ? 
JEmil. Oh, are you come, lago ? you have done well, 
That men muft lay their murthers on your neck. 

3 Oh miftrefs ! villany &c] This fpeech and the following 
arc not in the firft Edition. Mr. Pop*. 

4 Thou haft not half that power to do me harm, 

As I have to be hurt : —J Ptwer for will : For will figni- 
fying both ability and inclination, and power figaifying ability, h« 
ufes power , for inclination. But the Oxford Editor, not under- 
standing his author's phrafeology any hetter when he had ended, 
than when he had begun with him, alters, As I have to be hurt, 
to, As I have to bear hurt ; which yet does not mend the matter, 
tad the poet here ufed power in the fenfe of ability. 


Moor ^/Venice, 355 

Gra. What is the matter ? 
jEmih Difprove this villain, if thou be'ft a man ; 
He fays, thou toldft him that his wife was falfe : 
I know, thou didft not ; thou'rt not fuch a villain. 
Speak, for my heart is full. 

lago. I told him what I thought ; and told no more, 
Than what he found himfelf was apt and true. 
JEmil. But did you ever tell him, me was falfe ? 
Iago, I did. 

jEmil. You told a lye ; an odious, damned, lye : 
Upon my foul, a lye ; a wicked lye. 
She falfe with CaJJio? did you fay, with CaJJio? 
Iago. With CafitQy miftrefs ; go to, charm your 

JEmil. I will not charm my tongue ; I'm bound to 
fpeak ; 
My miftrefs lies here murther'd in her bed. 
All. Oh heavens forefend ! 

uEmil. And your reports have fet the murther on. 
Oth. Nay, ftare not, matters ; it is true, indeed. 
Gra. 'Tis a ftrange truth. 
Mm. Oh monftrous acl \ 
jEmil. Villany f villany ! villany ! 
I think upon't— I think— I fmell't— Oh villany ! 
I thought fo then ; I'll kill my felf for grief ; — — 
Oh villany, villany ! 
Iago. What, are you mad ? I charge you, get you home. 
JEmil. Good gentlemen, let me have leave to fpeak; 
'Tis proper I obey him, but not now : 
Perchance, lago, I will ne'er go home. 

Oth. Oh ! oh ! oh ! [Othello falls on the bed, 

jEmil. Nay, lay thee down and roar : 
For thou haft kill'd the fweetcft Innocent, 
That e'er did lift up eye. 

Oth. Oh, (he was foul ! IRiJing. 

I fcarce did know you, Uncle ; there lies your Niece. 
Whofe breath, indeed, thefe hands have newly ftop'd ; 
I know, this a£t fhews horrible and grim. 

Gra. Poor Defdemona /I'm glad thy father s dead : 
Thy match was mortal to him ; and pure grief 
Shore his old thread in twain. Did he live now, 


356 Othello,/^ 

This fight would make him do a defp'rate turn ; 
Yea, curfe his better Angel from his fide, 
And fall to reprobation. 

Oth. 'Tis pitiful ; but yet Iago knows, 
That (he with CaJJio had the aft of ihame 
A thoufand times committed. CaJJio confeft it ; 
And fhe did gratify his amorous works, 
With that recognizance and pledge of love 
Which I firft gave her ; I faw it in his hand ; 
It was an handkerchief, an antique token 
My father gave my mother. 

jEmiL Oh heav'n! oh heav'nly Powers I 
Iago. Come, hold your peace. 
uEmil. 'Twill out, 'twill out— I, peace ! 
No, I will fpeak as liberal as the air ; 
Let heav'n, aud men, and devils, let them all, 
All, all cry ihame againft me, yet I'll fpeak. 
Iago. Be wife, and get you home. 
JEmil. I will not. [Iago of en to flab his <wift. 

Gra. Fie, your fword upon a woman ? 
JEmil. O thou dull Moor ! that handkerchief, thou 
fpeak' ft of> 
I found by fortune, and did give my husband ; 
For often, with a folemn earneftnefs, 
(More than, indeed, belong' d to fuch a trifle) 
He begg'd of me to fteal it. 
Iago. Villanous whore ! 
jEmil. She give it CaJJio ? alas, I found it, 
And I did giv't my husband. 
Iago. Filth, thou lieft. 

j3£mil. By heav'n, I do not ; I do not, gentlemen : 
Oh murd'rous coxcomb! what fhould fuch a fool 
Do with fo good a wife ? 

Iago breaks through and wounds his wife, theft 

runs out. 
Oth. s Are there no (tones in heav'n ? 
For what then ferves the thunder? precious villain f 


5 Are there no ft ones in heav'n, 

But what jirvs /or tbe thunder .?— ] What occafion for 


Moor of V e n ice. 357 

Gra. The woman falls ; fure he has kill'd his wife. 

Mmil. Ay, ay ; oh," lay me by my miftrefs' fide. 

Gra. He's gone, but his wife's kill'd. 

Mon. 'Tis a notorious villain ; take this weapon. 
Which I have here recover'd from the Moor : 
Come, guard the door without, let him not pafs, 
But kill him rather ; I'll after that fame villain, 
For 'tis a damned flave. [Exeunt Mon. WGra. 


Oth. " I am not valiant neither ; 
" But every puny whipfter gets my fword. 
" But why mould honour out-live honefty ? 
" Let it go all." 

JEmil. What did thy Song boad, lady ! 
Hark, can'ft thou hear me ? I will play the fwan, 
And die in mufick ; WilUw, Willow, Willow-— 
Moor, (he was chalt ; (he lov'd thee, cruel Moor ; 
So come my foul to blifs, as I fpeak true ; 
So fpeaking as I think, alas, I die. [vEmilia dits, 

Oth. I have another weapon in this chamber, 
It was a fword of Spain, 6 the Ehro's temper ; 
Oh, here it is : Uncle, I mull come forth. 

Gra. within.'] If thou attempt it, it will cofl thee 
dear ; 
Thou haft no weapon, and perforce muft fuffer. 

Oth. Look in upon me then, and fpeak with me. 
Or, naked as I am, I will aflault thee. 

others, when thofe would ferve his purpofe ? For he wanted a 
thunderbolt for logo. Without queftion, Sbaiefpear wrote, and 
pointed the lines thus, 

Are thtre no Jiones in bea-v^n ? 

For what thik serves the thunder f 
i. t. are there no bolts in heaven for this villain ? for what pur- 
pofe then ferves the thunder, that inftrument of its vengeance ? 

6 — - the Ebro's temper j] In the firft Edition it is, Jfebroke's 
temper. Thence corrupted, to he broth's. — Ebro's temper j the 
waters of that river of Spain, are particularly famous for temper- 
ing of fteel. The hneft arms in the world are the Catalonia*. 
filfeci. Mr. Pope, 


358 Othello, the 

Re-enter Gratiano. 

Gra. What is the matter ? 

Oth. Lo ! I have a weapon : 
A better never did itfelf fuftain 
Upon a foldier's thigh. I've feen the. day. 
That with this little arm, and this good fword, 
I've made my way through more impediments, 
Than twenty times your flop. But, oh vain boafl? 
Who can controul his fate ? 'tis not fo now. 
Be not afraid, tho' you do fee me weapon'd ; 
Here is my journey's end, here is my Butt, 
The very fea-mark of my utmoft fail. 
Do you go back difmay'd ? 'tis a loft fear : 
Man but a rum againft Othello % breaft, 
And he retires. Where mould Othello go ? 

jvj ow how doft thou look now ? oh ill-ftarr'd 

Wench ! 
Pale as thy fmock ! When we (hall meet at compt, 
This look of thine will hurl my foul from heav'n, 
And fiends will foatch at it. Cold, cold, my Gid, 
Ev'n like thy chaftity. O curfed flave ! 
Whip me, ye Devils, 
From the poffeffion of this heav'nly fight ; 
Blow me about in winds, road me in fulphur, 
Warn me in fteep-down gulfs of liquid fire— 
Oh Defdemona ! Defdemona I dead, dead! oh, oh ! 

Enter Lodovico, Caffio led in wounded, Montano, and 
Iago prifonersy with Officers. 

Lod. Where is this ram and moft unfortunate man ? 
Oth. That's he, that was Othello': here I am. 
Led. Where is that viper ? bring the villain forth. 
Oth. I look down tow'rds his feet ; but That's a 
If that thou beeft a Devil, I cannot kill thee. 

[Othello wounds Iago. 
lod. Wrench his fword from him. 
Iago. I bleed, Sir, but not kilPd. 
Oth. I am not forry, neither : I'd have thee live ; 
For, in my ienfe, 'tis happinefs to die. 


Moor (/Venice, 359 

Lod. Oh thou, Othello^ that waft once fo good, 
Fal'n in the pradice of a curfed flave, 
What (hall be faid to thee ? 

Oth. Why, any thing ; 
An honourable murth'rer, if you will : 
For nought I did in hate, but all in honour. 

Lod. This wretch hath part confeft: his villany : 
Did you and he confent in Cajfio's death ? 

Oth. Ay. 

Caf. Dear General, I never gave you Caufe. 

Oth. I do belie ve it, and I aflc your pardon : 
Will you, 1 pray, demand that demy-devil, 
Why he hath thus enfnar'd my foul and body ? 

logo. Demand me nothing ; what you know, yoa 
know ; 
From this time forth I never will fpeak word. 

Lod. What ? not to pray ? 

Gra. Torments will ope your lips. 

Oth. Well, thou doft bed. 

Lod. Sir, you (hall underftand what hath befal'n, 
Which, as I think, you know not ; here's a letter, 
Found in the pocket of the (lain Rodorigo, 
And here, another ; one of them imports 
The death of CaJJlo to be undertook 
By Rodorigo. 

Oth. Oh villain ! 

Caf Molt heathen ifh and moft grofs ! • 

Lod. Now, here's another difcontented paper. 
Found in his pocket too ; and this, it feems, 
Rodorigo meant t'have fent this damned villain ; 
But that, belike, lago in the interim 
Came in and fatisfy'd him. 

Oth. Oh thou pernicious caitiff! 
How came you, CaJJio, by that handkerchief 
That was my wife's ? 

Caf. 1 found it in my chamber ; 
And fre himfelf confeft it but even now, 
That there he dropt it for a fpecial purpofe, 
Which wrought to his defire. 
Oth. Oh fool, fool, fool J 



Othello, the 

Caf. There is, befides, in Rodorigo's letter, 
How he upbraids lago that he made him 
Brave me upon the watch ; whereon it came 
That I was caft ; and even now he fpake. 
After long feeming dead, lago hurt him, 
logo fet him on. 

Lod. You mud forfake this room, and go with us ; 
Your Pow'r and your Command is taken off, » 
And CaJJio rules in Cyprus* For this flave, 
If there be any cunning cruelty, 
That can torment him much, and hold him long, 
It (hall be hi3. You (hall clofe prifoner reft, 
'Till that the nature of your fault be known 
To the Venetian State. Come, bring him away. 

Oth. Soft you ; a word or two, before you go. 
•■ I've done the State fome fervice, and they know't ; 
" No more of that. I pray you, in your letters, 
" When you (hall thefe unlucky deeds relate, 
" Speak of me as I am : Nothing extenuate, 
** Nor fet down aught in malice. Then muft you 

" Of one that lov'd not wifely, but too well ; 
■' Of one, not eafily jealous : but being wrought, 
" Perplex'd in the extream ; of one, whofe hand, 
" 7 Like the bafe Judian threw a pearl away 
" Richer than all his tribe ; of one whofe eyes, 
u Albeit unufed to the melting mood, 
*' Drop tears as faft as the Arabian trees 

7 Like the bafe Indian threw a pearl away] The elder Quar- 
to reads judian, and this is certainly right. And by the Ju- 
dian is meant Herod, whofe ufage to Marianne is fo appofite to 
the fpeaker's cafe that a more proper inftance could not be thought 
of. Befides, he was the fubje£r. of Tragedy at that time, as ap- 
pears from the words in Hamlet, where an ill player is defcribed. 
■ i ■ . ■ ■ — — • t» Out -herod Herod. 

The metaphorical term of a pearl, for a fine woman, is fo com- 
mon as fcarceto need examples, In Troilut and CreJJida, a lover 
fays of his miftrefs. 

There Jhe lies a fearl. i 

And again, 

Why jhe is a pxarl, whofe price, &c. 


Moor of Venice. jtfi 

•* Their medicinal gum. Set you down this : 

u And fay befides, that in Aleppo once, 

** Where a malignant and a turban 'd Turk 

" Beat a Venetian, and traducM the State, 

** I took by the throat the circumcifed dog, 

" And fmote him thus." [S tabs himf elf . 

Lod. O bloody period ! 

Gra. All, that is fpoke, is marr'd. 

Oth. I kilt thee, ere I kill'd thee. No way but 

this, \To Defdemona. 

Killing myfelf, to die upon a kifs. [dies. 

Caf. This did I fear, but thought he had no weapon, 
For he was great of heart. 

Lod. Oh Spartan dog ! [To Iago. 

More fell than angutfh, hunger, or the fea ? 
Look on the tragick loading of this bed ; 

This is thy work ; the object poifons fight, 

Let it be hid. Gratiaho, keep the houfe, 
And feize upon the fortunes of the Moor, 
For they fucceed to you. 8 To you, lord Governor, 


To you, lord Governor, 

Remains tbecenfureofthis hellijh villain :] Rymer,v,'ho had neither 
vigour of imagination to make a poet, or ftren;,th of judgment to maks 
a critic, as appears from his Edgar and his Remarks en Shakefpear, 
had yet juft enough of both to play the buffoon and caviller. His 
criticifms on the Poets of the loft age, with only a mixture of trite 
remarks, tranferibed from the French commentators on Ariftotle, are 
one continued heap of ignorance and infolence. Almoft the only re- 
mark on Shakefpear, which, I think, deferves an aafwer, is upon 
Iago^s character, which he thus cenfures. To entertain the audience 
(fays he) ivitb fometbing nciu andfurbrizing, again/} common fenfe and 
nature, he ivould pafs upon us a clofe, diffembllng, fu'fe, ungrateful 
Rafcal in/read of an open-hearted, frank, plain-dealing foldier, a cha- 
racter e'onflantly ivorn by them for fame thoufands of years in the wirld. 
This hath the appearance of fenfe, being founded on that rule of 
Nature and Ariftrtle, that each character mould have manners con- 
venient to the age, fex, and condition. 

Mtatis lujufque nctandi font tibi mores, Sec. 
fays Horace. But how has our critic applied it ? According to thij 
rule it is confefTed, that a foldier fhculd be brave, generous, and a 
man. of honour. This is to be his dramatic character. But either 
me or more ot any order may be brought in. If only one, then the 
character o:" the order takes its denomination from the manners of 
that one. Had therefore the only foldier In this play been luge, the 
Vol, VIII. R rui« 

361 Othello, the Moor of Venice. 

Remains the cenfure of this hellifh villain: 

The time, the place, the torture, oh ! inforce it. 

My felf will flraight aboard ; and to the State 

This heavy acl, with heavy heart, relate. [Exeunt. 

rule had been tranfgreffed, and Rymer's cenfure well founded. For 
then this eternal inllain muft have given the character of the foldieryj 
•which had been unjuft and unnatural. Bat if a number of the fame 
order be reprefented, then the character of the order is taken from 
the manners of the majority ; and this according to nature and com- 
mon fenfe. Now in this play there are many of the order of the fol- 
diery, and all, excepting Iago, reprefented as open, generous, and 
brave. From thefe, the foldier's character is to be taken ; and not 
from Iago, who is brought as an exception to it, unlefs it be unna- 
tural to fuppofe there could be an exception : or that a villain ever 
insinuated himfelf into that corps. And thus Sbakeffear Hands clear 
©f this impertinent criticifm. 



O F T H E 

Characters, Sentiments, Similies, 
Speeches and Defcriptions 

I N 


R 2 



O F 

Historical Persons. 

AR tbur, a hope- 
ful young 
Prince, unfortu 
Alcibiades, banimed 
for interceding for 
his Friend. 
■— vifits Timon with 
two Miffes. 

— exhorted to Cru 
elty by him, and 
the Women to 

— conquers Athens. 
Antony, Mark, his 

Conference with 

Brutus after Ce 

far was mur 

—•his Reflections on 

it, when alone. 
•— fpeaks C&fars 

Funeral or tion. 
•— - his Eloquence 



K. John. 


Julius Cafar 

R 3 















Antony, Mark,\iisV?L 
lour degenerates 
into Fondnefs for 

—refolves to leave 

— his former Bra' 
very defcrib'd by 
O flavins Ctefar. 

— Pompefs Wifh 
that he may live 
on in love and 

i— quarrels with Oc- 
tavius, which ends 
in aMarriage with 

•—his Genius infe 

—complains of Oc- 
tavlns's ill treat- 
ment to Oflavia. 

■—beaten at Aflium, 
and defpairs after 

• — fends to O flavins 
to treat, and is re 

■ — grows jealous of 

—beats C<tfar, b} 
Land, and meett 
theQueen in Rap- 

-his Fleet revolting, 
he quarrels again 
with Cleopatra. 

— being told me \i 
dead, he falls on 
his Sword. 

N D E X. 

Play. (Vol Page. Perfon. 

Ant, and Cle'op. 

S 9 

1 10 



Sooth. Jut, 


J 53 

! 54 





N D E 



Vol Page. 


Antony t Mark carried 

to Cleopatra, he 

dies in her Arms. 




— Oclavius and his 


Generals lament 

and praife him. 


—and Cleopatra. 


/jjax, his Character. 

Tro. and CreJ. 




TT> £<z«^,herBeau- 
JLJ ty and Virtue, 

K. John. 




Burgundy, Duke of, 


a falfe Ally. 

i Henry 6. 

4, 43i 

Beauford, Cardinal. 

<vid. Winchefter, 

Buckingham, Duke 

of, treacherous, 


Richard 3. 


—in Henry 8th's 

Reign, raih, cho- 


Henry 8 . 


—his Character gi- 

ven by Henry 8 . 


— Condemn'd. 

33 2 

Bullcn, Anne, her 


33 1 


■ — item. 








z Gent 

Brutus, referv'dand 


Julius Ctefar. 



— fpirited up by 

Cajfius againftC^- 

—of great Authority 
with the People. 




— his felf-debate.up- 



R 4 


I N ' D 


E X. 

Brutus opens him- 

felf freely to the 

Confpirators. \Julius Ca?far 
—declares forfave- 

ing Antony. 
1 — importun'd by his 

Wife Porcia. 
—his Speech to the 

People, tojuftify 

C<efar ?Murcher. 
•—ouarrels with 


— relates the Death 
of Porcia. 

—takes his laft fare- 

wel of CaJJius. 
■ i refolves to die. 

?nd kills himfelf 

— praisM by Antony. 

Banquo, his Charac- 
ter (for the reft, 
*vid. Macbeth. 

ther paffion 

ately fond. 
Cade, J&hn, a bold 

crafty Rebel. 
Clifford, bold and 

C&far, Julius. 
Catharine,Queen to 

Henry 8. 
- — pitied by Anne 

—her Speech to the 

JCiijg before her 



K. John. 

2 Henry 6. 

3 Henry 6. 
Richard 3. 

Henry 8. 




2 5 
























I N D E X. 

' Play. 
Henry 8. 


Catharine, 'prais'd 
by the King. 

—recommends her 
Daughter and 
Servants to him. 

Cromwell, Thomas. 

Cranmers Charac- 
ter by Gardiner 

— by Cromwell. 
—by the King. 

— his Speech over 

CoriolanuSy brave, 

proud, a Con 


pulace. Coriolanits. 

—chides hisSoldiers 

when repuls'd. 
—his Character, 
—his Entry into 

Rome after a Vic- 
— hisAclions fumm'd 

up by Ccminius. 
— reprov'd by the 

Tribunes, he rails 

at the Populace. 
— banifh'd. 
•— applies to, and is 

kindly received 

by, Aujidius. 
— not to be diverted 

by his Friends 

from invading 

—yields to his Mo- 
ther's Intreaties. 

— flain by the Envy 
and Treachery of 



3 8 5 





3 Genu 









Bru. Me/. 


Cafar, Julius, fuf- 
picious of Caf- 

- refufeth 

N D 


E X. 


Crown that was 

*— addicted toSuper 

ftition, andlo\''d 

— * — - difluaded by 

Calphurnia from 

going to the Se 

— his Contempt of 


— firm againft thofe 
who wrong him. 

— Affaffinated 

— his Ghoft appears 

to Brutus. 
CaJJius confers with 


—his Character. 

— refolves to kill 
hi m fe 1 f, i f Ca/a r 
is made King. 

—his Quarrel with 

■ — ill Omens ftagger 
him, tho' an Epi 

— prefages he mould 
die on his Birth- 

_killshim r elf. 

mtmrnM and 
prais'd by fiiinius, 
Mejfala and Bru\ 
tus. \ 

jfulius C&far. 




1 2 C*/. 


i. 2 

Cafe. Dee, 







7 6 







N D E 


1 Play. ,VoI Page. 

1 Perfon 

Cafcas Charafter. ljulius C*far.\ 7 



Cleopatra, the Po wei 
of her Beauty 
over Antony. 

'Antony and C 
Cleopatra. C 

9 C 

) Ant, 

•—her Character oi 

Antony when he 

had left her. 


— her failing down 

the Cydnus de- 


i 1 / 

[for the reft via*. 


—her Lamentation 

over the deadBo- 

dy of Antony. 


— refolves to die. 


— -vifited by Ofta- 



— affronted by her 

Treafurer Seleu- 



— kills herfelf with 




\J Duncan,King 

1 Henry 4. 




of Scot land, mur- 

ther'd,«wV. Mac- 



XT' Divard the 
jy Black Prince 

Richard 2. 

z 7 

Eleanor, Wife c. 

Duke Hump/i/£,, 

ambitio iS, and 

given to Super-i 


2 Henry 6, 



—walks in Procef- 



fion for Penance, 

Ed-ward 4th amo 
rous, brave, fuc 

-—his two Sons. 

— murther'd. 

Edward?. of Wales 
Son to Henry 6. 

(^ Elizabeth y pro- 
phetically de 
fcrib'd by Cr*n- 

^-complimented by 
the Title of the 
Veftal Queen. 

Enobarbus, a brave 
Roman Captain. 

— dies with grief for 
deferring Antony. 


and enterprizing. 
Fufoia' > s Death and 

— defcrkVd 
by Hot/pur. 

Gloucejler, Hum- 
phrey D. of, 
gives up his white 

— fees hisDutchefs 
Procefiion for Pe« 

— Accus'd to the 




2 Hen. 6. 



3 Hen. 6. 
Richard 3. 


J 94 

Henry 8. 


Mid/. N. Dr. 



Ant. zn&Cleop. 



K. John. 


Ant. andCleop. 


9 6 

1 Hen, 4. 


J 34 

2 H<tn. 6. 


3 2 






N D E 


1 Play. 1 Vol Page. 


King by the] 

Queen and o-| 


z Hen. 6. 



— Arretted forHigh 

Treafon, he de- 

fends himfelf. 


. murthered by 




Gardiner, Bp. of 

.Winchefter, flat- 

tering and cruel. 

Hen. 8. 




TT ENRT 5th, 

X _L whilfl Prince 

Richard 2. 




— item. 

1 Hen, 4. 



Hot/pur. (vid Percy) 

Henry 5 th in Ar- 


! 55 


Henry 4th defcribM 

by Hot/pur. 


— his Son Pr. Hen- 

ry .^ 




2 H*«. 4. 


K. Hen 

Henry 5 th. 

Hf«. 5- 



p— - item. 

1 Hen. 6. 


Henry 6th, meek, 

religious, unfor- 


1, 2, 1>Hen. 6. 

Henry 8 th. <vid. Q^ 

Catharine, Anne 


JOHN, King, 

1 diflembling, cru- 

•J el, irrefolute; 



Joan, the Maid oi 


1 //<?«. 6. 





I N D 

Joan raifeth. Fiends, i Hen. 6. 
— taken Prifoner. 
— Condemn'd to be 

James I. Kingf, pro 

phetically defcri- 

bed by Cranmer. Hen. S. 
Julio Romano, hi 


E X. 


LEAR, King, 
choleric, fie 
kle, mad, mife 
Lepi Jus's Character 

by Antony. 
— by Pompey. 



Or timer. 

ret, Henry 6th's 
Queen, enrag'd 
with her own mi- 
feries, exults at 
More, Sir Thomas. 
Menenius Agrifipa, 
his Fable of the 
Belly and Limbs, 
c-his Character by 

—his Character of 

Macbeth:, his brave- 
ry in Battle, 
—hath his Great- 
ly nefs foretold byi 
Witches. ' J 

Wint. Tale. 

K. Lear. 

Julius Csefar 
Ant. and Cleop 

i Hen. 4. 

Richard 3 , 
Hen. 8. 























40 c 





% Gent. 





Macbeth, the con- 
flid of his Mind 
when he nrft in 
tended to kill the 

—his Temper de 
fcrib'd by his 

Macbeth, Lady, re 
folves on Mur- 
thering the King 
and encourages 

Macbeth iiaggers in 
his Refolution, 
and is confirm' d 
again by hisWife 

.—his foliloquy be 
fore he kills the 
King, and horror 

— meditates Ban- 
quets Death, and 

—Banquet's Ghoft 
appears to him 

j confults the 

Witches again. 

— his Character by 

— diilracied with 

— defpairs on hear- 
ing the Englijh 
advance againit 

—told of his Lady's 

— flain by Macduff* 

Play. IVol Page. I Perion. 











37 1 

N. Northum- 



land's grief 
for Hot/pur. 


ORpheus's Mu- 
— item. 

Ottavius , C&far , 
his interview with 
Brutus and Cajfius. 
\ioxxhzxzft.<v id. An- 
tony a&dC/eopatra. 

PErcy, Han 
— his Death. 
— Char after , by 

Lady Percy. 

Portia j a Roman 

Lady of an heroic 

Spirit, vid.Brutu s 


Richard the Se- 
cond, his ill 



— item. 

Richard I. his Cha- 

Richard III. ambi- 
tious, brave, dif- 
fembling, cruel, 

N D 


i Hen. 


Hen. 8. 

z Gent. Ver. 

Julius C&far 

i Hen. 4. 
2 Hen. 4. 

Richard 2. 

Hen. 4. 

K. John. 
*~ 3 Hen. 6 


Rich. 3. 

Vol] Page 











K. #**. 
K. #**. 

P. flar. 



K. ffcw. 




Richard III. his 

- Birth prodigious 

.—his Perfon and 

Manners defcrib'd 

by Q^ Margaret. 

— defcrib'd by his 

Mother, the D 

of York. 


S Jli/oury sDesith 
and Character 
Suffolk, proud,falfe 

— ■ his Death. 

N D 

3 Hen. 6. 

Richard 3 

E~ X. 
Vo\ Page. 


i Hen. 6. 
2 //*». 6. 

TAlbot, when 
Prifoner in 

— flain with hisSon 

Tirrel, James. 

Timon of Athens 
beggar'd by Flat 


—his laft entertain- 
ment for the Pa 

— retires and make- 
off humanity. 

Timon digging fci 
Roots, findsGolc 

— vifited by Alcihi- 
ades, excites hirr 
to cruelty, 

„ — pinch'd with 
hunger, his re- 
flections on the 

1 Hen. 6, 

Richard 3 



40 c 

& Hen. 



r al 




. 7 6 




I N D E X. 





Timon compares 

himfelf with Ape 





— hegivesGold and 

encouragement to 

the Thieves . 


— vifited by his ho- 

neft Steward. 


—by the Poet and 



— by the Senator* 

intreating him to 




—his Death and 




V ther of an he- 

roic Spirit. 



— inftrutts Coriola- 

nus to addrefs the 



— diverts him from 

deflroying Rome. 


Virgilias Chaftit) 

praifed by her 




IT 7 Inchefter , 
\y Cardinal 

Beaufort's Cha- 


I Hen. 6. 




—his Death. 

2 Hen. 6. 



Warnvick, brave but 


2, 3 Hen. 6. 

Wol/ey, Cardinal, his 


1 * 

N T) E 


j Play. |Vol Page. 


Character by No A 

3* 1 

folk, &cl 'Hen, 8. 


Wolfey, his Ppwer 

33 8 


over the King. 

— — upbraided by 


Queen Catharine. 

— his reflection on 

his fall. 

37 1 

^-hisDeath related, 

and mix'd Cha- 

3 8i 

Grif. Kath 


Y ORK, Arch- 
X bifhop of 

2 Hen. 4, 




2 ork, D. of, enter- 

prizing, valiant, 


2, 3 Hen, 6. 


. S E C T. II. 

I ND EX of Man- 

ners, PaiHons,and 

their external Ef- 


N. B. The Names of 

the jiclitious Per- 

fons to whom theje 

Characters are 

apply^dy are an- 

nexed in an Al- 

phabetical Index 

enfuing. Vide 

Ski. 3. 


A LLY, aper- 
£\. fidious one, 

in Burgundy. 

1 Hen. 6. 




Hen. 8. 





Ambition coverM 


•-jealous of a fuc 

cefsflil Friend. 
Ambitious Woman 

in Eleanor, 
Anger, in theDuke 

of Buckingham. 
•—its external Ef 

feds painted. 


Avarice andCruelty 

mid. Shy lock. Vol 

2. Mir of Fen. 


Blfhop, true to 
his Sovereign, 
—a Rebel, York, 
Boafters, the Dau 

phin, &c 
Boafter defcrib'd. 



*~an accomplifli'd 
one. vid. Bucking- 
bam, Hen. 8. 

Courtihip, Glou- 
cejier\ to Lad) 


Ant. and Chop 
2 Hen. 6, 
Hen. S. 


Richard 2, 
2 Hen. 4. 

Hen. 5. 
K. John. 

Richard 2. 
K. Lear. 

Richard 3 , 






7 1 










Courtfliip, honour- 
able, injoin'd by 
a Father. 

— defcrib'd. 

—a beautiful Scene 
betwixt Romeo and 

Councellor, an ho- 
neft one, vid. 

Child, the Duty it 
owes a Father, 

Country Squire m 

Chaftity fcanda- 
liz'd, beautifully 
painted in Hero. 

Xlhajlity, <vid. Vir- 

Courage in oldMen 


— different Notions 
of it in a Senator 
and a General. 

Care,in aMerchant 


DAughters un 
dutiful in Go- 
neril and Regan. 
Daughter, dutiful, 

in Cordelia. 
Defpair,in the Ago 
nies of Death. 
—of Pardon. 





Mid/. N. Dr. 

Rom. and Jul. 

Mid/. N. D 
M.W. of Wind 




Mer. of Ven. 
Ant. an&Cleop, 

K. Lear. 

2 Hen. 6. 
Wint. Tale. 

Henry 8. 

Vol Page. 



5 1 





Leon. Ant. 


1 Sen. Ale. 
Sal. So/. 




362' Wo/. 
h\ FEAR, 


N D E 



T^EAR, arIfin £ 
JP from an ex 


Vol Page. 


peeled Evil. 

2 Hen. 4. 



• iW/£. 

Father, an unnatu- 

ral, in York. 

Richard 2, 


Father's paflion or 

the ill Conduct of 
a Daughter. 

M.A. abt. Not 


{ 6^-- 

— Fondnefs for hi 


Wint. Tale. 


2 49 

£*<?. PoL 

Trench Quack's Ain 

in Dr. Caius. 




Ant. andCleop- 





y^Ravity afFea- 
\J. ed to be 

thought Wife. 

Mer. of Fen. 




Grief. . 

Richard 2. 




— its Nature tomul- 

tiply afflictions. 

3 1 


— beautifully de- 

fcribed in Cor- 


K. Lear. 




—at parting of Lo- 

vers, Q. Marg. 

and Suffolk. 

2 Hen. 6. 



^-aM other's for her 

Son murtner'd. 

3 Hen. 6. 



Grief, Wrought to 

Rage in Q^ Mar- 


Richard 3. 


— a Father's (an old 

General for his 

Sons and Daugh- 

?■ ter. 

Tit. Andro. 


247 ! 


—a virtuous Wife's 

wrong'd by her; 

Hufbarid. [Cymbel. 

259 j 




N D E 






Grief, a Hufband's 

on the murther 

of his Wife and 




3 6 4 


—a valiant Father's 

for the Death of 

a brave Son. 




O —item, 

Richard 2. 
Richard 3 . 




Hoftefs, Quickly. 

2 Hen. 4. 


Highway man, Gadf- 


1 Hen. 4. 

Horror, its outward 


Hen. 8. 




— -rais'd in the Cha- 

racters of Aaron, 

1 amor a, and Sa- 


Titus Andro. 



1" Unices, Country, 

1 Shallow and57- 

** lence. 

2 Hen. 4. 



2 Gent. Ver. 


Pro. ' 

Jealoufy, in Ford, 


the rife and 

growth of it cha- 

racter'd in Leon- 


Wint. Tale. 



Tro. and Cref. 



— in P oft humus. 


2 43 

— ~— the motives, 

growth, and fatal 

effecls of it admi- 

rably fhew'd in 




Joy, excefs pro- 

duced Tears. 







N D E 



Vol Page. 


Ingratitude, in Lu 


cullus, Lucius 





J 59 


T7"ING, of rafl 
JV ill Conduct 

Richard 2. 

Richard 2. 


—wife and valiant 

Henry 4. 

1 and 2 Hen. 4 

— weak, cholerick 

miferable, Lear. 



—meek, religious, 

unfortunate, in 

Henry 6. 

1, 2, 3 Hen. 6 


—amorous, brave, 

fuccefsful, in Ed 

nvard 4. 

3 Jfa*. 6. 


•—bold, crafty, cru- 

el, difTeinbling, 

in Richard 3. 

Richard 3. 

— brave, religious, 

fortunate, in 


Henry 7. 


T OVE,exprefs'd 

1 j by a Soldier. 

£/if#>7 5. 



K. jy w . 


3 #**. 6. 




— protefted by Rich- 

ard 3. 

Richard 3. 


—the firft Motions 

expreiVd by Hen- 

ry 8, ruid. Anne 


—by Miranda and 





—the CrofTes of it. - 

Mid/. N. Dr. 


^ iftr. 

— — « - Appointment 





I N D E 

Love, its nature. 
—Charm to enkin 

die it. 
—in the Queen of 

Fairies, beauti 

fully imagined, 
•—-given over. 
— changed to aver 

—commended and 

— froward and dif- 

— expells all other 

—its Original. 
— its feveral Offices 
— all other paflions 

loft in it. 
—st firft fight. 
— in Man and Wo 

man compar'd. 
— concealed, beau 

tifully painted. 
— in a young brave 

— conftancy in, pro 

i — quitted by a Sol- 
—its qualities. 
. impatient of 

^-impatient ofab 

—in a grave Mini 

Iter of ftate. 

Vol. VIII. 

Midf. N. Di 


2 Gent. Ver. 

Mer. of Ven. 
As you like it. 

Twelfth Night 

Tro. and Cref. 

Rom. and Jul. 











33 6 




3 2 9 









Val. Pra. 












46 Jul. 





M. Madnefs, 


N D E 



Vol Page. 



TiyCAdnefs, rea] 
i\X in Lear, 

counterfeit \nEd- 


K. Lear. 



Com. of Er. 




— feveral kinds of it. 

As you like it. 




Mother, lamenting 

her Sons. 

Richard 3. 




— item. 



Murtherer uiExton. 

Richard 2. 




VjEdantry, in Sir 
I Hugh E<vans.- 



— in Armado, Holo- 

f ernes, "Nathaniel. 

Love^sLab. loft. 


Princes, young and 

valiant, P. Henry 

and Lancajier. 

1 and zHen.^. 


Prophetefs, in Joan 

of Orleans, 

1 Hen. 6. 



Tro. and Cref. 




*Q AGE, arifmg 
X\l. from Grief 

*vid Northumber- 


— arifmg in a Fa- 

ther from the un- 

dutifulnefs of hij 


K. Lear. 


—in a Son for the 

murther of hi: 

Father, in Rich- 


3 Hen. 6. 



Rebel, crafty and 

timorous, Nor- 


1 and 2 Hen.^. 




N D E 







Rebel,crafty and *e- 

folute, Weftmor- 


i smdzHen. 4. 


—brave and indif- 

creet, Hotfpur. 

Revenge, implaca- 

S \^Ant. 


Mer. of Fen. 





OUperftition in 
^J Glendower. 

1 Hen. 4. 


Siller, tenderly af- 


fectionate. <vid. 



TTIllain, falfe, 
V crafty, bold, 

defcrib'd in Ed- 

K. Lear. 



—the murtherers of 

Richard 3 . 




Virtuous feverity of 







^TTIFE, la- 
W mentingher 

Richard 3 . 




—a good one, *vid. 

Catharine, Qaeen 

to Henry 8. 


—complaining of 

CI 9 I 

I Adr. 

the unkindnefs of 



c 196 

her Hufband. 

. the ill effe&s 

of her Jealoufy. 



—complaining of 

being f brfaken by. 




353 L. Macd. 

S 2 




N D E 




Page. Per 

Womankind, their 


2 Gent. Ver. 




— item. 

Me a/, tor Me a. 

34 6 



INDEX of fiaiti- 

ous Perfons, with 

the Characters af- 

crib'd to them. 



A R<vh'agtts 9 yid. 

j£"\. G aider ius. 

Anthonio, a cruel, 

falfe, ufurplng 




Angelo, a feverenevv 



Adriana, a peevifh 

jealous Wife. 

Com. of Errors 


Anthonio, a Friend. 

Mer. of Ven. 


Adam, a grateful old 


As you like it. 

Sir Andrew Ague- 

cheek, a foolifh 

Cowardly Knight 



Apsmantus, a Cynic. 



llAmardine. an 

JD Atheiftical 


Meaf. (or Me a. 



Benedick, Beatrice, 




Bellarius, fortitude 

in difgrace. 




f~*\Aliban, a Sa- 
V ^ vage Man. 






N D E X 

\ Play. IVol 

Pagc.l Perfon. 

Ceres, or the Coun- 






As you like it. 


■ — item. 



Clot en , Infolence 

and Folly. 



Claudius. ,Blood, In- 

ceft, and Ufurpa- 




Creffida, a Mifs. 

Tro* and Cref. 





r"\ Efdemona , 
1 3 Beauty and 

Innocence facri- 

ficed to Jealoufy. 

— Chara&er. 





— item 




— item 



— item 



— item 




3 2 9 






TT^ DmutidyVL crafty 
J~\j falfe, enter- 

prizing Villain. 

K. Lear. 


Egeus, a cruel, mo- 

rofe Father. 

Mid/. N. Dr. 



X7 refolves on an 

intrigue with Mrs. 




— his Billet Doux. 


—fettles an Aflign- 

ation with Mrs. 





Falftaff^ Sir John, 

hh Difccvery of 

it to Ford, dif- 

guis'd like Brook. M.fT.of Win 

Mrs. Ford. 

-furpriz'd and ef 

capes in a Bafket 
—his Account of 

his being thrown 

into the Thames. 
— another Ailigna- 

tion with Mrs. 

— makes a full rela- 
tion to Ford of 

his former Difap 

— meets with Mrs 

Ford, and is again 

— efcapes undifco- 

ver'd in the dif- 

guife of an old 


— his Soliloquy on 
this Occa£on. 

— a third Meeting 

fettled with Mrs. 

. — he relates to Ford 

his late difap- 


— he meets Mrs. 
Ford in Wind/or 

■ furpriz'd, and 

feiz'd byMt.Ford. 
— his courfe of Life! 
drfcrib'dbyP.ifo.'i He*. 4, 













9 c 





Falflaff concerts a; 

Robbery with P 

—his Horfe taken 

from him in the 

— infults the Prince 
to conceal his own 
-perfonates the 

King, to chide 

Prince Henry 

—the Tavern Bill 

found in hisPocket 

—his Rallery 

Bardolfs redNofe 
—his Quarrels with 

the Hoftefs. 
« — his Defcription oi 

his new - rais'd 

—his Defcription of 

— his Behaviour 

the Battle 

— wounds Percy af 

ter he was dead, 

and affumes the 

Merit of killing 

—he rails at hi 

Page, the Ptince 

and the Mercer 
—reprimanded by 

the Chief Juftice. 
— arretted by Mrs 

—pleads before the 

Chief Juftice 


I Hen. 4. 


2 Henry 4. 

Page. 1 Perfon; 







C 172 







Quickly, and bor 
rows moreMoney 2 Hen. 
—his Letter to the 

— treats Doll Tear- 

• — —revenges her 
Quarrel on Piflol. 
— furprizM with her 
by the Prince 
—inMs Soldiers be- 
fore Juflice Shal- 
—his Chara&er of 
the Juflice. 

■ takes Colcvilt 


—his Encomium on 

the Virtues of 


—his Character of 

Juflice Shallow 

and his Family. 

—receives News of 


— prefents himfelf 

to Henry 5. 
—reprimanded byl 
the King, and or-J 
der'd to theFleet 
—an Account of his 

Sicknefs. Hen. 

— of his Death. 
Fluellin, flout and 

Florizel, conflant in 


Wint. 'Tale. 







23 6 

24 8 


2 74 


*JlHS a 

Flavius, a frugal 

honeft Steward. 


G /^///^High- 

Gonver, a good Of- 

Gonzalo, an honefl 

Guiderius y 2Cf\&Ar<vi- 
viragus, native 
Royalty exerting 
itfelf in a low fa- 
vage Life. 



HE mi a, con- 
Hero, Innocence 

Hermione, wrong' d 

Hamlet, an accom- 



—his Soliloquy on 


riage with his 

— fee;: and converfe* 

with his Father's 

— addreffes himfelf 

to Ophelia as a 


N D E 






Rom. and Jul. 



1 Henry 4. 



Hen. 5. 





Midf. N. Dr. 




Wint. "tale. 




I! 5 




s s 

Ham lit, 


-Haifcfyt converfes 
witl\ Polonius. 

— witty 1 Rofincrantz 
Ziyi Guildenftern. 

— his Soliloquy a- 
bout his own De- 
lay to revenge his 

his Soliloquy 

whilft he medita- 
ted Self-murther, 
interrupted by 

— his Character by 

>■ his Advice to 
the Players about 
pronunciation and 

• profeffeth his 

Friendfhip to Ho 
ratio, with a De- 
teflation of Flat 

difcovers the 

King's Guilt by 
the Play. 

•—-banters the Mef- 
fengers the King 
and Queen fent 
to him. 

— debates with him- 
ielf whether he 
at his Prayers. 

■ - • -upbraids the 
Queen with her 
Guilt, when the 
Ghoft appears a 
gain to him. 




l S9 





i 7 6 


3 9 


1 N D E X. 

Hamlet, examin'd 
by the King, ban- 
ters him, and is 
order'd to go to 
Eng land 

k. blames his own 

— converfeth with 
the Grave-maker, 
and moralizeth on 
the Sculls. 

_ fights with Laer- 
tes in the Grave. 

—relates to Horatio 
the King's Order 
to have him put to 
death in England, 

—banters aFop who 
brought a Chal- 
lenge from Laer- 
/<?j,and accepts it 

_afks Laertes par- 
don before they 
fight for his for- 
mer Raflinefs. 

—kills Laertes, the 
King, and dies 

Horatio, a fine Cha 
rafter of Friend 

IRIS, or the 
Jun$ > the Blefling 

of Marriage. 
Ifabel, a Sifter ten- 
derly affectionate. 





MeaJ. forMea 



IQ 7 




2 33 




Don John, an envi 

ous melancholy 

Jaques, amelancho 

ly Satirical Cha 

Imogen, Diftrefs in a 

beautiful, inno 

cent Wife. 
Juliet, beautiful, 

conftant, and un- 

lago, a confummate 


K. . 
Katharine 3 i Shpew 


LAunce,2. Clown 
Lucie, a half 
witted Rake. 

Leonato, a brave old 
Man, and a ten- 
der Father. 

Lcsntes, extremely 

JL ovinia, beautiful, 
innocent, and 
greatly unfor- 

Laertes, the Duties 
of a Son and a 



ZrtfWtf ..beau- 
tiful' and in- 


Mo roc hi us (a Mcor) 

N D E 





M. A. alt. Not. 


As you like it. 



Rom. and Jul. 





z Gent. Ver. 




M. A. ah. Not. 


IVint. Tale. 


Tit. Andro. 











his Perfon and 

Mafoolio, a fantafli- 

cal Steward, 
Mtrcutio, quarrel- 


Met, of V& 
Rom. and Jul. 




n. 2 


younger Bro- 
ther neglected by 
the Eldef . 
Ophelia, Beauty and 
Innocence diftracl 
ed withCalamities . 
Othello, his Service 
of importance to 
the State own'd 
by Iago. 
—.owns himfelf ofi 
Royal E'eicent,! 
and Love the folej 
motive ofhis mar- 
rying Defdemona. 
— feiz'd and infult- 
ed by her Father. 
— accus'd by. him 
before the Duke, 
he relates the 
whole progrefs of 
his Amour. 
— defcrib'd by Iago, 
of^a temper eafy 
and credulous. 
— his meeting atCy- 
ptus with Defde- 

As you like it. 







2 53 







I P^y. 

Othello , lago begins! 
to work him up| 
to Jealoufy. Othello. 

—his Soliloquy af- 
ter it. 

— his Jealoufy con- 
firm'd,a beautiful 

— afks Defdemona 
for the Hand- 
kerchief, tells 
the virtues of 

— hisPaflion work'd 
up by lago till he 
falls in a trance. 

— liftens to Cafte's 
difcourfe with I- 

—wrought up to 
Fury, he refolves 
to murther Def- 
demona and Caf- 

-ttrikes Defdemona. 

— examines her and 

—kills Defdemotia 

— his bitter re 
morfe after. 

—he kills himfelf. 

P Of humus, fond 
and jealous. Cymbeline. 
Profpero, a Magi-j 

cian. VTempift, 

Protbeus, falfe to 
his Friend and! 
MiHrefs. 2 Gent. Vcr. 










33 1 

35 1 





I N D E X. 

Parolles, a lying 
cowardly Capt 

Pandarus, a He- 


All's w*//,&c. 

Tro. and Cref. 

QUUkly r z\ 
Bawd. ? 
C^ueen, ambition 
cruelty and falf- 


ROfalind, beau- 
tiful and 
Romeo, paffionately 
tender, and un- 
fortunate in 

i and 2 Hen.\. 





fr V0# 

like it. 

Sifoia, beauti 
ful and conllant 
Shjlcck, a 'jew, 
cruel and cove 


THurio, a rich 
fun pie Pre 
tender to Love. 
Titus Andronicus, a 
brave Soldier and 
unfortunate Fa- 
Tamora, <vid. Hor- 

Rom. dtidjui. 


2 Gent. Ver. 

Mer. cf Ven. 



2 Gent. Ver. 

Titus Andro. 



N D E 






Tkerfites, Envy and 


Tro. and CreJ 




Thoughts, or 



A Strology ridi- 
J\ cul'd. 

K. Lear. 



Actions to be car- 

ried on with Re- 


Hen. 8. 




Authority, the ill 

privileges of it. 

Meaf, ioxMea. 




Adveriity, the Ad- 


vantages of it. 

As you like it. 



Duke Sen, 

■ 1 Anifhment, (in 
,MJ Mowbray ba- 


Richard z. 




Banifhment, com- 


l 9 


Ballardy, defended 

K. Lear. 





#^>Ontent in r 
V_y private Life 

2 Hen. 6. 


8 3 


Crown, the pleafure 

of wearing one. | 

3 Henry 6. 




Richard ^. 


2 Vil. 

— item. 


K. Rich. 

Calumny, unavoid- 


Meaf. forMea. 

i j 

3 6 4 



Tim on. 


f 140 
C H 2 


Changes in friend- 

ihip and hate. 


I 460/ Cor. 



/ < 

N D E 


Play. Vol 



Confpiracy, dread- 

ful 'till executed, Julius C&far. 




Cowards die often. 



Conduct in War, 

fuperior to Acti- 

Tro. and Cref 



Chriftmas, how the 

time is reve- 






Courtfhip, advice 


r Laerl 

to young Ladies 



l\ow it mould be 






Cuckolds make 






T"\Ying Words, 
\J their force. 

Richard 2. 




Day, happy. 

K. John. ? 


3 6 7 

5 K. Phil 
\ Conft. 

Death invok'd. 



Doubt and Delay. 

Richard 3 . 



K. Rich. 

Dependents, not to 

be too much 


trufted by great 


Henry 8. s 



Duty exprefs'd with 

fimplicity accep- 


Mid/. N. Dr. 




Death, the terrors 

of it. 

Meaf. forMea. 



the defire of 

lov'd objects 

heightened by it. 





— a neceffary end, 

and mould not 


Julius Ctefar. 




Delights, violent, 


not lafting. 

Rom. and Jul. 





Drunkennefs, an 
unmanly vice. 

I N D 




Clipfes their 

E X. 

Vol Page. | 1 


1 Action, hew to 
be carried on 

Favourites of Prin 
ces, wretched. 

Friendfhip, none 
obferv'd in Love 

Fruition more Ian 
guid than expec- 


Friendihip ground- 
ed on Intereltj 
chang'd with] 

Fly, reflections on 
the killing one. 


GOOD to be 
drawn out 
of Evil. 

Great Men, their 
Favours uncer- 

Greatnefs, fubjeel 
to Cenfure. 

Gold, its power 
ver Man, 

• item. 


K. Lear. 

1 Hen. 4. 

Hen. 8. 

Mer. of Ven. 

Titus Andran. 

Hen. 5. 

Richard 3 . 
Mea/Sov Mea. 



1 1 1 




K. Hen. 


Sal. Gra. 

79 Ser. 






K. Hen. 




N D E 







Greatnefs meets 

with Contcmp' 

when it decline:. 

Tro. and Cref. 




Gold, its power. 





Rom. and Jul. 




Grief, immoderate, 






TTOnour, Man's 
X .JLgreateftTrea- 


Richard z. 




Holy War. 

I Hen. 4. 


K. Hen. 




— defcrib'd. 



— new-made, de- 


K. John. 




*— ought to be con- 

ferred on Merit 


Mer. of Ven. 




—due to perfona] 

Virtue, not to 


Jlk well, &c. 




——continued acts 

necefiary to pre- 

ferve its luflre. 

Tro. and Cref. 










.1 Innocence. 

K. Lear. 




z Hen. 6. 



K. Hen. 

Imagination, ftrong 

in Lovers, Poets, 

and Madmen. 

Midf. N. T>, 





THINGS, theii 
JJ\^ Right divine. 

Richard 2, 



K. Rich. 

— their Miferies. 

Hex. 5. 


K. Hen. 



N D E 






Kings, their Mife- 


Richard 3. 





Henry 8. 



Jting-killing, de- 


Wint. Tale. 





1 y —the Necef- 

1 Hen, 4. 




faries of it are 


K. Lear. 





rC. John. 




—the vicifikudes of 


Henry 8. 


37 1 


—moral refle&iom 

on the vanity of 


Meaf forMea 




■ ■ item. 

As you like it. 




Libels againft the 


Titus Andron 




Life, the fhortnefs 

and vanity of it. 





7VT AN - . 

LlL Marriage. 

K. Lear. 


K. Lear. 

I Hen. 6. 




Mercy in Gover- 

nors prais'd. 

Meaf. foT&lea 




Magiftrate, the Du- 

ty of one. 



Mufick, different 

effe&s of it. 

3 6 7 


Man's fuperiority 

over Woman. 

Com. of 'Errors 




Mediocrity, the 

happieft ftate. 

Mer. of Fen. 


9 1 





Mufick, finely 





Marriage, alters the 



temper of both 

Mind, not Drefs, a- 
dorns the Body. 

Melancholy, the pa- 
rent of Error. 

Man, the dignity of 
his Nature. 

I N D 

As you like it 
yulius Ceefar 

E X. 


OAths, illegal, 
not Obliga 

—to Princes, little 

valu'd by their 

Ornament, a fpeci- 

ous delufion. 
Opportunity, to be 

feiz'd on in all 



POwer, impo 
tence of hu 

Poetry, Hotjpurs 

contempt of it. 
Pardons of Popes ri 

Poetry, prevalent 

with Women. 
Power, abufe of it 
—the Theory of it 

rarely praclica 

Populace, factious 

and fickle. 

3 Hen. 6. 

Mer. of Ven. 
Julius Cafar 

Richard 2. 

I Hen. 4. 

K. John. 

zGent. oiVer 
Com. of Errors 

M. A. ah. Not. 




3 2 4 



























K. Henl 




K.. John. 






N D E . 


| Play. Vol Page. 

• Perfon. 

Providence direct 


I 232 

our Actions. 




Preferment, gain'c 

by Favour not 









TJ Eligion of 
XX. great ufe in 



2 Hen. 4, 









r~~ - item. 



OPcech, haughty, 
k^ difcommended 

1 Hen. 4. 


l 39 


Slander flicks long. 

Gom.oi Errors.' 3 



Speculation more 

eafy than prac- 


Mer. of Ten, 


9 1 


Seafon, necefTary 

to give every 

thing its perfec- 




Study, difprais'd. 

Love's Lab. loft. 



Solitude,jprefer'd to 

a Court Life. 

As you like it. 


Duke Sen. 

Satire not to de- 

fcend to particu- 

lar Perfons. 



Solitude, a fine De- 

fcription of it. 



2 55 


Slanders unavoida- 

* ble. 




'HT^Houghts, in- 

| effectual to 



moderate afflicti- 

Thought. * 

Travel, advantage 
of it. 

—a Father's advice 
to his Son before 


Virtue, to be 
employ'd for 
the Publick. 
— confpicuous, ex- 
pos' d to Envy. 
Virtue and Vices 
. chequer Man': 

Vitious perfons in 
fatuated by Hea- 


Richard 2. 
'Hen. 4. 


Vol Page. 


Meaf. for Mea 
As you like it, 

AlTs well, &c 

Ant. and Chop 

WORDS give 
eafetoGrief.foV&wtf 3, 

World, the Vanity 
and Diflblution 
of it. Tempejl. 

— beautifully paint- 
ed at large- As you like it 

Wives, the Duty 
they owe to their 
Hufbands. Wam.oftheShr 

•—advice how to] 

chufe. vTwelfthNight 





x 59 







1 Lord* 






I N D 



A Table of the moft 
considerable in 


BIfhop of Car- 
„ in De- 
fence of King Ri- 
chard. Richard z 
Henry the IV's to 

the Pr. before he 

dy'd. 2 Hen. 4. 

Henry the Vth's to 

the Chief Juftice. 
Canterbury's to ex 

cite Henry V. to 

begin a War. Henry 5- 
Henry Vth's to his 

—item to Wejimor- 

K. Johns to Hubert 

to kill Arthur. K. J<?/^. 
BaJlardstoK. John 
to fight the.Fr<?#fZ> 
y^Tz of Orleans to 

Burgundy y to for 

fake the K. of 

England's Inte- 

reft. J Jfr*. 6. 

Clifford to K. #«?- 

ry, to fur him up 

to Reverge. 3 Hen. 6. 

Q. Margat et to her 


£ X. 

Vol] Page. 



2 59 



43 J 



I N D 

| Play, 
diers, before the] 
Battle ofBofivortb. Richard 3 . 
Richardl Fsonthe 
fame Occafion. 


E X. 

BOlingbroke to 
Bujly on his 

Injuries receiv- 
Gaunt 's to King 

York's toBtlingbroke, 

on Rebellion. 
King Henry to his 

Wore eft er ■ s to //<?» 

r? JV 
Archbifhop otYorkh 

on the incon- 

ftancy of the Po 

Weftmor land's to the 

Archbifhop on 

taking Arms 
Lancafters, on the 

fame Subject, 
K Henry IV. 1 

. — item to Prince 

Henry when he 

had taken the 

K. Henry V. to Fa/- 

— to Cambridge. 

Scroop, and Gray, 

on their Confpi- 


Richard 2. 

1 Hen. 4. 

2rHen. 4, 








4 1 










2 7? 




N D E 





The Conftable's 

and Grandprees 

againft the Eng- 


Henry 5. 



King hears againft 


K. Lear. 



— abufe of Power. 


Baftard Faulcon- 

bridge againft the 


£. John. 



Talbot's to his Men 


1 Hen. 6. 



Suffolk's againft D. 


2 J5fc»; 6, 



King Henry's to Suf- 

folk, on D. Hum- 

phrey's Death. 


Q. Margaret's An- 



— to York when ta- 

ken Prifoner, and 

his Reply. 

3 j&«, 6. 


Edward and Cla- 

rence to Q. Mar- 



King Henry's to 

Gloucejler before 

he is kiiPd by 



QueenMargare t's tc 

Edward thelV's 

Queen, and the 

D. of York. 

Richard 3. 


Queen Catharine* 1 . 

to the two Car- 


#«?ry 8. 


Simon's to his falfc 






N D E 



Vol, Page. 


"U Jcbardthepe 

Jv. corid,to/>3 

land on h:s Arr 


Richard 2. 



King Lear ag-ii 

v.. Lftfr. 


* 33 

hi Daughters. 

i 55 

Suffolk, on his Ba- 

rrfh nent. 

2 /foz. 6. 



-Lady dnne again 


Richard the 



Richard 3. 

J 93 

Q^ Margaret's a- 

gainft him, &c. 


Timons on the A 



J 6 


—on Mankind. 


Coriolanus, on the 

People of Rome, 

who banifhed 






'¥7~ Richard in 
IV • Prifon, 

Richard 2. 



Prince Henry's on 

refolvingto leave 

his debauch'd 

way of life. 

I Zfr«. 4. 


Lord Bardolph's on 

fighting with fu- 

pericr Forces. 

2 i/*#. 4. 


Burgundy 's forPeace 

//*». c. 


The Citizens for a 

Marriage be- 

tween the /)««. 

fhin and Blanch 

T 2 





Agamemnon's, Ne- 
Jlor's, Ulyfes's, 
on Achilles s de- 



Vo' Pnge. 

Tro. and Cref.' 7 

HOtfpurs to 
the King a- 

bout delivering 

The Chief Juftice's 

Defence to King 

Henry V. 
Exeter 's, of the 

Deaths of 2V/£ 

and S*^#. 
Duke of 2V/Ps,ofa 

Richard's of the 

Duke of York 

Clarence's Dream of 

Norfolk's defcripti 

on of the inter 

view betwixt the 

K. of England 

and France. 
K. Henry Eighth's 

on his Divorce. 
Antigonus's Account 

of a Ghoft ap 

pearing to him. 

i Hen 4. 

2 Hen. 4. 

/&#. 5. 

3 #<://. 6. 

Richard 3. 
#«*. 8. 











Plar. 1' 

r /ol 




T) Ichard II. on! 

J\ the Vanity! 

of Power, and 

Mifcry of Kings.' 
—of the fame re- 

Richard 2. 



nouncing Great- 
nefs in Defpair. 


— at his renouncing 
the Crown. 


Lady Percy's to 

—to Northumber- 

i Henry 4. 

IJ 5 

King Henry Fourth 
on the viciiiitude 

2 Hen, 4. 

21 1 

of human Af- 



Prince Henrys De- 
fence of himfelf. 


King hears in the 

K. Lear. 


S 6 4 j 

— to Cordelia. 

—to her dying. 


Cor.ftance's to Salif- 

•——her Speeches 
on the lofsof Ar- 

K. John. 




Salijburys on tak- 
ing Arms againft 
his King. 

Suffolk's to Marga- 
ret in love with 


his Prifoner. 
Henry Sixth's on D. 
Humphrey's dif- 

1 Henry 6. 




2 , Hen. 6. 

T 3, 




Suffolk, and Queen 
Margaret, part 

Edward Fourth, on 
the Murther of 

D. of Buckingham's 
after Condemna- 

Qreen Catharine* s 
before her Di- 

Cardinal Wolfefs to 

Q^ Catharine's re 
commending her 
Daughter to the 

Helena's, on her 
Hufband's flying 
from her to the 

Hermione*^ Defence 
when impeached 
of Adultery. 

Mark Antonyms on 
Cafars Mur 

his Funeral O 

ration over the 


K Henry the 
, Fourth on 
Want of ileep. 
Prince Henry on 
the Troubles at- 

N D 


2 Hm. 6. 
Richard 3. 
Henry 8. 

E X. 

Vol Page 


Wint. Tale. 
Julius Ca>Jar 

2 Hen A. 






5 1 

2 7S 









Henry Fifth, 01 

the Miferies oi 

On new-made Ho 

nour, by the Baf- 

On felf-intereft, by 

the fame 
Duke of Work's 

on the furrender 

of Anjou to the 

—on his defign to 

feize the Throne 

for himfelf. 
Young Clifford on 

the Death of his 

King Henry % on the 


— after he loft the 

Battle, on his 

Queen going to 

Gloucejlers on his 

deformity and 

Warwick's dying 

Ri chard theThird's 

on his deformity 
lirreVs on the Mur 

ther of King 

Edward's two 

Richmond's the 

N D 

2 Hen. 4. 

E X. 

/ol Page. 

Hen. 5. 

K. John, 

2 Hen. 6. 

Hen. 6, 

Richard 3. 


z 57 

34 6 








l 7S 



1 N D EX. 

Night before a 

Richard the Third, 
in defpair. 

Cardinal Wolfeys 
on theViciiiitudes 
of life. 

Trofpero\ to theSpi- 

Angela's on tempta- 
tion to Lult, by 
a virtuous Beau- 

lacbimo** looking 
on Imogen a- 

Pofthumus's againft 

P-cmeo's over Juliet 
in the Vault. 

•The King's, def- 
pairing of Par- 
don for Inceii 
and Murther. 

N. B. The Speeches 
in Julius Cslar 
Anthony andJit 
opatra, Macbetl 
Hamlet and O 
the;lo, are chiefs 
placed under tht 
Titles of thej, 

Richard 3. 

Henry 8. 

Meaf. ioxMea. 

Rom. and Jul. 





37 1 







3 E C T. VI. 

INDEX of Dc- 
fcriptions, or I- 

I. Defcriptions of 


Bank, dowry. 

Dover Cliff. 

* E - 

England celebrated 
— difprais'd by the 

Conftable of 


— defcrib'd in it 

— only conquerec 
by inteftine Di- 

■ — its intereft in re- 
lation to France. 
its fituation. 

A Field after a Bat- 



Inchanted Iile. 


Midf. N. Dr. 

K. Lear. 

Richard 2. 

Henry 5. 
K.. John. 

3 Henry 6. 

Hen. 5. 

Richard 2. 


Vol] Page. 

T 5 


04 Oh 






Ed g . 









K Kent, 


N D E 


K 1 Play. IVol 



font. L Hen. 6. 










Nile, its flow de- 

Ant. zn&Cleop. 




Tarn, of theSh. 




The Severn. 
Salique Land. 

I Henry 4. 
/&». 5. 




Cant, q 


Trent, at Burton. 
Tower of London. 

1 Hen. 4. 
Richard 3. 





Vale, a dark and 
melancholy one 

■7V/»x Andron 




IT. Defcriptions of 

A Pothecary, his 
X\ Poverty and 
Shop defcrib'd. 

Rom. and y«/ 





JD A Bifhop in 

Bedlam Beggars. 

2 Zf«r. 4. 







r N" D £ x 

Beautiful Perfon pe- 
A Bailiff. 



— — their Incon- 

Courtier, an unfuc- 

cefsful one. 
Cheats, feveral forts. 
Conftables and 

Courtier, humo- 

roufly defcrib'd. 
Candidate for an 



fon. ^ 

A dying Penon b} 
Poifon, in King 

of old age, in 

Prifon, in Morti- 

—by ilrangling in 
D. Humphrey. 

■—in Agonies of 
Defpair, in Car 
dinal Beauford. 

Drunken Men. 

Dying of Grief. 



Death in a beauti 
ful face. 


2 Gent. Ver. 
Com .of Errors. 

Richard 2. 

2 Henry 4. 

Henry 8. 
Com. ol Error. 


As you like it. 

K. John. 

1 Hen. 6. 

2 Hen. 6. 

Alls veil, &c 
Rom. and Jul. 






S. Dro. 

1 ork. 


y 4! 

Z 49 


241 Ck. 
426 Cor. 






■5 1 




1 Lord. 




N D E 




Page, j Perfon. 

Death in a beautiful 





— item. 

Rom. and Jul 





rj Ngli/hmen in 
JC/ preference to 

the French. 

Hen. 5. 


33 2 

K. Jfor. 

— defcrib'd by the 


1 Ben. 6. 

39 1 

— -ridicul'd for fol- 

lowing French 


Henry 8. 



— for hard Drink- 




. 285 



A Foppifh Cour- 

I Hen. 4. 




Flatterers of great 


K. Lear. 





Midf. N. Dr. 



—item, Mob the 

Qaeen of. 

Rom. and Jul. 




Fairy- Mafquerade. 





Com. of Errors 



E. Ant, 


£~^ Ene ral 1 ead - 
VJC ir.g a viclo- 







TJf Y P ocrite - 

J, J. —item. 

Richard 3. 


2 1 1 G/«. 

z^S'Glo Buck 

— item. 

Rom. and Jul. 




i A juilice. 

Richard 2. 


27 K JI/cA. 

As you like it. 




A Jefier, 


N D E 






A Jefter. 






TV^ING, a good 
.8%^ one defcrib'd. 

Macbeth . 



Knights of the Gar 


i He?i. 6. 


43 6 



3 Hen. 6. 




King, a good. 


K. Hen. 


T Over,baninYd. 
1 j L overs, humo- 

Rom. and Jul. 




roufly defcrib'd. 



— parting. 





Lover, defcrib'd. 

As you like it. 


£ 2Q5 

Sil. & Clo. 

— item. 

2 Gent. Ver. 







— conftant. 



— banimed. 



—in Solitude. 



— defcrib'd. 

As you like it. 




Lovers parting. 

Tro. and CreJ. 



c 402 


~fl /[E SS EN GER, 

IVx with ill 


2 Hen. 4. 




— item. 

K. John. 




—with good News. 

2 Hen. 4. 



K. Hen. 

A Mad-man. 

K. Lear. 




A Miferable Mo- 

ther in Con- 


K. John. 



K. Phil. 

Edtvard the 


Richard 3. 





Mid/. N. Dr. 





I N D E 



A Nun. 


OLD Man op 
prefs'd with 

— vigorous from 

temperance in 

Old mail in the ex 

tremity of decay- 
Old Men fubjea to 


POft-Mefienger. ' 
— fee the fame 
Pedants, in Armadoj 
Holofernesy Na ' 




SOldier young, 
brave and un- 
Soldiers in Armour. 
Sea-faring Perfons 
in diilrefs. 



K. John. 
Midf. N. Dr. 



Gom.oi Errors. 


As you like it, 




2 Hen. 4. 


K. Lear. 




Rom. and Jul. 


Tro. and Cref. 


1 Hen. 4. 

K. Lear. 













2 33 


2 95 
l 59 



50 Kent>. 

o Mer~ 

409 Ulyf. 


1 ilFro, 
J Savage- 


Play. Vol 



Savage-man.— mid. 

Caliban. Temp eft. 


Swimmer. Julius C<efar. 


8 i 


— item. 

Temp eft. 





As you like itl 




bid. S 






/ T*Wins, their 
JL likeneis de- 

fcrib'd in the two 

Antifhrfis'% and 


Csm of£r. 


Talkative Cox- 


Mer. of Ven. 





Tro. and Cref. 


35 1 



TTlllain's look. 

K. John. 


S39 1 

i. John. 


-1TTITCH. <vid. 
VV Sycorax. 

Woman of a Sati- 

rical Wit. 





— item. 



Wife, a good one. 

Mer. of Ven. 



Woman's Man, 

Love 'sLab. loft 

2 34 


Witches and their 




Woman, a lewc 


Tro. and Cref. 





"XjTOung Gentle- 
1 man, an ac- 


2 Gent. Ver. 



— kern. 




I Gent. 



N D E 


| Play. [Vol 

Page.j Perfon 

Youth, a pert Pre- 

tender. Mer. of Ven. 2 


Younger Brother, 


kept without E- 



As you like it. 



Youth, a beautiful 


one defcrib'd. 

- 320 


Young Lady play- 

ing on the Lute, 

and fmging. 

Titus Andron. 




Youth, a pert one. 




—two of Royal 




III. Defcripticns of 



A N Army dif- 
XV banded. 

2 Hen. 4. 




— Embarking. 

Hen. ij. 



EngUjb new 


K. John. 







' 35 


Ambitious Lover. 

AWs well, &c. 




Art and Nature, 


vide Nature. 

Angling, Cleopa- 


Ant. and C leop 




TJ Eauty, vide 
J_3 Biillen, Anne 

— item. 

Temp eft. 




■ — neglected. 

2 Gent. Ver. 



— deicribed by Rc- 


Rom. and Jul. 




^">, the 


I N D E 


Play. iVol 



Ceremonial of 

one. Richard 2. 



Combat in the Lifts, 

its Ceremony. 


Coronation, the Ce- 

remonies of one. j 

Hen. 8. 



3 Gent, 


ipVEnial of Fa- 
Jt_Jr vours, 





Diamond Ring. 

Titus Andro. j 









Rom. and Jul. 





TTNtryofK. Ri- 
Jl/ chard and Bo- 




Packard 2. 





I Hen. 4. 

J 34 


Entry of Coriolanus 

into Rome after 

Coriol. 6 




Julius Ccefar. 7 



Earth, and its pro- 


Rom. and Jul. 8 1 y t 


\ Friar. 


TJAfhions, of I- 
J? taly, Sec. 

Richard 2. 



j Tork. 

Face of a Perfor 

near Death. 

Hen 8. 


383 ft*. 

— ill-favour'd. 



Friendship betvvix 


two young La 




Mid/. N. Dr. 



Mer. of Ven. 



Fortune, and he 


1 1 



6| i34P<?^. 


Family, ruinM by 


GRatitude in an 
Old Servant 
Gentle Temper. 


HOrfe, Ri- 
chard's rode 
by Bolingbroke. 

Hounds and Hunt- 
ing defcrib'd. 

Houfe-keeping, rio 

Hounds , Horfes , 


Horror in one bu 
ried alive. 

N D 


As you like it. 

E X. 




INfurrecTiion o 
the Populace. 
Interview of the 
Kings of England^ 
and France. 
Jefts and Jefler. 
Invention, a dull 

Jealoufy defcribM. 


its cure. 
Kingdom, oppreft 
by an Ufurper 

Richard 2. 

Mid/. N. Dr. 


Tit. Andro. 
Tro. and Cre/. 

Rom. and Jul 

Richard 2, 

Henry 8. 
Love's Lab .loft 




22 4 




The/ Hip. 

2 ^L 

4251 Tro. 
2 1 Jul. 








id. ScOth. 



I N D E 



LOVE, humour- 
— improves all oui 

Love, fantaftical, 

Life, a pleafant one 

in a wild fo 


MAfque, rural. 
— item. 

of one. 
Martlets' Nefts. 
Madnefs for grief 

and love, in O 


^VTAture, State 

Nature and Art. 


Lo-ve 'sLab.loJi 

As you like it. 



Midf. N. D. 

M.J. abt. Not. 
As you like it. 
Twelfth Night 


Wint. Tale. 



AK, large, 


PArting of Lc 

Ai you like it. 

Rom. and Jul 
Richard z. 







l 7 










30 Gon, 
296 Pol. Per. 

330 01. 


21 K.Rich. 








— item. 


—betwixt York and 

Play, a bad one de 

Piclure of a beauti- 
ful Woman. 

Pictures of Adonis, 
Venus, Io, Daph- 
ne, and Apollo. 






— item. 
Roies, Red and 
White, theBadges 
of two Parties. 


A Song {Weljb.) 
Signs of change in 

Sleep . 
A Stream beautif - 

ly defcrib'd. 
Sleep, found. 
Stag, in the Chafe. 
Sound Sleep. 
Storm at Sea. 

I Hen. 4. 
Richard 2. 
I Hen. 4. 
Julius Ceefar 
Richard 3. 

Mid/. N. Dr. 
Mer. of Ven. 


Julius Ca/ar 


Hen. 6. 

1 Hen. 4. 

2 Hen. 4. 

Rich. 3. 
Mid/ N. Dr. 

2 Gent. Ver. 
As you like it. 

Julius Cte/ar 




4 1 

x 35 












K. Hen. 

CI. andGl. 






£. Hen. 

3 Cit. 








Vol Page. 



rnpiME, the 
_£ feemir.g in- 

equality of its 


As you like it. 





"TTlfion, of good 
V Spirits. 

Henry 8 . 




4tls well, &C 




A Victory long dif- 






—and purfuitof the 







YTTAR, the 
W prognoflicks 

of it. 

Richard 2. 


4 1 


— preparation 


Henry 5. 



ill effefts of. 




2 Hen. 6. 



T. Cliff. 

A Wreck. 



\ A 



Com. of Er. 


■ 183 


— -defcrib'd by a 


Wint. Tale. 


White Hand. 



Wonder, proceed- 

ing from fudden 


3 2 7 

$Gent. &C. 

White Hand, 

Tro> and Cref 




IV. Defcriptions of 

Times and Sea- 


X fulandfickly. 

Uidf. N. Dr. 





I N D E 

— item. 

— item. 

— item 




— item 

— item 


A low'ring Morn 

■ — item. 

A pleafant Morn- 
«— — item. 
Evening, a fair one. 
— - item. 
Night, in a Camp 
— ftormy. 

- item. 



— a beautiful de- 
fcription of a 

— tempeftuous. 

*-. — item. 

Lo<vesl ab.loji 
h you hke 1 1 
Love's ab.hjl 
' Hen. 4. 
1 Hen. 6. 
Ujchatd 3. 

idf N. Dr. 
Tro. and CreJ 
Rom. and Jul. 
Richard 2. 

I Hen. 4. 
3 Hen. 6. 
Midf. N. Dr. 

Titus Andron. 
Rom. and Jul 
Titus Andron. 
Rom. and Jul. 
Richard 3 . 
K. John. 

K. Lear. 

K. John. 
2 Hen. 6. 

Midf. N. Dr. 

Mer. of Vcn. 

Julius Ctefar 







2 5 
f o8 











2 37 






Ben. Man, 

410 Melun. 


33 8 









! 3 

I 3 2b 

I Mur. 
Gent. Kent. 

Bo ling, 
I' apt. 



Lor. P or 






N D E 







Night, tempeftii- 

ous. Trc and T Zref. 





-.<?,- ind 


5 • 



H mlet 

'iam % 


I N DEXof fome 

Similies and Al- 



A Uthority,com- 
J\ pared to a 

Farmer's Dog. 

K. i^r. 




Anger, to a high 

mettled Horfe. 

/fcwv 8. *1 

c {Nor'. 

■—to boiling Wa- 






ibid. J 

id 7n. 

Ambition to the 

Dream of a Sha- 







A Doubtful Bat- 
../"V. tie, to a Swan 

fwimming againft 

a Stream. 

3 £fc*. 6. 




Morning and a 

itormy Sea. 


K. Hen. 

Beautiful Maid, tc 

a Siren. 

CW. of Err. 



S. Ant, 


^"""^Ourage, com 
\jl/ par'd to s 



Richard 2. 




—to a Captive fe 




. Motvbr 



N D E 






Contention to a 

Hone broke 


2 Hen 4 




Consideration, to an 


Hen 5. 



Catharine, Queen, 

to a Lilly. 

■enry 8 




Crowd, difperfed, 

to wild Geefe. 

Mid/ N Dr 


!I 5 


Courtfhip, the de- 

grees of it com- 

pared to Dances. 






T^\ Ifcmulation, 
1 3 to a Snake. 

2 Hen. 6. 





'Mj N gland, to an 
JC/ Eagle. Scot- 

land to a Wea- 


Hen. 5. 




Queen Elizabeth, 

to the Maiden 


Hen. 8. 





XT 1 a bad Son, to 

the clear Spring 

of a muddy 


Richard. 2. 



Favourites, to a 

new - trimm'd 

VelTel; and their 

Enviers to rave- 

nous Filhes. 

Hen. 8. 


lio Wo L 

— to Honey -fuckles 

excluding the 





ill Hero. 


j. Garden, 


N D E 







f* Arden, com- 
\JJ par'd to Go- 

vernment, in dil- 


Richard 2. 



Government, to 


Hen. £. 



Glory, to a circle 

in the Water. 

I Hen. 6. 



General, an Old, to 

a Winter Lion. 

2 Hen. 6. 





T "TEnry, Prince, 
XT. comparing 


himfelf to the 
Sun in Clouds. 

i Hen. 4. y 



Pr. Henry. 

■to rich Oar in 


a dark Soil. 


to Mars. 

Hen. 5. Prol. 


— - — to a Strawber- 

ry growing a- 


mong Weeds. 

Hen. 5. 



Heart, a penitent 

one, to a ripe 


Cor to I. 





"TNfurre&ion, to a 
J[ Storm 

2 Hen. 4. 



Pr. Hen. 

to Bees. 

2 Hen. 6. 




King James I. to a 


Hen. 3. 




TZ'ING Richard, 
J^ compar'd to 

a falling Star and 

the fetting Sun. 

Richard 2 . 


41 Salt/. 

King's return to his 


Vol. VIII. 



Country compar'd 
to aMother's meet 
ing her Child. 


LOve, compar'd 
to a canker in 

a Bud. 
—to April Weather 
—to a waxen image. 
Lover,to aCamelion, 
Love, compar'd to 

a Figure on Ice 
Lover fuccefsful, to 

a Conqueror, 
—his thoughts, to 

the inarticulate 

Joys of a Crowd 


Mind, in doubt 
compar'd to 
the Tide. 
Maids to Flies. 

1 N* D E 

Richard z 




Pportunity, to 
the Tide. 


PRomifes, to the 
Garden of A 


REbels, return 
ing to Allegi- 
ance, con.par'd 
to a Flood. 
Reafon returning 
to the Morning. 

2 Gent. Ver. 

Mer. of Ven, 

2 Hen. 4. 
Hen. 5. 

Jul. Cafiir. 

1 Hen. 6. 

K. John. 














5 8c 


7 C 







AT. tf/r*. 

Pro. Val 












N D 

Richard 2. 


SU N rifing in a 
cl ud> iky, to 
King Richard in 
Sun rifing after a 
Reftoraiion of a 
lawful King. 
Spies, to lim'd cwigs'? Hen. 6 

Soldiery to Dees. 


TReafon, com- 
Tears, to Dew on a 

7/7, Andron. 

i Hen. 4. 

lit. Andron, 


WOrcefier, E 
of, in Rebel 

lion, comparM to 

a Meteor. 
Warwick's Death 

to the fall of 

Wolfey, Cardinal, to 

a falling Angel 
Wanderer, to a drop 

of Water in the 

World, compar'd 

to a Stage. 
Widow, to aTurtle. 


Vol Page. 

Hen. 4. 

3 Hen. 6, 
Hen. 8. 

Com. cf Err. 

is you like it, 
Wint. Tale. 



of 2V* fight- 
__ '# ing, to a Li-I 
on among a herd 
of Neat. 13 Hen. 6. 



50 York, 

44 # Rich. 
6 , 2740^. 

4 1 67 Wor. 

* i L 

250 ht. 

64 AT. Hen. 



l 7S 



295 Jaques. 

5 j 1 16 Rich. 



The^obfolete and difficult Wo^ds in 
the Plays of 


Note, That when a Word is ufed hut once, or in a fenfe 
which is fingular ; the Volume and the Page are noted, 
drum* inhere the fame is to be found. 

And, When a Word is not properly Englilh, hut borrowed 
from a foreign Language, and not familiarised by Uf+ 
into our own ; the original word in fucb for sign Lan- 
guage is fet down. 

TO ABY, Vol. i. 125. to fuffer for, to pay deaf 
To ACCITE, to call, to fummon or fend for. 
Lat. Accire. 
To AFFEER, to confirm, to afcertain : A Law-term 
ufed in Court-Leets, and fignifying to confirm or fix, 
by Perfons properly chofen, theMul&s there impofed 
upon fuch as have committed faults arbitrarily pu- 
nifhabie, and which have no expreis penalty annexed 
to them by any Statute. FY. ^'ffeurer. 
To AFFIE, to affiance, to betroth ; alfo, to confide. 
U 3 To 

A Glossary. 

To AFFRONT, to front, or confront, or face. 

An AGLET, the Tag of a Lace, or of the Points for- 
merly ufed as Ornaments in drefs, and which (for 
the greater finery) were often cut in the lhape of lit- 
tle Images. Fr. Aiguillette. 

To AGNIZE, Vol. 8. ~66. to acknowledge, to avow, 
Lat. Agno:ceve. 

AGOOD, Vol. i. 209. Much, a great deal. 

An AIERY, the Neft of an Hawk, and fometimes 
the brood of Hawks belonging to a particular neft. 

ALDER, of all. ALDER-LIEFEST, deareft of all. 

An ANCIENT, an Enfign, or Standard-bearer 

ANTHROPOPHAGINIAN, Vol. 1. 292. a Man- 
eater. Gr. Avi mto^to:. 

An ANTRE, Vol. 8. 263. a Cave or Cavern. Fr. Au- 
tre. Lat. ntrum. 

To A PEACH, Vol. 3..21. to impeach. 

To APPEAL, to accufe. 

APPROOF, the fame a 3 proof. 

An AR^OSiE, a Ship; from Argo the fhip of the Ar- 
go auts. 

AROINT thee! avaunt ! ftand off! this word feems 
to come from the Latin Dii averruncent ! 


An ASSJNEGO, Vol 7. 356. an Afs-driver or Afs- 
keeper. Ital. Afinaio. 

ATE', theGoddefs of Mifchief. 

ATTAINTS, Vol. 4. 1 42-. the fame as Taints : ftains, 
blemifhes, any ftrokes or touches of infection either 
in a natural or moral fenfe. Fr. Att&intes. 

To ATTONE, to appeafe, to reconcile ; alfo, to be 
reconciled, to agree. 


BACCALARE, Vol. 2. 376, a felf- conceited pretend- 
ing Spark, An Italian word. 

To BAIT, a term in Falconry, when the Hawk fpreads 
and claps her wings. 

3ALDRICK, a Belt. Fr. Baudrier. 


A Glossary. 

BALE, Misfortune, Sorrow. 

BALK'D, Vol, 4. 89. Floated : from the Italian Verb 

BAN-DOGS, Vol. 5.20. Dogs kept in bands, tied up. 

To BANDY to canvafs, to drfpute, to quarrel, moit 
efpecially by retorting angry and provoking words : a 
metaphor taken from linking the balls at 1 ennis 
which is the primary fenfe of the word. Fr. Bander. 

BARBASON, the Name of a Devil or riend, Vol. 1. 


B*SE, Cbuntry-bafe,Vol. 7. 298. afport ufed amongft 
Country peop e called Prifon-bafe, in which fome 
puriue to take others Pr.foners. And therefore " I 
bid the bafe" Vol 1. 160. is by ufing the language 
of that fport to fay, " my bufmefs is to take pnio- 

BASE COURT, Vol. 4. 54. a back Yard. Vx.Bafft- 

BAVTA, it fufficeth, it is enough. An Italian ^ord. 

BATED, abated, funk. . . ."■» «. 

A BATLET, a flat piece of Wood, with which Waih- 
er -Worn en beat coarfe Linnen. 

To BATTEN, to feed, to pailure. 

B '• VEN, bruOi wood, faggot wood. 

BAWCOCK, a coaxing term : probably from the 
French as coque* 

BEARN^, Children. 

BEHESTS or HE>TS, Commands. 

ABERGOMA5K-DANCE, Vol. 1. 148. a Dance 
after the manner of the Peafants of Bergomaico a 
Country in Italy, belonging to the P enetians. AH the 
buffoons in Italy affeci to imitate the ridiculous jar- 
gon of that People, and from thence it became a 
Cuftom to mimick alio their manner of dancing. 

BESHREW ! an imprecation, as " befhrew my Heart J" 
ill betide my Heart I 

To BESMIRCH or SMIRCH, to befmear, to foul, to 

BESTR AUGHT, mad, diftraded. 

To BETEEM, Vol. 1. 8c. to yield, to deliver. Spen. 

A Glossary. 

A BEVER, that part of the Helmet, which lets down 
over the face, with a grate of iron bars before the 
eyes. Span. ' avera. 
To BEWRAY, to diftover, to reveal. 
? E ££NI ^N, a ^ggarly fcoundreJ Ital. Bt/bgncfa. 
A BiCtGEN a Cap or Coif of Linnen like thofe worn 
by Children with a itav under the Chin. lr Be?uin 
A BILBERRY, the fruit of a froall ihrub, of a°biue 

BILBO, " like a good Bilbo" Vol. i. 279. a fword- 
blade of Bilbo which will bend almolt round in a cir- 
n cle without breaking. 
BISSON or BEE^EN, blear-eyed. 
A BLANK, Vol. 6. 8. a white or mark to (hoot af. 

Fr. Blanc. 
To fi LENCH, to boggle or turn afide with fear. 
BLENT, the fame as blended, mingled. 
lb BOLT or BOULT, to fift as they do Meal thro' a 

To BOLTER, as BhoJ-lolter'd. Vol. 6. 351. to wet 

-, to wallow- Yv.Veaulher. Lat. Fclttiare. 
A BOMBARD or BUMBAilD, Vol. 1. 37. a Mortar 
piece, or great Gun. Fr. Lombards: but in other 
places, as Vol. 4. 131. attdVol.6.402. the word is 
ufed for a drinking veiTel : and there is frill in ufe in 
the Northern parts of England a kind of flagon with- 
out a Cover and of the fame bignefs from top to bot- 
tom which retains the name of a Gun. 
A BORNE, a limit or boundary. Fr. Borne. This 
hath b.-en falfely printed Bourn, which fignifes ano- 
ther thing, namely a brook or ftream of water. 
A BOW, Vol 2, 313. a Yoke. 

A BRACM. The Italian word Bracco, from which this 
is derived, is underftood to fignify any kind of Bea- 
gle, Hound or fettmg Dog : but Jo. Cains, in his 
book of Brit/h Dog?, fays that with us it molt pro- 
perly belongs to Bitches of the hunting kind, and in 
that Qnie ' bakefpear ufes it. 
To BRACK, Vol. 1 . 1 1 . to fait. It is ftill ufed as an 
adjective in Lincoln/hire and the northern Counties : 
and Brackijh is retained in ufe every \vh. 3 re. 


A Glossary. 

BRAID or BREID, Vol. 3. 69. bred, of a breed, oft 

certain turn of temper and conditions from the breed: 

a Scotch and North Country Word. 
A BRAKE, Vol. 1. no and 116. a thicket or cover. 
A BRIEF, Vol. 3. 39. any Procefs or Order iffuing 

from the King. 
BROACHED, Vol. 4. 369 fpitted, thruft through 

with a fpit. Fr. Brochee. 
A BROCH or BROOCH or BROWCH, an Ornament 

of Gold worn fometimes about the Neck, and fome- 

times about the Arm. 
A BROCK, Vol. 3. 1.36. a Badger. 
To BROOCH, Vol. 7. 183. to adorn. 
BROGUE^, the fhoes or pumps which are worn by the 

Irijb peafants. 
To BUDGE or BODGE, Vol. 5. in. to give way, 

to ftir, to quit a place. Fr. Bouger. 
A BURGONET, Vol. 5. 91 . a iieel Cap, worn for the 

defence of the Head in battle. Fr. Bourguinofte. 
BUSKY or BOSKY, Woody : from the old French 

word Bo/c, of which Bofquet now in ufe is a dimi- 


A CADE. Vol. 5. 67. A Cafk, Lat. Cadus : alfo 
when joined to the name of any beait it iignifies tame* 
brought up by hand. 

C \D1S. Vol. 3 300. a Galloon or binding made of 
Worfted: a French word. 

CALIVER, the diameter or bore of a Gun: thence 
fometimes the gun it ielf. Fr. Calibre. 

A CALLAT. This word hath two fignifications : fome- 
times a fcold and fometimes a lewd drab. 

A CANTLE, Vol. 4. 136. adivifion or fegment of 
land, nr other thing. Ital. Cantone. Fr. Canton. 

A CANZONET, Vol. 2. 205. a fong, a ditty. Ital. 
Canzonet? a. 

'CAPPOCHIA, Vol. 7. 390. a Fool. An Italian word. 

A CARRACK, Vol. 3. 208. a huge fnip of Burthen, 
ufed by the Spaniards and Portuguefe. Ital." Caracca. 

CARACTS, Vol. 1. 3S6. Characters. 

A CARKANET, a necklace. Fr. Carcan. 


A Glossary. 

A CARLE, a Clown, a Churl. 

CARR AT, the Weight which diftinguifhes the fineneft 
of Gold. Fr. Carat. 

A C .SK, Vol. 6. 252. an Helmet. Fr. Cafque. 

CAT A IAN Vol. 1. 243. Cataia is a Country on the 
North of China, which, in the time of Queen Eli- 
zabeth, was reported by the firft Voyagers thither 
to be rich in Gold Ore, and upon that encourage- 
ment many perfons were perfuaded to adventure 
great funis of Money in fitting out fhips thither, as 
for a moil: gainful trade ; but it proved to be a no- 
torious deceit and falihood : hence Cataian Hands 
for one of no credit. 

CATLINGS, Vol. 7. 394. fmall firings for mufical Irt- 
ftruments made of Cat-gut. 

CAUTEL, Vol. 8. 120. an ill defigning Craft in order 
to enfnare. So 

CAUTELOUS, Vol. 6. 455. Crafty, Cunning, De- 
ceitful. So is the French Cauteh:ux always uied in 
a bad fenfe, dangeroufly artificial. 

A CEARMENT, Vol. 8. 128. the wrapping of an en- 
balmed Body. Ital. Ceramento. 

A CENSER, Vol. 4. 275. A plate or dim, in which 
they burnt Incenfe. and at \i\e botiom of which was 
ufually reprefented in rude carving the figure of ibme 
Saint. Fr Encenfoir. 

CHARNECO, Vol. 5. 33. This feems to have been 
a cant- word for fome itrong liquor, which was apt 
to bring drunken Fellows to the Stocks, fmce in Spa- 
nifh Chamiegos is a term ufed for the Stocks. Beaum. 
and Fl. ufe the fame word in the Play, Wit 'without 

CHAWDRON, adiih of meat {till ufed in the northern 
parts of England, made of the Encrails of a Calf. 

A CHEVRIL, a Kid. Fr. Che-vreau. ' 

ACHEWET, Vol. 4. 164 a Pie or Magpie. Fr. 
Chouette or Cheuette. 

ACHIOPPINE, Vol.8. 156. a thick piece of cork, 
bound about with Tin or Silver, worn by the Women 


in Spain at the bottom of their fhoes to make them 

A C P H P OUGHor C&RNISrf CHOUGH, a bird which 
frequents the Rocks by the Sea-fide, moft like to a 
Jackdaw, but bigger. 

CINQUE-PACE, a grave dance, fo call d. *r, C/s- 

A CITAL, Vol. 4. 169. a Recital. 

To CLEPE, to call. , , 

COBLOAF, Vol. 7. 35 6 - a nufiiapen loaf of bread, 

run out in the baking into lumps and protuberances. 
COCKLE, a Weed in Corn. _ 
To COCKLE, tofhrink, to wrinkle up. 
A COCKNEY, one born and bred in the City, and 

ignorant of all things out of it. 
COIGNE or COIN, a Corner. Fr. Com. 
COIL, buftle, tumult. 
COLLIED, Vol. 1. 86. footy, black. 
To CON, to learn, to know, to underltand. 1 o con 

thanks means the fame as to give thanks, being to be 

reckon'd a particular phrafe, and indeed a Gracifm, 

To*CONVENT, Vol. 3. 177. to concur, tobefuita- 

ble. Lat. Con-venire. m 

To CONVINCE, to overcome, in which ienie the 

Latin woTd Convinco is ufed fometimes. 
To CONVIVE, to feaft together. Lat. Convivere. 
COPATAIN, Vol. 2. 420. high railed, pointed : from 

Coppt, the top or point of any thing. " 
To COPE, to encounter, Vol.8. 77. alio to inveft 

one's felf with, as with a Cope or Mantle. # 
A COROLLARY, Vol. 1. 54- an over-meafure in any 

thing, or a furplus thrown in. Fr. Ccrollaire. Lat. 

Corollarium. 1JT , , 

A HOSIER, Vol. 3.125. a Botcher: from the oid French 

Confer, to. few. 
To COUPvB, Vol. 8. 191. to bend. Fr. Lourber. 
To COWER, to fink or fqaat down. Ital. Covare. 

Fr. C ouver. _ • 

To CRASH, Vol. 8. 15. to be merry over : a Cram 

being a word iliil ufed in fome Countries for a merry 

bout. To 

A Glossary. 

To CRAVEN, Vol. 7. 261. to make recreant or cow- 

A CRESSET, Vol. 4. 134. a great light fet upon a 
beacon, light-houfe, or watch-tower: from the French 
word Croifette, a little Crofs, becaufe the beacons 
anciently had croffes on the top of them. 

CRISP, Vol. 6. 189. glittering or making things glit- 
ter, in which fenfe the verb crifpare in Latin is fome- 
times ufed. It alfo fignifies curled from the Latin 

A CROAN, an old toothlefs Sheep : thence an old 

CUISSES, Vol. 4. 155. Armour for the thighs. Fr. 

A CULLION, a Fool, a dull ftupid Cuddon. Ital. 
Cog Hone. 

A CUTTLE, Vol. 4. 217. in its proper fenfe is a Sea- 
fiih, which by throwing out a black juice like Ink 
fouls the Water and fo efcapes the Fifher. Hence 
by metaphor it is ufed to fignify a'foul-mouth'd fel- 

CURFEU, the eight o' clock bell. Fr. Cowvreftu. 


To DAFFE, to put by, to turn afide with flight and 

DANK, moiir, damp. 

To DARRAIGN, Vol. 5. 124. to range, or put in or- 
der. Fr, drranger. 

A DECK of Cards, the fame as a Pack. 

A DEEM, Vol. 7. 402. a fuppofition, a furmife. 

To DEFEND, Vol. 8. 267. to forbid. Fr. Defendre. 

DEFTLY, Nimbly, brifkly. DEFT, nimble, ready, 
neat, fpruce. 

To DERACINATE, to eradicate, to root up. Fr; 

DEWBERRIES, Vol. 1. 114. ftriftly and properly 
are the fruit of one of the fpecies of wild Bramble 
called the creeping, or the leffer Bramble : but as 
they ftand here among the more delicate fruits, they 


A Glossary. 

muft be - imderflood to mean Rafberries, which are 

alfo of the Bramble kind. 
A DIBBLE, an Inftrument, with which Gardeners 

make holes in the Earth. 
To DIET, to limit, to controul, to prefcnbe to. 
To DI^CANDY, to diffolve, to melt, to thaw. 
DISMES, Vol. 7. ^60. Tenths : a French word. 
To DISPERGE, Vol. 7. 172. To fprmkle, to fcatter. 

Lat. Difpergo. 
To DOFF, to put off. 
DRAFF, Vol. 4. 158. Warn for Hogs. 
To DRUMBLE, Vol 1. 270. to drone, to beiluggiUi. 

Ital. Dormijiare. 
DULCET, fweet. Lat. Dukis. 

To EAR, to plough or till. 

ELD, old times, alio, old age. # _ 

To ELFE, Vol. 6. 48. to iotaagle hair m fo intricate 

a manner that it is not to be unravell'd. This the 

vulgar have fuppofed to be the work of Fairies in 

the nights : and all hair fo matted together hath had 

the name of El fe locks. 
To EMBALL, Vol. 5. 344. to makeup into a pac*. 

Fr. Emlal'er. 
EMBOWELL'D, Vol. 3'. 22. Emptied. 
To EMMEW, Vol. 1. 352. to mew up, to coop up* 
An ENGLE, Vol. 2. 405. a Gull, a Put, a Bubble 1 

derived from the French word Enginery which figni- 

Mes to catch with bird-lime. 
ENGLUTTED, Vol. 4. 354- fallowed up. Fr. E*- 

plouti. 1 , 4 ;'■' 

To ENMESH, Vol. 8. 293. to entangle in theMefhes 

of a Net. 
To ENSEAR, to fear up, to make dry. 
To ENSCONCE, to cover as with a Fort, to fecure. 
ENSHIELD, Vol. 1. 345- Welded, protefted. 
ENSTEEPED, Vol. 8. 274. lying under water. 
To ENTAME, Vol. 2. 318. to tame, to Jubdue. 


A Glossary. 

ESCOTED, Vol. 8. i j 3. penfion'd : from the French 
Efcot, a Shot or Reckoning. 

EXIGENT, a Law-term, a Writ fued out when the 
Defendant is not to be found, being part of the Pro- 
cefs leading to an out-lawry. Shake/pear ufes it for 
any extremity. 

EXPEDIENT, the fame as expeditious. EXPEDI- 
ENCE, expedition. 

EXSUFFOLATE, Vol. 8. 303. whifper'd, buzz'din 
the Ears, from the Italian Verb Suffolare. 

An EYAS or EYESS, a young Hawk jufl taken from 
the Neil, not able to prey for itfelf. Fr. Niais : for 
Eyas -musket, fee MUSKET. 

An EYERY, an Hawk's Nell. 

To FADE, to difappear, to vanim. 
A FARROW, Vol. 6. 349. the litter of a Sow. 
FARSED or FARCED, ituff'd out. Fr. Farci. 
A FARTHEL or FARDEL, a bundle, a pack, a bur- 
then. Ital. Fardel to. 
FAVOUR, Vol. 6. 82. Countenance, Vifage. 
FELL/, fierce, cruel. 
A FELL, a skin or hide of a bead. Fell of hair, 

Vol. 6. 373. is the whole fcalp, upon which the 

hair grows. 
A FEODARY, Vol. 1. 346. One who holds hisEflate 

under the tenure of fuit and fervice to a fuperior 

FEWNESS, Vol. 1. 324. Rarity. 
A FITCHEW, Vol.6. 103. a Polcat. 
A FLAMEN, a Priefl ; a Latin word. 
FLAWS, fudden gufts of wind. See Vol. 4, 253. 
FLECKER'D, Vol. 8. 37. ipotted, fpeckled, flufh'd 

with red {pots. 
FLE W'D, Vol . 1 . 1 3 3 . FLEWS are the large chaps 

of a deep-mouth'd hound. 
To FLICKER, Vol. 6. 46. to finite. 
FLOURIETS, Vol. 1. 131. young bloffoms, young 

fpringing flowers. 


A Glossary. 

To FOIN, to pufh in fencing. 

To FOREDO, to undo, to overcome, to lay violent 
hands upon. 

To FOREFEND, to prevent, to forbid. 

To FORESLOW, to delay. 

FORTED, Vol. i. 385. fortified, fecure. 

FORTIN, Vol. 4. 1 16, A little Fort raifed to defend" 
a Camp, particularly in a fiege, where the prin- 
cipal quarters are joined by lines defended by Fortins 
and Redoubts : A French word. 

A FOSSET or FAUCET, a tap or peg of a barrel. 
Fr. Faujfette. 

FOYSON or FOIZON, Plenty, efpecially of fruits of 
the eareh. Fr. Foifon. 

FRANK'D UP, Vol. 5. 211. (hut up in a Frank, 
which is a Sty for feeding a Boar. 

A FRANKLIN, a Country Freeholder. 

To FRUSH, Vol. 7. 434. to break, bruife, or crufli. 
Fr. Froijfer. 

FULHAMS, Vol. 1. 233. a Cant- word for falfe Dice 
both high and low, taken probably from the name of 
the firft Inventor or Place where they were nru made. 
The word is ufed, and hath the fame ienfe in Hudi- 
hras, Part 2. Cant. 1. v. 642. And in Don Quixote 
fol. ed. 1687. translated by Philips, Part. 2d, Book 
3d, chap. 16. I am no Paumer, no higb-and-lonv- 
kulham-man. See alfo North's Examen, p. 108. 

A GABARDINE, the coarfe frock of a Ihepherd or 

nfherman or any Peafant : thence aifo any loofe Caf- 

fock. Ital. Ca<vardina. 
GAIN-GIVING, Vol. 8. 232. the fame as mifgiving, 

a giving-aga"nrt : as gain-faying, which is itill in 

ufe, is fayi::g againft or contradicting. 
A GALLIMAUFRY, Vol. 3. 303. an hoch-poch or 
b . hafh of feveral forts of broken meat, a medley. Fr. 

To GALLOW > Vol. 6. 66. to fcare, to frighten. 


A Glossary. 

GALLOWS, Vol. 2. 224. a Knave, one fit for the 

Gallows. Skinner. 
GALLOWGLASSES, Vol. 5. 81. Soldiers among the 

wild Iri/h, who fen e on horfeback. 
GARBOILS, Vol. 7. 100. diforders, tumults, up- 
roars. r 

GARISH, gaudy, glaring, flaunting. 
GASTED, Vol. 6. 39. as aghafted, frighted, dif- 

A GAUDE, a toy, a trifle. 
GEAR or GEER, fluff. 
A GiECK, a bubble eafily impos'd upon. ToGECK 

is to cheat. 
GERMIN, the firft fprouting of feed or of a branch. 

Lat. Gcnnen. 
GESTS, noble actions or exploits : a word fo ufed by 
Chancer and Spencer. Lat. Res gejlce, or Gefia-. 
GESTE, Vol. 3. 244. the roll or journal of the feve- 
ral days and ftages prefix'd in the progreffes of our 
Kings: many of them being itill extant in theHerald's 
office. Fr. Gijle or Gite. 
A GiBBE, any old worn-out ufelefs Animal. 
GIGLETS or GIGLOTS, Wanton Women, Strum- 
G1MMAL or GIMBALD or JYMOLD, this Word 
Skinner interprets only as applied to a ring confut- 
ing of two or more rounds, and thence derives it 
from the French Gemeau, and the I atin Gemellus : 
a Jymold bja therefore, Vol. 4. 351. may well be 
taken in thatfenfe from the little rings often annexM 
to bitts to play in the horfe's mouth ; but Gimbals, 
Vol. 4. 392. carries a more general fignification, 
fuch as the word Gim-cracks has now, viz. fome 
little quaint devices or pieces of iVIachinery. 
A GLAiVE, a cutting Sword, a Cimeterre ; ufed al- 

fo by Spencer : a French word. 
To GLEEK, to joke, jeer or feoff. 
To GLOSE to flatter, to collogue. 
To GLOSS, Gloze, Vol. 4. 290. to interpret, to com- 
ment upon. Fr. Glofer. 
GODILD you ! God fliield you .' 


A Glossary. 

GOSSOMER or GOSS AMOUR, the long white cob- 
webs which fly in the Air in calm funny weather, 
efpecially about the time of Autumn. 

GOUJERES, the Frenc b difeafe ( lues venerea ) from 
the French word Gouje, which fignifies a common 
Camp- trull, as Goujer fignines a man who deals with 
fuel* Proilitutes. Thefe words Gouje and Goujer, 
being ufed as common terms of reproach among the 
vulgar, and becaufe that loathfome difeafe was firfl 
brought from the fiege of Naples about the year 14.9^, 
by the French Army and the Women who followed it, 
and was by them difperfed over all Europe, there- 
fore the firft name it got among us was the Goujeres, 
the difeafe of the Gouje'' ) s. 

GOURD, Vol. 1. 233. a large fruit fo called, which 
is often fcooped hollow for the purpofe of contain- 
ing and carrying wine and other liquors : from 
thence any leathern bottle grew to be called by 
the fame name, and fo the word is ufed by Chau- 

GOUTS, Vol. 6. 317. Drops. Fr. Gouttes. 

GRATULATE, Vol. 1 . 400. Fit for Gratulation. 

Steps, Stairs. Fr. Gre%,. 

GRIMALKIN, a name given to a Cat. 

GRIME, dirt, filth. 

A GROUNDLING, Vol. 8. 167. a fifh which keeps 
at the bottom of the water. Hence one of the low 

GUARDE, the hem or welt of a garment ; alfo, 
any lace or galloon upon the feams or borders of 
it. To GUARD, to lace over, to adorn. 

GUERDON, Reward; an old French word now dif- 

GYVES, Shackles. 


To HACK, Vol. 1. 240. to hackney, to turn Hack- 
ney or Proftitute. 
An HAGGARD, Vol. 2. 35. a wild Hawk. 


A Glossary. 
To HARP, Vol.6. 49. to feize, to lay hold of. Fr, 

HARPER, Vol.' 6. 346. a name given by the Witches 

to iome of their mifchievous Imps. 
To HARRY, Vol. 7. 141. to hare, to ruffle. Fr. 


T % H , AT £ H > Y . 1 7. 344- a term in drawing, to 
fhade off and fimfh with the fine icrokes of a Pen. 

A hA\ ING, (a fubftantive) is very frequently ufed 
tor a poiieffion in any thing. 

wnfP' Vo1 - 3 z6 °- thefam « a s Heavings. 

a t^ E ^' V ° L *• 3 6 3- guided, conducted. 

A HENCHMAN, Vol 1, 98. a Page. 

To HEND, to feize, to lay hold of: alio, to hem in, 

to furrouno. 
HESTS or BEHESTS, Commands, 
HJGHT, named or called : or, is named or called. 
HILDING or HINDERUNG, bafe. degenerate, fet 
at nought. 

To HOCK LE. tohamftring, to cat the finews about 
the nam or hough 

HOLDING, fomccimes fignifies the burthen or cho- 
rus t a fong. 

HOLLIDAM, Vol. 2. 425. holy dame, bleffed Lady.' 
HO^E, Vol. 2. 208. Breeches, Fr. C'haujes, or Haut 

de el 

'-'mil es. 

To HULL, Vol 9. 352. to float, to dm e to and fro 
upon the water without Sails or Rue p. 

To HURTLE, to skirmifli, to clash, to run againft 
any thing, to juftle, to meet iniliock and encounter. 
Fr. Heurter. Ital. Urtare. 

An HYEN, Vol. 2. 325;. or HYENA, an Animal of 
which many wonderful things are told, among which 
one is, that it can imitate the voice and laughter 
of Men. 6 

JESSES, a term in falconry : fhort flraps of leather 
tied about the legs of an Hawk, with which me is 
held on the fill. 


A Glossary. 

IMBOST, Vol. 3- 61. a hunting-term; when a Deer 
is hard run and foams at the mouth, he is fold to 
be imhfi. A Dog alfo, when he is ftramed with hard 
running (efpecially upon hard ground) will have ms 
knees ivvelled, and then he is faid to be**fe/, from 
the French word Bofe, which figmfies a tumour. 

IMPORTANCE, Vol. 3. 176. the fame as importu- 
nity IMPORTANT, the fame as Importunate. 

An IND1GEST, Vol. 3. 4 T 5- aCtiaOS ' < rudn indl ' 
gcftaque moles,) _ . , 

INDUCTION, the fame as mtroda&ion; alfo, induce- 


To INHERIT, Vol. 4. 5- t0 P ofrefs ' Jt has the 

fame ienie in other places. 
To IN-cONCE, Vol. 1. 269. to cover as with a fort, 

to fecure. ' \ rn . 

INTRENCHANT, Vol.6. 376. incroaching. the in- 
trenchant air means the air which fuddenly mcroaches 

and clofes upon the fpace left by any body which 

had pafsM through it. 


KAM, " Clean kam." Vol. 6, 443. crooked, athwart, 
awry, crofs from the purpofe. Ital. a-fchembo. Clean 
kam is by vulgar pronunciation brought to kim-kam. 

To KEEL, Vol. 2. 253. feems here to mean to drink 
fo deep as to turn up the bottom of the pot ; like 
turning up the keel of a fhip. 

A KERN, an hijb Boor. '■ ' \' ' — ' ■ 

A KESTREL, Vol. 3. 106. a little kind of baltard 

A KETCH, a tub, a cask. Fr. Cague. t 

KICKSY-WICKSY, Vol. 3..4 2 - a made word m 
ridicule and difdain of a Wife. 

KINDLED,Vol. 2. 309. to kindle is the word for rab- 
bits bringing forth their Young. 

A KIRTLE, a woman's gown. LABRA 

A G 


cotfeevn"^ '\ 01 - 3 ' 26 3- P roba b'y this was a 
coarie expieffion in the wnt-ftrain formerly in com 

meant the /aW awfl B waaV ^ f 

W is an old word for Urine, and to C the 

« S. *• S faa " 10us ™«al. Fr. Z„ a * 

"Uff th /r f Z:i LaWn ' a P' ain «""««• between 

L W°a2i A ; T" danCe ' k Which was m «ch turn- 
LF ASH i "i.** ca P enn S- F'- i« W/,. 

Hawk o Trf ", D T S i b ?-^ hich aFaIconer h °W» «• 

A LINSTOCK a ftaff of wood with a match at the 

UTH&V f d by GunKerS b fi ™S Cannon 
A T on \,- V , 01 - 4 - ^ 8 - foft ' mild - 
LOCKRaI! ? 1 - I ;93.alubber > alooby. 

Lorr m N a ( or i of coarle Unen - 

o^t ' l° ] i 8 - 2 ' 8 ' the «^fflt name of aria, 
or game, which ,s one among the unlawful garnet 
enumerated in the Stat. 33 Hen 8. It is the fern * 
which is now called Kittle-'pms, in which Boys X 
ma^e ufeof Bones inllead of wooden pins, throwing 

LozEir:i:;t^r ms inftead ° {b °^- 

LUNiFsV°r'-"'- aPikeor J ack - 

i-lJMES fits of lunacy or frenzy, mad freaks. The 


A Glossary. 

LUSH, Vol. i. 27. of a dark deep full Colour, op- 
pofite to pale and faint. Fr. Lou/che. 

LUSTICK, Vol. 3. 34. luftf : a Dutch word. 

LUSTROUS, Vol. 3. 25. full of luilre. 

.LYM, Vol. 6. 79. a lime hound : J . Cains derives 
the name from Lyemme, which is an old word fig- 
nifying a itrap or thong with which Dogs are led. 


JVfAIL'D, Vol. 5. 36. cloatlvd or cover'd as with ar- 

MALICHO, Vol. $. 172. a wicked aft, a piece of in- 
iquity. Span. Malhecho. 

To MAMMER, Vol. 8. 299. to hefitate, to Hand in f,i{- 
pence. The word often occurs in old Engttjb writ- 
ings, and probably takes its original from the French 
M^amaur^ which men were apt often to repeat when 
they were not prepared to give a direct anlwer. 

A MAMMET, a puppet, a figure drefs'd up. 

JvIAMMUCCIO, Vol. 2. 198. the fame as MAM- 
MET. Ital. Mammuccia. 

Law-term, (from the French mainaver, or manier. 
Lat. manu traftare) fignifies the thing which a thief 
takes away or fteals : and to be taken with the mei- 
nour or mainour is to be taken with the thing ftolen 
about him, or doing an unlawful ad, flagrante de- 
Jifio, or as we fay, in the fa Si. The expreffion is 
much ufed in the Foreit Laws. SeeM^wo^sEdition 
in quarto, 1665. P* 2 9 2, wnere fa is fpelt manner. 

MAPPER Y, Vol. 7. 350. the art of planning and 

To MATE, Vol. 6, 367. to confound, to overcome, 
to fubdue. Spen. 

A MAUKIN, or MALKIN, a kind of Mop made 
of clouts, for the ufe of fweeping Ovens ; thence a 
frightful figure of clouts, drefled up : thence a dirty 

A MAZZARD, Vol. 8. 218. a jaw. Fr. Mafchoire. 

A MEACOCK. V0I.2. 383. an uxorious or effemi- 
nate man. MEED 

A Glossary. 

MEED mod frequently (lands for Reward, but it is 
iometimes ufed for Merit : as Vol. 5. 170. and Vol. 
6 14.1. 
MEERED, Vol. 7. 155. relating to a boundary; 

MEER being a boundary or mark of divifion. 
A ME1NY, Vol. 6. 50. a retinue, domeitick fervants. 

Fr. Me'nie. 
To MELL, Vol 3. 75. to mix, to mingle. Fr. Meier. 
MEPHOS TOPH1LUS, the name of an infernal Spirit 

in the old fabulous biftory of Dr. i'aujlus 
A MICHER,Vol. 4. 129 a lazy loiterer, who skulks 
about in corners and by places and keeps out of 
fight, a hedge -creeper. 
ML H1NG, Vol. 8. 172. fecret, covering, l)ing hid. 
A MINNOW, the fmaileft of fifties. 
MISPRiSED, fometimes it fignifies miflaken, from 
the French verb mejp>endre : fometimes undervalued 
or difdained, from the French verb meprifer. 
A MISPRISION, a miftake. 
MODERN, common, ordinary, vulgar. 
A MOLDWARP, a mole. 

A MOME, Vol. 3 00. a dull ftupid blockhead, a 
Hock, a poft. This owes its original to the French 
word Momon, which fignifies the gaming at dice in 
mafquerade, the cuftom and rule of which is, that 
a Uriel filence is to be obferved : whatever fum one 
flakes, another covers, but not a word is to be 
fpoken : from hence alfo comes our word Mum ! 
for file nee. 
MULL'D, Vol. 6. 467. foftened and difpirited as 

Wine is when burnt and fweeten'd. Lat. Mollitus. 
A MUM:VJEK,Vol. 6. 410. a Masker, MUMMERIE, 

Mafquerading. Fr. Momerie. 
A MURE, Vol. 1. 144. and Vol. 4. 255. a Wall." 

Lat. Mums. 
MURK, Darknefs, MURKY, dark. 
A MUSKET, a male hawk of a fmall kind, the fe- 
male of which is the fparrow-hawk ; fo that Eyas- 
Mujket, Vol. 1 . 266. is a young unfledg'd male Hawk 
of that kind. Fr. Mouchet. 
A MUSS, Vol. 7. 158. afcramble. 


A Glossary. 


NAYWARD, " to th' nay ward," Vol. 3. 260. to the 
fide of denial, towards the faying Nay. 

A NAY- WORD, Vol. 3. 1 -6. the fame as By - word : 
a word of contempt ; alfo a word iecretly agreed 
upon, as among foldiers, for the diilinguiihing friends 
from foes. 

A NEAFE or NEIFE or NJVE, a fift. 

A NEB, Vol. 3. 249. the bill or beak of a bird. 

NICK, Vol. 1. 201. Jeft, Mockery, 1 hence the word 
Nick-name from the Brit. Niq. fee Diction, de T?e- 

ANOLE, Vol. 1. 116. a Noddle. 

OEILIADS, Vol 6. 98. Glances. Fr. Oeillades. 

An OPAL, Vol. 3. 1 30. a precious flone reflecting al- 
moft all colours. Fr. Opale. Lat. Opalus. 

ORGILLOUS, Vol. 7. (Prol. to Tr. and Creff.) Proud. 
Fr. Orgueillenx. 

ORTS, fcraps, fragments, leavings. 

OSPREY, Vol 6. 474. the Sea- eagle, of which it is 
reported, that when he hovers in the Air, all the Mi 
in the water underneath turn up their bellies and lye 
ftill for him to feize which he pleafes. One of the 
names of this bird is Ojfifraga, from which by cor- 
ruption is deduced Ofprey. See Gefner, and William 
Turner. The Name in Pliny is Haiiaetos. 

An OSTENT, a mew, an outward appearance. Lat. 

To OVER WEEN, to reach beyond the truth of any 
thing in thought : efpecially in the opinion of a 
man's felf 

OUPHE, the fame as Elfe, from which it is a Cor- 
ruption, a Fairy, a Hobgoblin, 

OUPHEN Elfifh. of fairy kind. 

An OUZLE, a blackbird. 

OWLHES, Vol 4. 21 . Bofles or Buttons of Gold. 
The word is mention'd in an old Statute of Hen. 8. 


A Glossary. 

made againft excefs in apparel, it is alfo ufed by 
Chaucer and Spencer. 
To OWE is very frequently ufed for Poffefs : to be 
the Owner of; efpecially where the Author would 
imply an abfolute right or property in the thing 


A PADDOCK, a toad. 

PALABRAS, Vol. 2. 49. o 1 my word. Span. Di 

Palabra. Pocas Palabras. Vol. 2. 349. few words. 
A PALLIAMENT, Vol. 6. 222. a Robe. Ital. Pa- 
li amenta. 
A PANTALOON, Vol. 2. 296. a man's garment an- 

tiently worn, in which the breeches and ftockings 

were all of a piece. Fr. Pantalon. 
A PANTLER,. the officer in a great family who 

keeps the bread, Fr. Panttier. 
To PARAGON, to compare. Fr. Paragonner : alfo, 

to equal. Vol. 8. 274. 
A PARAGON, a compleat Model or Pattern. 
A PARA TOR, the fame as xApparator or Apparitor : 

an officer belonging to the Spiritual Courts, who 

carries fummons and ferves proceiTes. 
To PARGET, Vol. 7. 194. to daub, or plainer 

PARTLET, Vol. 3. 270. a name given to a Hen : the 

original fignification being a ruff or band or covering 

for the Neck. 
A PASH, Vol. 3. 248 a kifs. Span. Paz. Lapaz de 

Judas is a phrafe with the Spaniards, by which they 

exprefs treachery. 
To PASH, to dam. 
A PELT, a Skin or Hide: Lat. Peltis. 
PELTING, (a pelting Village, a pelting Farm) has 

the fame fenfe as beggarly. There is a rot among 

Sheep, particularly called the Pelt-rot ; which is, 

when the Sheep from poverty and ill-keeping ririt 

lofe their wool and then die. 
PERDY, Vol. 6. 52. an oath. Fr. par Dieu. 



PERIAPTS, Vol. 4. 453. Amulets: charms worn as 
prefervatives againft difeafes or mifchief. Gr. xcp<- 
«'-tm, pro amulet appendo, Steph. 

A PET, a lamb taken into the Hoafe, and brought 
up by hand ; a Cade-lamb. 

A PETAR, Vol. 8. 193. a kind of little Cannon fil- 
led with powder, and ufed for the breaking down 
the gates of a town, and for countermining. Fr. 

PICKED fharp, fmart. Fr. Pique. 

PIGHT, pitch'd, placed, fixed. 

APILv.HER, Vol. 8. 51. a furr'd gown, or cafe, 
any thing lined with furr. 

PIN, Vol. 6. 73. a horny induration of the mem- 
branes of the Eye. 

A PIX, Vol. 4. 32J. a little cheft or box wherein 
the confecrated Hoft is kept in Roman ■■{ atholick- 
Countries. Lat. Pixts. 

PLANCHED GATE, Vol. 1, 368. a Gate of boards. 

To PLASH, Vol. 1.8. to reduce into order the large*!: 
and moft riotous plants in a hedge by cutting deep 
into their bodies to make them bend down, and 
then inter-weaving them with the lower parts of 
the hedge. The original and true word is to Pleach, 
by vulgar ufe pronounced Plajh. 

To PLEACH, to twift together to inter -weave. 

POINT-DEVICE, Vol. 2. 310. exacl; to the greateft 
nicety. Fr. A ponth devi/es : the expreflion is ufed 
by Chaucer. 

POLL'D, Vol. 6. 466. fhaven. 

POMANDER, Vol. 3. 312. a little round ball of Per- 
fumes. Fr. Pomme d'Ambre. 

POM WATER, Vol. 2. 201. a very large apple. 

A PRECISIAN, Vol. 1.23.8. one who profefies great 
fanftity, a ghoflly father, a fpiritual guide. 

PRIME, Vol. 8. 211. prompt; from the Celtique or 
Britifh Prim, 

PRIMERO, a game at Cards. Span. Primtra. 

A PRISER, Vol. 2. 284. a Prize-fighter. 
Vol, VIII. X * PRO. 

A Glossary. 

#ROFACE, Vol. 4. 271. much good may do you! 
Ital. Profaecia. 

To PROPEND, Vol. 7. 364. to lean more, to in- 
cline more favourably. Lat. Propendeo. 

PROPERTIES, a term much ufed at the Playhoufes 
for the habits and implements neceflary for the re- 
prefentation ; and they who furnifh them are called 
P roper fy-Meti. This feems to have arifen from that 
fenfe of the word Property, which fignifies a Blind, 
a Tool, a Stalking Borfe. 

A PUTTOCK, a Kite. 

A QUAB, a Gudgeon, (Gobio eapitatm. Skin.) and a 
gudgeon is often ufed in a figurative fenfe for a 
foft eafy fool ready to fwaliow any bait laid for 

To QUAIL, to droop, to languifh, to faint. 

QUATCH, Vol. 3. 31 fquatorfkt. 

QUEAZY, Vol. 6. 38. Jickifh, naufeating. 

A QUELL, Vol. 6. 314. a murderous conqueft. In 
the common acceptation, to quell fignifies to fubdue 
any way, but it comes from a Saxon word, which 
lignites to kill. 

A QUERN, a Churn ; alfo a mill. 

<QUEST, Vol. 6. 94. lamentation. Lat. QueJIus. 

A QUEST ANT or QUESTER, one who goes in 
quell of any thing. 

QUILL, (" deliver our fupplications in quill," Vol. 5, 
13.) this may be fuppofed to have been a Phrafe 
formerly in ufe, and the fame with the French en 
quille, which is faid of a man, when he ftands up- 
right upon his feet without Jftirring from the place. 
The proper fenfe of Quille in French is a Nine-Pin, 
and in fome parts of England Nine-Pins are (till calPd 
Cayh, which word is ufed in the Statute 33 H-n. 8. 
c. 9 % /> in the old Britifh language alfo fignifies 
any pttce of wood fet upright. 

QUILLETS, quibbles, querks, fubtleties. 


A Glossary. 

QUIPS, Vol. i. 199. gibes, flouts. 

A QUINTAIN, Vol. 2. 275. a poft, or the figure of 
a Man fet up in Wood for the purpofe of military 
exercifes, throwing darts, breaking lances, or run- 
ning a tilt againft it. Fr. Quintaine. 

To QUOTE, to underiland, to interpret, to rate, to 

RABATO, Vol. 2. 46. an ornament for the Neck, 
a collar-band, or kind of ruff. Fr. Rabat. Menage 
faith it comes from rabattre to put back, becaufe it 
was at firft nothing but the collar of the fhirt or milt 
turn'd back towards the moulders. 

The RACK, Vol. 7. 177, and Vol. 8. 157. the 
courfe or driving of the Clouds. 

RAIED, blotted, ftained, fouled : the fame as Beraied, 
which is the term more known of late days. Fr. 

RAUGHT, the fame as reached. 

To RAVIN, to match or devour greedily. 

A RAZE of ginger, Vol. 4 109. this is the Indian 
word for a bale, and muft be diftinguiih'd from 
Race, which fignifies a fingle root of ginger. 


A RECHEATE, Vol. 2.9. a particular leflbn up- 
on the horn to call dogs back from the fcent ; from 
the old French word Recet, which was ufed in the 
fame fenfe as Retraite. 

RECHLESS or RECKLESS, regardlefs. negligent. 

To RECK, to regard, to care. 

REECHY or REEKY, fmoaky or foiled with fmoakj 
thence alfo fweaty or filthy with fweat. 

REED, Leifen, doctrine, counfel. 

REGUERDON, Vol 4. 425. Recompence. 

To RENFGE, to renounce. Span Renegar. 

^Y&MJLD, debauch'd, abandon'd, proitituted. Fr. 

RJBI, Vol. 4. 121. drink away! Italian. »The impe- 
X 2 rative 

A Glossary. 

yative mood of Ribirt which is the fame as Ribi- 
n/ere, to drink again. 

RIGGISH, wanton. 

RIGOL, Vol. 4. 237- a circle : from the Ital. Ri- 
goto y which fignifies a little round wheel or trundle. 

HOISTING, Vol 7. 365. bluflering, fwaggering. 

A ROOD, a Crofs. 

A ROWSE, Vol. 8. 114. the fame as a Carowfe. 

ROYNISH, mangy, fcabby. Fr. Rogneux, 

A RUDDOCK, Vol. 7 285. a robin red breaft. 

RUDESBY, Vol. 3. 160. rude companion, rude fel- 
low f 

A RUNNION, or RONYON, a fcabby or a mangy 
man or woman. Fr. Rogneux and Rogneufe. 

RUTH, Pity, companion. 

SACRING-BELL, Vol. 7. 369. the little bell, which 
is rung in the proceflion of the Hoft to give notice 
of its approach, or to call to fome holy office. 
From the French word Sacrer, to confecrate or de- 
dicate to the fervice of God. 

SAD is frequently ufed for grave, fober, ferious. 

To SAGG, is (properly) to fink on one fide as weights 
do when they are not balanced by equal weights on 
the other. 

A SALLET or SALADE, Vol. 5. 83. a helmet. 
Span. Celada. Fr. Salade. 

SALTIER, Vol. 3. 303. a term in Heraldry, one of 
the Ordinaries in form of St. Andrew 's crofs. 

SANDED, Vol. 1. 133. of a fandy colour, which is 
one of the colours belonging to a true blood-hound. 

SAN DOMINGO, Vol. 4. 272. St. Dominick. Span. 

SANS, without, a French word. 

A SAW, a wife faying, a proverb. 

'SAY, Vol. 6. 1 zi. EfTay. Fr. EJfau 

To SCAN, to canvafs, to examine, to weigh and con- 
sider well any bufinefs. 

SCARFED, Vol. 2. Hi. pieced or jointed clofe to- 
gether ; a term ufed by the Ship- builders. 
* r SCATH, 

A Glossary. 

SCATH, harm, mifcliief. SCATHFUL, mifchievdus. 

A SCONCE, a fort, a fortrefs ; alfo, a man's head. 

To SCOTCH, to hack, to bruife, to crulh. Ital. 

SCROYLES, Vol. 3. 359. the drfeafe call'd the King's 
evil. Fr. Efcrotiehs ; here given as a name of con- 
tempt and abufe to the men of Angiers ; as we fome- 
times fcurriloufly call men Scabs. 

To SCUTCH, Vol. 4. 236. to'fwitch, to whip, to 
fcourge. Ital. S cut i care. 

SEAM, Vol. 7. 371. Tallow, Fat. 

To SEEL, Vol. 6. 336. a term in falconry, to run a 
filk through the eye-lids of a young hawk, and to 
draw them near together in order to make the hawk 
bear a hood. 

SESSA or SESSEY, Peace, be quiet. Lat. Cefa. 

A SHARD, Vol. 7. 1 37. A tile or broken piece of a 
tile : thence figuratively a fcale or fhell upon the 
back of any Creature. The Shard -born Beetle means 
the Beetle that is born up by wings hard and glazed 
like a Pot-fheard. 

SHARDED, icaled. 

To SHARK up, Vol. 8. 108. to pick up in athievim 
manner. Fr. Chercher. 

SHEEN, clear, bright j alfo brightnefs, luftre : ufed 
in both fenfes by Spencer. 

To SHEND, to blame, to reprove, to difgrace, to 

A SHIVE, Vol. 6. 234. a flice. 

A SHOWGHE, a rough-coated dog, a mock. 

SHRIFT, confeffion. To SHRIVE, to corfefs. 

A >IEGE, a feat : alfo, the fundament of a man, 
in which fenfe the French often ufe it : Malaufiege: 
une fifiule au Jiege. 

SIZES, Vol.6. 55. certain portions of bread, beer, 
or other victuals, which in publick focieties are fet 
down to the account of particular perfor.s : a word 
Hill ufed in the Colleges of the Ur.iverfrties. 

SIZED, Vol. 8- 157. bedawbed as with Size, which is 

a glewifh composition ufed by painters. Ital. Si/a, 

X 3 To 


To SKIRR, to fcour about a country. 

SLEADED or SLEDED, Vol. 8. 106. carried on a 
fled or fledge. 

SLOP, wide-kneeM breeches. 

SLOUGH, an hufk, an outward fkin. 

SMIRCH'D, Vol 2. 45. fmeared, daubed, dirtied. 

To SNEAP, to check, to fnub, rebuke. 

SOOTH, true or truth ; alfo, Vol. 4. 53. Adula- 
tion, in the fenfe of the verb to footh. 

To SOWLE, Vol. 6. 466. to lug or pull. 

ASOVVTER, Vol. 3. 137. a Cobler. Lat. Sutor. 
In this paflage it is intended as the name of a Dog. 

To SPERRE, Vol. 7. Prol. to Tr. and Cref. to bolt, 
barricado, or any ways faften. 

SPLEEN is often ufed for a fudden ftart, a hafty mo- 
tion, a momentary quicknefs. 

A SPRAY, a young tender fhoot or branch of a tree. 

SPURS, the fibres of a root. 

To SQUARE, to jar, to wrangle or quarrel. For the 
derivation fee the next word. 

A SQUARER, Vol. 2. 5. a fwaggering blade. This 
word is taken from the French phrafe, fe quarrer, 
which fignifies to ftrut with arms a-kembo, (anfa- 
tus incedere) an attion which denotes the character 
of. an hectoring Bragadochio. The French fay, 
Les jeuns fanfarons fe quarrcnt en mar chant. 

A SQUIER, the fame as a fquare. 

A STANYEL, Vol. 3. 136. otherwife called a Ring- 
tail, a kind of buzzard, or kite. 

STATION, Vol. 8.' 1 87. Attitude, Prefence, Perfon. 

A STATIST, Vol. 8. 226. A Statefman. Ital. Sta- 

A STAY, Vol. j. 361. a let, a flop, an impedi- 

To STEAD, or STED, to ferve, to help. 

STICKLER-LIKE, Vol. 7. 435- Sticklers were Se- 
conds appointed in a duel to fee fair play, who part- 
ed the Combatants when they thought fit ; and this 
being done by interpofmg with a Stick, from thence 
came the Name 


A Glossary. 

STIGMATICAL, Vol. 3. 214. branded with mark 

of difgrace. Lat. Stigmaticus. 
A STITHY, an Anvil. To STITHY, to beat upon 

an Anvil. 
STOCCATA, Vol.8. 51. a thruft in fencing 5 an 

Italian word. 
A STOLE, a robe, a long garment, a mantle, a wo- 
man's gown : ufed alfo by spencer. Lat. Sto/a. 
To SUGGEST, to prompt or egg on, Vol. 4. 6. 

and 57. 
SUMPTER, Vol. 6. $7. a beaft which carries ne- 

ceffaries on a journey, 
SURCEASE, Vol. 6. 312. this generally fignifies the 

fufpenfion of any aft, but in this paffage it ftands 

for the total ceafing after the final execution of it. 

Fr. Surfeoir, 
A SWABBER, Vol. 3. 116. an inferior officer in a 

{hip, whofe bufmefs it is to keep the ihip clean. 

ATABOURINE, Vol. 7. 171. a Drum. Fr. Ta- 

hour in. 
To TAKE, to blaft, to flrike with infection. Fr. At- 

TALL is very frequently ufed for eminent, notable, 

To TARR ON, to provoke, to urge, as they fet on. 

dogs to fight, 
A TASSEL-GENTLE, Vol. 8. 35. a particular kind 

of Hawk, the male of the Falcon. In ftricinefc it 

fhould be fpelt Tiereri-gentle. Fr. Tzerce/et. 
TEEN, trouble, grief. 

TESTED, Vol. 1. 339. tried, put to the teft. 
A TETHER, a long rope with which horfes are tied 

to confine their feeding to a certain compafs, and 

prevent their trefpafling farther. 
THEWES, finews, mufcles, bodily itrength. 
THIRDBOROUGH, the fame as Headborough or 

THRIFT, Thrift, Thriving, Succefs. 


A Glossary. 

TINY, fmall, (lender. Lat. Teunis. 

To TOZE, Vol. 3. 316. to break in pieces, to draw 
out, or pull afunder, as they do Wool by carding 
it to make it foft. Ital. Tozzare : thence figurative- 
ly, by artful infinuations to draw out the fecrets of 
a man's thoughts. 

To TRAMELL UP, Vol. 6. 312. to flop: A meta- 
phor taken from a Tramel-net which is ufed to be 
put crofs a river from bank to bank, and catches all 
the fifh that come, fuffering none to pafs. Fr. Tra- 

TRICK is a word frequently ufed for the Air, or that 
peculiarity in a face, voice, or gefture, which diuin- 
guiihes it from others. 

TRICKSEY, dainty, curious, Height. 

TRIGON, Vol. 4. 2Zi. a term in Aftrology, when 
three figns of the fanre nature and quality meet in a 
trine afpecl:. 

TROLL-MADAM, Vol. 3. 292. a Game commonly 
call'd Pigeon-holes. 

TROUSERS, Vol. 4. 335. a kind of breeches wide and 
tucked up high, fuch as are ftill worn in the robes of 
the order of the Garter. Fr. Treuje : but " flrait 

*' Troufers" in this paflage has a jetting fenfe and means 
the natural fkin without any breeches. 

To TRUSS, is a term in Falconry, when a Hawk near 
the ground raiieth a fowl and foaring upwards with 
it feizeth it in the air. 

To TRY, Vol. I. 4. a term in failing : a fhip is faid to 
Try, when me hath no more fails abroad but her 
Mainfail, when her tacks are clofe aboard, the bowl- 
ings fet up and the fheet haled clofe aft, when alfo 
the helm is tied clofe down to the board and fo me 
is let lie in the fea 

TUB FAST, Vol. 6. 185. the ancient difcipline of the 
fweating-tub and falling for the cure of the French 

TUCKET, a Pre!ude or Voluntary inMufick, a flou- 
riih of Infiruments. Ital. Toccata. 


A Glossary. 

To VAIL, to let down, to drop, to ftoqp. 

VANTBRACE, Vol. 7. 352. defensive armour for the 
Arm. Fr A<vant-bras. 

VARY, Vol. 6. 45, variation, change 

VAUNT-COURIERS, Vol.6. 65. Forerunners. Fr. 

VAWARD, Vol. 1. 133. the fame as van guard, the 
firft line of an Army ; and from thence the forward 
or leading part of any thing. 

VELURE, Vol. 2. 391. Velvet. Fr Velours. 

VENEW, Vol 2. 221. a reft or bout in fencing. 

A VENTIGE, Vol 8. 179. a vent or paflage for Air. 
Fr. Ventoufe. 

VIA f Vol. 1. 251. away ! an Italian word. 

VICE, " Vice's dagger," Vol. 4. 236. and " Like the 
old Vice," Vol. 3. 164 This was the name given 
to a droll figure heretofore much fhown upon our 
Stage and brought in to play the fool and make fport 
for the populace. His drefs was always a long Jer- 
kin, a fool's cap with Affes-ears and a thin wooden 
dagger, fuch as is mil retained in the modern figures 
of Harlequin and Scaramouche. Minjheiv and others 
of our more modern Criticks ftrain hard to find out 
the Etymology of this word and fetch it from the 
Greek : probably we need look no farther for it 
than the old French word Vis, which fignifies the 
fame as Vifage does now. From this in part came 
Vifdage a word common among them for a fool, which 
Menage fays is but a corruption from Vh a" afne 
the face or head of an Afs. It may be imagin'd 
therefore that Vifdafe or Vis a" afne was the name 
firft given to this foolifh theatrical figure, and that by 
vulgar ufe it was fhortned down to plain Vis or Vice. 

To VICE, Vol. 3. 256. to hold fait as with an Inftru- 
ment call'd a Vice. 

UMBER, a colour ufed by Painters, a dark Yellow. 

UNANNEAL'D, Vol. 8. 132. unprepared. To anneal 
or neal in its primary and proper fenfe is to prepare 



metals or glafs by the force of fire for the different 
ufes of the manufacturers in them : and this is here 
applied by the Author in a figurative fenfe to a dying 
perfon, who when prepar'd by imprefiions of piety, 
by repentance, confeffion, abfolution, and other ads 
of religion, may be faid to be anneafdior death. 

UNANOINTED, Vol. 8. 132. not having received 
extreme unclion. 

UNBARBED, Vol. 6. 448 bare, uncovered. In the 
times of Chivalry when a horfe was fully armed and 
accoutered for the encounter,, he was faid to be bar- 
bed-, probably from the old word Barbc which Chau- 
cer ufes for a Veil or Covering. 

UNBATED. Vol. 8. z^.unbated, unblunted. 

UNBOLTED, Vol. 6. 44 unfifted. 

UNBRAIDED, Vol 3. 300 unfaded, freflu 

UNBREECH'D, Vol j. 248. not yet in breeches, a 
boy in coats. 

UNcHARY, carelefsv 

UNHOUSEL'D Vol.8, m. without having receiv- 
ed cjife ^acrament. tloufel is a Saxon word for the 
£ucharift, which feems derived from the Latin Ho- 


UNNEATH. hardly, fcarcely. 

An URL Hi N an Hedgehog, which was reckon'd 
amoiig the Animal- uied by witches as their famili- 
ars : hence figuratively, a little unlucky mifchievous 
boy or girl. 

JTASorUTS, Vol. 4 214 the eighth and laft day 
of a, for fo long the great ftftivals were ac- 

. counted to lalt, the conclullon being kept with more 
than ordinary merry ment : from the Fr. Huit. 

To th' UTTERANCE, Vol. 6 33 2. to the utmoft, to 
all extremity. Fr. a Outrance. At UTT'RANCE, 
Vol. 7. 251. at all extremity. 


To WAGE, to combat with, to enter into conflicl 
with, to encounter. 



WAPED or WAPID, Vol. 6. 183. mournful, forrow- 
ful. Chaucer. 

To WARP, to contrad, to fhrink. 

WASSEL or WASSAILE, the merriment of twelfth 
night with a great bowl carried about from houfe to 
houfe : the word is compounded of two Saxon Words 
fignifying, health be to you / a WASSEL CANDLE, 
Vol. 4. 194. is a candle larger than ordinary ufed at 
that ceremony. 

A WEB, Vol. 6. 73. a fpot in the Eye injurious to the 

A WEED, Vol. 1. 104. a garment. 

To WEEN, to think. 

To WEET, to know. 

WEIRD, the Scotch word for perfons dealing in Sor- 
cery, whether Wizards or Witches. 

WELKIN, the firmament or fky 

WELKING, Vol. 3. 248. languishing, faint. 

To WEND, to go. 

WHELK'D, Vol 6. 101. a Whelk is fuch a rifing tu- 
mour upon the (kin as the lafh of a whip or fwitch 
leaves behind it g 

WHIFFLER, Vol. 4. 368 an officer who walks firft 
in proceffions or before perfons in high ftations upon 
occafions of ceremony. The name is Hill retained 
in the city of London, and there is an officer to calPd 
who walks before their companies at times of pubiick 
folemnity. It feems a corr jption from the French 
word Huiffier. 

WHINNID, Vol 7. 356. crooked. Mhjhenv under 
the word Whinneard takes notice of this old word to 
Whinnie and interprets it (incurvare) to bend or 
make crooked. 

A WHITTLE, a ccaife blanket or mantle, worn by 
the poorer fort. 

To WIS or WIST, to know, to judge rightly of a 

A WITTOL, a Cuckold jealous and uneafy under his 
Wife's* tranfgreflions but not having fpirit enough to 
reftrain them. 

WOE-BEGONE, overwhelmed with forrow. Spen. 


A Glossary. 

A WOLD, a down, an open hilly country. 
WOOD or WODE, mad, frantick. 
WREAK, revenge : WREAKFULL, revengeful. 
WRITHLED, Vol. 4. 41c wrinkled. 

YARE, ready, nimble, quick. 
YCLEPED, called, named. 

A ZANY, a merry Andrew, a Jack-pudding. Itat. 

F I N IS.